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Learning to Photograph - Volume 1

Book Description

Learning to Photograph, Volume 1 brings readers up to speed on the basics of camera technology: optics and exposure. The authors provide an overview of these technical elements before going into detail about how cameras and lenses work and how they influence one another. Building upon this foundation, the authors discuss the practical application of this knowledge, showing readers how to put this information to use to create images and realize ideas effectively.

The numerous example photos and informational graphics not only illustrate the concepts at hand, but also make the lessons visually pleasing and offer inspiring templates for readers to imitate in their own craft.

Topics include:

  • Optics and lenses
  • Exposure metering and control
  • Image sensors, viewfinders, and displays
  • Live view and video functionality
  • Flash units and additional accessories
  • The right camera
  • Photo technology in practice

Table of Contents

  1. Cover Page
  2. Title Page
  3. Copyright Page
  4. Foreword
  5. Table of Contents
  6. Introduction
  7. 01 A Bit of Photo Theory
    1. 1.1 The Theory of Photography
      1. The Photographer
      2. Content, Form, and Technology
      3. The Raw Image
      4. The Image Editor
      5. The End Result
      6. Viewing Images
      7. The Viewer
    2. 1.2 Applied Theory
      1. In the Field
      2. Back at Home
    3. 1.3 Photo Technology as a Means to an End
      1. Definition
      2. Application
  8. 02 An Overview of Photography Technology
    1. 2.1 The Progression of Photography
      1. Optics
      2. Focusing
      3. Exposure Metering
      4. Exposure Control
      5. Shutter-Release Sequence
    2. 2.2 The Influence of the Photographer
      1. Limitations
      2. Five Key Factors
  9. 03 Optics and Lenses
    1. 3.1 Light and Color
      1. Light
      2. Light Sources
      3. Light Color
      4. Color Temperature
      5. The Path of Light
      6. Colors
    2. 3.2 The Basic Physics of Lenses
      1. The Construction of a Lens
      2. Focal Length
      3. Crop Factor
      4. Focal Length Multiplier
      5. Lenses Designed for Digital
      6. Lens Speed
    3. 3.3 The Quality of Lenses
      1. Mechanical Quality
      2. Optical Quality
      3. Resolution
      4. Distortion
      5. Centering
      6. Vignetting
      7. Chromatic Aberration
      8. Scattered Light
      9. Spherical Aberration
      10. Astigmatism
    4. 3.4 Focusing
      1. Manual Focusing
      2. How Autofocus Works
      3. Autofocus Sensors
      4. Front and Back Focus
      5. AF and AF Frame Control
      6. Minimum Focus Distance
      7. Practical Tips for Focusing
    5. 3.5 Types of Lenses
      1. Prime Lenses
      2. Zoom Lenses
      3. Original or Third-Party Lenses?
      4. Fisheye Lenses
      5. Wide-Angle Lenses
      6. Normal Lenses
      7. Telephoto Lenses
      8. Teleconverters
      9. Mirror Lenses
      10. Macro Lenses
      11. Shift Lenses
      12. Tilt Lenses
      13. Lensbaby
  10. 04 Exposure Metering
    1. 4.1 Measuring Brightness
      1. Light or Subject Metering
      2. External Light Meters
      3. Internal Exposure Metering
      4. Neutral Gray
      5. Substitute Metering
      6. Stray Light
    2. 4.2 Metering Options
      1. Spot Metering
      2. Center-Weighted Metering
      3. Matrix Metering
  11. 05 Exposure Control
    1. 5.1 Basic Concepts
      1. Exposure Control: an Overview
      2. Exposure Value
      3. Exposure Scale
      4. Coordinating Aperture, Shutter Speed, and ISO Sensitivity
      5. Light Sensitivity (ISO)
      6. Range of Contrast
      7. Targeted Contrast Control
      8. Range of Contrast for Other Media
    2. 5.2 Aperture
      1. The Basics of Aperture
      2. Depth of Field
      3. Designing Images with Aperture
      4. Depth of Field Preview
      5. Bokeh
    3. 5.3 Shutter Speed
      1. The Operation of the Shutter
      2. Blur-Free Images
      3. Holding the Camera
      4. Tricks for Stable Exposures
      5. Image Stabilization
      6. Motion Blur
      7. Capturing Motion
      8. Panning
      9. Designing Images with Shutter Speed
    4. 5.4 Exposure Control Modes
      1. Manual Exposure Control
      2. Shutter Priority
      3. Aperture Priority
      4. Fully Automatic Modes
      5. Shift
      6. Exposure Lock
      7. Bracketing
      8. Exposure Compensation
      9. Intentional Overexposure and Underexposure
  12. 06 Additional Camera Functions
    1. 6.1 The Basics of Digital Photo Technology
      1. Pixel
      2. RGB Colors
      3. Color Depth
      4. Resolution
      5. Camera Resolution
      6. Image Resolution
      7. Changing Image Dimensions
    2. 6.2 The Image Sensor
      1. How a Sensor Works
      2. The Basics of Sensor Construction
      3. Sensor Design
    3. 6.3 Sensor Types
      1. CMOS Sensors
      2. CCD Sensors
      3. EXR CMOS Sensors
