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Learning Java, 4th Edition

Cover of Learning Java, 4th Edition by Daniel Leuck... Published by O'Reilly Media, Inc.
  1. Learning Java
  2. Preface
    1. Who Should Read This Book
    2. New Developments
      1. New in This Edition (Java 6 and 7)
    3. Using This Book
    4. Online Resources
    5. Conventions Used in This Book
    6. Using Code Examples
    7. Safari® Books Online
    8. How to Contact Us
    9. Acknowledgments
  3. 1. A Modern Language
    1. Enter Java
      1. Java’s Origins
      2. Growing Up
    2. A Virtual Machine
    3. Java Compared with Other Languages
    4. Safety of Design
      1. Simplify, Simplify, Simplify...
      2. Type Safety and Method Binding
      3. Incremental Development
      4. Dynamic Memory Management
      5. Error Handling
      6. Threads
      7. Scalability
    5. Safety of Implementation
      1. The Verifier
      2. Class Loaders
      3. Security Managers
    6. Application and User-Level Security
    7. A Java Road Map
      1. The Past: Java 1.0–Java 1.6
      2. The Present: Java 7
      3. The Future
      4. Availability
  4. 2. A First Application
    1. Java Tools and Environment
    2. Configuring Eclipse and Creating a Project
      1. Importing the Learning Java Examples
    3. HelloJava
      1. Classes
      2. The main() Method
      3. Classes and Objects
      4. Variables and Class Types
      5. HelloComponent
      6. Inheritance
      7. The JComponent Class
      8. Relationships and Finger Pointing
      9. Package and Imports
      10. The paintComponent() Method
    4. HelloJava2: The Sequel
      1. Instance Variables
      2. Constructors
      3. Events
      4. The repaint() Method
      5. Interfaces
    5. HelloJava3: The Button Strikes!
      1. Method Overloading
      2. Components
      3. Containers
      4. Layout
      5. Subclassing and Subtypes
      6. More Events and Interfaces
      7. Color Commentary
      8. Static Members
      9. Arrays
      10. Our Color Methods
    6. HelloJava4: Netscape’s Revenge
      1. Threads
      2. The Thread Class
      3. The Runnable Interface
      4. Starting the Thread
      5. Running Code in the Thread
      6. Exceptions
      7. Synchronization
  5. 3. Tools of the Trade
    1. JDK Environment
    2. The Java VM
    3. Running Java Applications
      1. System Properties
    4. The Classpath
      1. javap
    5. The Java Compiler
    6. JAR Files
      1. File Compression
      2. The jar Utility
      3. The pack200 Utility
    7. Policy Files
      1. The Default Security Manager
      2. The policytool Utility
      3. Using a Policy File with the Default Security Manager
  6. 4. The Java Language
    1. Text Encoding
      1. Javadoc Comments
    3. Types
      1. Primitive Types
      2. Reference Types
      3. A Word About Strings
    4. Statements and Expressions
      1. Statements
      2. Expressions
    5. Exceptions
      1. Exceptions and Error Classes
      2. Exception Handling
      3. Bubbling Up
      4. Stack Traces
      5. Checked and Unchecked Exceptions
      6. Throwing Exceptions
      7. try Creep
      8. The finally Clause
      9. Try with Resources
      10. Performance Issues
    6. Assertions
      1. Enabling and Disabling Assertions
      2. Using Assertions
    7. Arrays
      1. Array Types
      2. Array Creation and Initialization
      3. Using Arrays
      4. Anonymous Arrays
      5. Multidimensional Arrays
      6. Inside Arrays
  7. 5. Objects in Java
    1. Classes
      1. Accessing Fields and Methods
      2. Static Members
    2. Methods
      1. Local Variables
      2. Shadowing
      3. Static Methods
      4. Initializing Local Variables
      5. Argument Passing and References
      6. Wrappers for Primitive Types
      7. Autoboxing and Unboxing of Primitives
      8. Variable-Length Argument Lists
      9. Method Overloading
    3. Object Creation
      1. Constructors
      2. Working with Overloaded Constructors
      3. Static and Nonstatic Initializer Blocks
    4. Object Destruction
