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Learning PHP, MySQL, JavaScript, and CSS, 2nd Edition by Robin Nixon

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Backing Up and Restoring

Whatever kind of data you are storing in your database, it must have some value to you, even if it’s only the cost of the time required to reenter it should the hard disk fail. Therefore, it’s important that you keep backups to protect your investment. Also, there will be times when you have to migrate your database over to a new server; the best way to do this is usually to back it up first. It is also important that you test your backups from time to time to ensure that they are valid and will work if they need to be used.

Thankfully, backing up and restoring MySQL data is easy using the mysqldump command.

Using mysqldump

With mysqldump, you can dump a database or collection of databases into one or more files containing all the instructions necessary to recreate all your tables and repopulate them with your data. It can also generate files in CSV (comma-separated values) and other delimited text formats, or even in XML format. Its main drawback is that you must make sure that no one writes to a table while you’re backing it up. There are various ways to do this, but the easiest is to shut down the MySQL server before using mysqldump and start it up again after mysqldump finishes.

Alternatively, you can lock the tables you are backing up before running mysqldump. To lock tables for reading (as we want to read the data), from the MySQL command line issue the command:

LOCK TABLES tablename1 READ, tablename2 READ ...

Then, to release the lock(s), enter:

UNLOCK TABLES; ...

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