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Learning to Photograph - Volume 2

Book Description

Learning to Photograph, vol. 2 addresses the topics of visual design and composition. The authors describe various methods of visual design and how you can use these methods effectively. You will learn which techniques to use to design your images as you train your photographic eye. You will develop the ability to support the message of your subject purposefully, hone your photographic style, and analyze your own work and the work of others competently.

The striking images and informational graphics not only illustrate the concepts at hand, but also make the lessons visually pleasing and offer useful examples for readers to mimic in their own work.

Topics include:

  • Visual perception
  • Composition, shapes, and lines
  • Managing light
  • Color and its effects
  • Sharpness, blur, and movement
  • The interplay of visual design elements
  • Image analysis and evaluation

Table of Contents

  1. Cover Page
  2. Title Page
  3. Copyright Page
  4. Foreword
  5. Table of Contents
  6. Introduction
  7. 01 The Basics of Image Design
    1. 1.1 From Idea to Picture
      1. The Photographer Designs
      2. Limitations of Design
      3. The Design Process
      4. The Balance of Content, Form, and Technology
      5. The Role of Image Editing
    2. 1.2 The Process of Perception
      1. Steps of Perception
      2. Perception in the Strictest Sense
      3. Subconscious Evaluation
      4. Schematic Understanding
      5. Getting into the Picture
      6. Examining the Image
      7. Mental Processing
      8. How Photos Work
      9. Saving Images Internally
    3. 1.3 Designing Images with Purpose
      1. Motivation
      2. Subjects
      3. Aspirations versus Reality
      4. Intentions and Goals
      5. Image Design as a Means to a Goal
      6. What You’ll Find in this Book . . .
      7. . . . And What You Won’t
  8. 02 Composition
    1. 2.1 Image Format
      1. Aspect Ratios
      2. Landscape Format
      3. Landscape Panorama
      4. Portrait Format
      5. Portrait Panorama
      6. Square Format
      7. Creating Formats
      8. Format Limitations
    2. 2.2 Image Area
      1. Telling Stories
      2. Showing and Not Showing
      3. Combining Subjectively
      4. The Right Perspective
      5. Field Sizes
      6. How Image Borders Work
      7. Spontaneous Framing
    3. 2.3 Cropping
      1. Complete Representations
      2. Reducing Visual Dominance
      3. Creating Closeness
      4. Cropping Off, Not Cropping Out
      5. Location Is Everything
      6. Dividing the Background
    4. 2.4 Arranging Visual Elements
      1. Visual Elements
      2. The Basics of Gestalt Theory
      3. The Quantity of Visual Elements
      4. Main and Secondary Elements
      5. The Golden Ratio
      6. Grid Methods
      7. Symmetry and Asymmetry
      8. Arranging the Main Element
      9. Arranging Two Elements
      10. Arranging Multiple Elements
      11. Busy Scenes
    5. 2.5 Visual Levels
      1. Three, Two, One Level(s)
      2. Foreground
      3. Middle Ground
      4. Background
      5. Weighting
  9. 03 Shapes and Lines
    1. 3.1 Points
      1. Appearance
      2. Anchors and Attention-Grabbers
      3. Multiple Points
      4. Distracting Points
      5. Invisible Points
    2. 3.2 Lines
      1. Appearance
      2. Linear Composition
      3. Contained Systems of Lines
      4. Movement and Countermovement
      5. Horizontal Lines
      6. Vertical Lines
      7. Slanted and Diagonal Lines
      8. Curved Lines
      9. The Contrast of Lines
    3. 3.3 Shapes
      1. Appearance
      2. Organic and Symbolic Shapes
      3. Geometric Shapes
      4. Circles and Ovals
      5. Triangles
      6. Rectangles, Squares, and Diamonds
      7. Stars and Crosses
      8. Shapes in a Picture
      9. Combining Shapes
    4. 3.4 Structures and Repetition
      1. Appearance
      2. The Effects of Structures
  10. 04 Standpoint and Point of View
    1. 4.1 The Position of the Camera
      1. Selecting a Vantage Point
      2. Proportions
      3. Arranging and Overlapping
      4. Exposure Height and Perspective
      5. Normal View
      6. Downward View
      7. Upward View
    2. 4.2 Lens Characteristics
      1. Basics
      2. Angle of View
      3. Angle of View and Sensor Size
      4. Designing with Small Sensors
      5. Focal Length Ranges
      6. Normal Lenses
      7. Wide Angles of View
      8. Fisheye Lenses
      9. Narrow Angles of View