      1. Garbage Collection
      2. Finalization
      3. Weak and Soft References
    5. Enumerations
      1. Enum Values
      2. Customizing Enumerations
  8. 6. Relationships Among Classes
    1. Subclassing and Inheritance
      1. Shadowed Variables
      2. Overriding Methods
      3. Special References: this and super
      4. Casting
      5. Using Superclass Constructors
      6. Full Disclosure: Constructors and Initialization
      7. Abstract Methods and Classes
    2. Interfaces
      1. Interfaces as Callbacks
      2. Interface Variables
      3. Subinterfaces
    3. Packages and Compilation Units
      1. Compilation Units
      2. Package Names
      3. Class Visibility
      4. Importing Classes
    4. Visibility of Variables and Methods
      1. Basic Access Modifiers
      2. Subclasses and Visibility
      3. Interfaces and Visibility
    5. Arrays and the Class Hierarchy
      1. ArrayStoreException
    6. Inner Classes
      1. Inner Classes as Adapters
      2. Inner Classes Within Methods
  9. 7. Working with Objects and Classes
    1. The Object Class
      1. Equality and Equivalence
      2. Hashcodes
      3. Cloning Objects
    2. The Class Class
    3. Reflection
      1. Modifiers and Security
      2. Accessing Fields
      3. Accessing Methods
      4. Accessing Constructors
      5. What About Arrays?
      6. Accessing Generic Type Information
      7. Accessing Annotation Data
      8. Dynamic Interface Adapters
      9. What Is Reflection Good For?
    4. Annotations
      1. Using Annotations
      2. Standard Annotations
      3. The apt Tool
  10. 8. Generics
    1. Containers: Building a Better Mousetrap
      1. Can Containers Be Fixed?
    2. Enter Generics
      1. Talking About Types
    3. “There Is No Spoon”
      1. Erasure
      2. Raw Types
    4. Parameterized Type Relationships
      1. Why Isn’t a List<Date> a List<Object>?
    5. Casts
    6. Writing Generic Classes
      1. The Type Variable
      2. Subclassing Generics
      3. Exceptions and Generics
      4. Parameter Type Limitations
    7. Bounds
      1. Erasure and Bounds (Working with Legacy Code)
    8. Wildcards
      1. A Supertype of All Instantiations
      2. Bounded Wildcards
      3. Thinking Outside the Container
      4. Lower Bounds
      5. Reading, Writing, and Arithmetic
      6. <?>, <Object>, and the Raw Type
      7. Wildcard Type Relationships
    9. Generic Methods
      1. Generic Methods Introduced
      2. Type Inference from Arguments
      3. Type Inference from Assignment Context
      4. Explicit Type Invocation
      5. Wildcard Capture
      6. Wildcard Types Versus Generic Methods
    10. Arrays of Parameterized Types
      1. Using Array Types
      2. What Good Are Arrays of Generic Types?
      3. Wildcards in Array Types
    11. Case Study: The Enum Class
    12. Case Study: The sort() Method
    13. Conclusion
  11. 9. Threads
    1. Introducing Threads
      1. The Thread Class and the Runnable Interface
      2. Controlling Threads
      3. Death of a Thread
    2. Threading an Applet
      1. Issues Lurking
    3. Synchronization
      1. Serializing Access to Methods
      2. Accessing class and instance Variables from Multiple Threads
      3. The wait() and notify() Methods
      4. Passing Messages
      5. ThreadLocal Objects
    4. Scheduling and Priority
      1. Thread State
      2. Time-Slicing
      3. Priorities
      4. Yielding
    5. Thread Groups
      1. Working with ThreadGroups
      2. Uncaught Exceptions
    6. Thread Performance
      1. The Cost of Synchronization
      2. Thread Resource Consumption
    7. Concurrency Utilities
      1. Executors
      2. Locks
      3. Synchronization Constructs
      4. Atomic Operations
    8. Conclusion
  12. 10. Working with Text
    1. Text-Related APIs
    2. Strings
      1. Constructing Strings
      2. Strings from Things
      3. Comparing Strings
      4. Searching
      5. Editing
      6. String Method Summary
      7. StringBuilder and StringBuffer
    3. Internationalization
      1. The java.util.Locale Class
      2. Resource Bundles