      4. X3 Sensors
    4. 6.4 Sensor Sizes
      1. Medium Format
      2. Full Frame
      3. Sensors with a Small Crop Factor
      4. Micro Four Thirds
      5. Sensors with a Large Crop Factor
    5. 6.5 Sensor Errors
      1. Noise
      2. Blooming
      3. Smearing
      4. Moiré
      5. Hot Pixels
      6. Dust
    6. 6.6 The Viewfinder
      1. Viewfinders for SLR Cameras
      2. Viewfinder Indicators
      3. Electronic Viewfinder
      4. Diopter Adjustment
      5. Viewfinders on Compact Cameras
      6. Live View
      7. Pivoting Monitor
    7. 6.7 Additional Functions and Controls
      1. Playback
      2. Menu Operation
      3. Display
      4. Shutter Release and Self-Timer
      5. Burst Mode
      6. White Balance
      7. Camera Processor
      8. Wireless Network
      9. GPS
      10. Mounts and Ports
    8. 6.8 Video
      1. Video Resolution
      2. Frame Rate
      3. Compression
      4. Video File Formats
      5. Video-Enabled Sensors
      6. Lenses and Video
      7. Audio
      8. Technical Features
      9. Camera Movement
      10. New Visual Content
  13. 07 Accessories
    1. 7.1 Camera Accessories
      1. Batteries
      2. Memory Cards
      3. Battery Grip
      4. Remote Trigger
    2. 7.2 Flash Units
      1. Guide Number
      2. Flash Sync Time
      3. Built-In Flash
      4. External Flash
      5. Continuous Light
      6. Flash Adapters
      7. Radio and Infrared Triggers
      8. Studio Flash Units
      9. Light-Shaping Tools
    3. 7.3 Additional Accessories
      1. Tripod
      2. Monopod
      3. Lens Hood
      4. Filters
      5. Equipment Bag
      6. Cleaning Tools
  14. 08 The Right Camera
    1. 8.1 Camera Types: An Overview
      1. Cell Phone Cameras
      2. Light-Field Cameras
      3. Compact Cameras
      4. Upmarket Compact Cameras
      5. Bridge Cameras
      6. Micro Four Thirds Cameras
      7. System Cameras with APS-C Sensors
      8. SLR Cameras (Beginner and Intermediate Models)
      9. SLR Cameras (Semipro and Pro Models)
      10. SLT Cameras
      11. Medium- and Large-Format Cameras
    2. 8.2 The Sensible Way to Buy a Camera
      1. Choosing a System
      2. Decision Factors
      3. Buying on Impulse
  15. 09 Photo Technology in Practice
    1. 9.1 Special Shooting Situations
      1. Memento and Family Pictures
      2. Vacation Photos
      3. Party Snapshots
      4. Portraits and Nudes in the Studio
      5. Fashion Photography
      6. Portraits and Nudes Outside
      7. Sports Photography
      8. Photojournalism
      9. Photo Diaries and Lists
      10. Nature and Landscape Images
      11. Flower and Petal Pictures
      12. Wildlife Photography
      13. Zoo Pictures
      14. Pet Photos
      15. Architectural Photography
      16. Macro Photography
      17. Product Photography for Print and Still Lifes
      18. Product Photography for the Internet
      19. Photos in the Rain
      20. Photos in the Snow
      21. Photography in Extreme Climates
      22. Night Photography
      23. Indoor Photography with Available Light
      24. Underwater Photography
      25. Astrophotography
      26. High Dynamic Range Imaging
      27. Panorama Images
    2. 9.2 Common Technical Mistakes
      1. Overexposure
      2. Underexposure
      3. Lack of Focus
      4. Camera Shake and Blur
      5. Too Much Contrast
      6. Dark Interiors
      7. Backlighting
      8. Busy Backgrounds
      9. White Skies
      10. Not Enough Distance
  16. 10 What Type of Photographer Are You?
    1. 10.1 Self-Assessment Questionnaire
      1. Why Do You Take Pictures?
      2. Questions About Content
      3. Questions About Form
      4. Questions about Technology
      5. Questions about Editing
    2. 10.2 Your Personal Photography Profile
      1. Four Basic Types
      2. The Content Type
      3. The Form Type
      4. The Technology Type
      5. The Editing Type
      6. Diversifying Your Profile
      7. Knowledge and Ability
      8. Stages of Development
      9. What Do You Understand? What Can You Do?
      10. Your Profile Evaluation
    3. 10.3 A Provocative Digression
      1. Georg’s Theses
      2. Our Opinion
  17. 11 Development
    1. 11.1 Targeted Improvement
      1. Setting Goals
      2. Identify Training Needs
      3. Creating a Path Forward
      4. Working with Projects
      5. Photographer’s Block
    2. 11.2 Criticism and Competition
      1. Studying Others
      2. Self-Criticism
      3. External Opinions
      4. Internet Forums and Platforms
      5. Clubs
      6. Workshops and Classes
      7. Books
      8. Competitions
  18. 12 Mastering Your Camera
    1. 12.1 First Steps
      1. Reading the User’s Manual
      2. Testing
    2. 12.2 Photography Exercises
      1. Technical Challenges
  19. Online Resources
    1. Online Resources
      1. Blogs
      2. Photography Platforms
  20. Notes
    1. Notes
  21. Thanks
    1. Thanks . . .
  22. The Authors
    1. About the Authors
  23. Index