      10. Macro
      11. Tilt-Shift Exposures
  11. 05 Light
    1. 5.1 The Nature of Light
      1. How Much Light?
      2. Harsh, Directed Light
      3. Soft, Diffuse Light
      4. Qualities of Natural Light
      5. Qualities of Artificial Light
    2. 5.2 The Direction of Light
      1. Front Lighting
      2. Backlighting
      3. Sidelighting
      4. Top Lighting
      5. Bottom Lighting
      6. Undirected Light
    3. 5.3 Light Sources and Their Colors
      1. Natural Light
      2. Artificial Light
      3. Flash Light
      4. White Balance
      5. Mixed Light
    4. 5.4 Shadows
      1. Seeing Shadows
      2. Depicting Shadows
      3. Shadows as Subjects
    5. 5.5 Light Management
      1. Guiding Light
      2. Diverting Attention
      3. Over- and Underexposure
  12. 06 Color and Black-and-White
    1. 6.1 The Effects of Individual Colors
      1. The Color Wheel
      2. The Double Cone
      3. Associations and Emotions
      4. Warm and Cold Colors
      5. Color Brightness
      6. Color Saturation
      7. Color Tones and Their Effects
      8. Red
      9. Orange
      10. Yellow
      11. Yellow-Green
      12. Green
      13. Blue-Green
      14. Blue
      15. Violet
      16. Red-Violet
      17. Achromatic Colors
      18. High-Key and Low-Key
      19. Metallic Colors
      20. Neon Colors
      21. Memory Colors
    2. 6.2 Color Combinations
      1. Harmonious Colors
      2. Discordant Colors
      3. Color Chords
      4. Musical Color Chords
      5. Contrasting Colors
      6. The Contrast of Color Itself
      7. Complementary Contrast
      8. Cold and Warm Contrast
      9. Brightness Contrast
      10. Contrast of Quality
      11. Contrast of Quantity
      12. Simultaneous, Successive, and Shimmer Contrast
    3. 6.3 Shades of Gray
      1. Colorless Reality
      2. Converting to Black-and-White
      3. Controlling Contrast
      4. Monochrome Images and Toning
    4. 6.4 Colors in Practice
      1. Color as the Main Element
      2. Colorful Eye-Catchers
      3. Colorful Side Elements
      4. Post-Processed Colors
  13. 07 Sharpness and Blur
    1. 7.1 Establishing Sharpness and Blur
      1. Focusing
      2. Depth of Field
      3. The Impression of Sharpness
      4. A Hazy Blur
    2. 7.2 Designing with Sharpness and Blur
      1. Sharp or Blurry?
      2. Depth of Field Preview
      3. Large Depth of Field
      4. Shallow Depth of Field
      5. Sharpness in Macro Photography
    3. 7.3 Movement
      1. Shutter Speeds
      2. Camera Shake
      3. Intentional Blur
      4. Motion Blur
      5. Freezing Motion
      6. Panning with Motion
      7. Image Sequences
      8. Video
  14. 08 The Overall Effect
    1. 8.1 The Interplay of Design Elements
      1. The Model of Visual Impact
      2. The Dimensions of Impact
      3. Analyzing Impact
      4. Attention versus Credibility
      5. The Interplay among Photos
    2. 8.2 The Effect of the Setting
      1. Frames and Matting
      2. Image Size and Viewing Distance
      3. Presentation Medium
      4. Additional Information
      5. Thematic Context
      6. The Context of Perception
    3. 8.3 Visual Design and Language in Practice
      1. Practicing Design
      2. Applying Image Design Purposefully
      3. The Principal Dimensions of Design
      4. Imperfection and Chance as Tools of Design
      5. Photographers and Their Visual Languages
  15. 09 Image Analysis and Evaluation
    1. 9.1 Structured Analysis and Evaluation
      1. Focused Evaluation
      2. Image Analysis
      3. The Subject
      4. The Objective
      5. The Intended Audience
      6. The Visual Design
      7. Evaluating Balance
    2. 9.2 Applications
      1. After Shooting
      2. Assembling a Collection of Images
      3. Self-Criticism and Continual Improvement
      4. Handling External Criticism
      5. Playing the Critic
    3. 9.3 Common Design Mistakes
      1. Camera Shake
      2. Central Positioning
      3. Overlapping Subjects
      4. Chaotic Lines
      5. Harsh Light and Distracting Shadows
      6. Distracting Backgrounds
      7. Too Many Elements
    4. 9.4 Analysis Examples
      1. Red Beauty
      2. To the Corner!
      3. Colorful Decay
      4. Feminine Curves
      5. Alone Together
      6. A Splash of Color at the Edge
      7. Fashion Lines
      8. Refreshing Colors
      9. Clearly Confusing
      10. Traces of Light
  16. Online Resources
    1. Online Resources
  17. Notes
    1. Notes
  18. Thanks
  19. The Authors
    1. About the Authors
  20. Index