    4. Parsing and Formatting Text
      1. Parsing Primitive Numbers
      2. Tokenizing Text
    5. Printf-Style Formatting
      1. Formatter
      2. The Format String
      3. String Conversions
      4. Primitive and Numeric Conversions
      5. Flags
      6. Miscellaneous
    6. Formatting with the java.text Package
      1. MessageFormat
    7. Regular Expressions
      1. Regex Notation
      2. The java.util.regex API
  13. 11. Core Utilities
    1. Math Utilities
      1. The java.lang.Math Class
      2. Big/Precise Numbers
      3. Floating-Point Components
      4. Random Numbers
    2. Dates and Times
      1. Working with Calendars
      2. Time Zones
      3. Parsing and Formatting with DateFormat
      4. Printf-Style Date and Time Formatting
    3. Timers
    4. Collections
      1. The Collection Interface
      2. Iterator
      3. Collection Types
      4. The Map Interface
      5. Collection Implementations
      6. Hash Codes and Key Values
      7. Synchronized and Unsynchronized Collections
      8. Read-Only and Read-Mostly Collections
      9. WeakHashMap
      10. EnumSet and EnumMap
      11. Sorting Collections
      12. A Thrilling Example
    5. Properties
      1. Loading and Storing
      2. System Properties
    6. The Preferences API
      1. Preferences for Classes
      2. Preferences Storage
      3. Change Notification
    7. The Logging API
      1. Overview
      2. Logging Levels
      3. A Simple Example
      4. Logging Setup Properties
      5. The Logger
      6. Performance
    8. Observers and Observables
  14. 12. Input/Output Facilities
    1. Streams
      1. Basic I/O
      2. Character Streams
      3. Stream Wrappers
      4. Pipes
      5. Streams from Strings and Back
      6. Implementing a Filter Stream
    2. File I/O
      1. The Class
      2. File Streams
      3. RandomAccessFile
      4. Resource Paths
    3. The NIO File API
      1. FileSystem and Path
      2. NIO File Operations
      3. Directory Operations
      4. Watching Paths
    4. Serialization
      1. Initialization with readObject()
      2. SerialVersionUID
    5. Data Compression
      1. Archives and Compressed Data
      2. Decompressing Data
      3. Zip Archive As a Filesystem
    6. The NIO Package
      1. Asynchronous I/O
      2. Performance
      3. Mapped and Locked Files
      4. Channels
      5. Buffers
      6. Character Encoders and Decoders
      7. FileChannel
      8. Scalable I/O with NIO
  15. 13. Network Programming
    1. Sockets
      1. Clients and Servers
      2. author="pat” timestamp="20120926T110720-0500” comment="one of those sections I hate to get rid of but is less relevant in terms of the example... should probably find a more modern example...”The DateAtHost Client
      3. The TinyHttpd Server
      4. Socket Options
      5. Proxies and Firewalls
    2. Datagram Sockets
      1. author="pat” timestamp="20120926T141346-0500” comment="I actually rewrote this as a standalone client but then decided to leave it as an applet”The HeartBeat Applet
      2. InetAddress
    3. Simple Serialized Object Protocols
      1. A Simple Object-Based Server
    4. Remote Method Invocation
      1. Real-World Usage
      2. Remote and Nonremote Objects
      3. An RMI Example
      4. RMI and CORBA
    5. Scalable I/O with NIO
      1. Selectable Channels
      2. Using Select
      3. LargerHttpd
      4. Nonblocking Client-Side Operations
  16. 14. Programming for the Web
    1. Uniform Resource Locators (URLs)
    2. The URL Class
      1. Stream Data
      2. Getting the Content as an Object
      3. Managing Connections
      4. Handlers in Practice
      5. Useful Handler Frameworks
    3. Talking to Web Applications
      1. Using the GET Method
      2. Using the POST Method
      3. The HttpURLConnection
      4. SSL and Secure Web Communications
      5. URLs, URNs, and URIs
    4. Web Services
      1. XML-RPC
      2. WSDL
      3. The Tools
      4. The Weather Service Client
  17. 15. Web Applications and Web Services
    1. Web Application Technologies
      1. Page-Oriented Versus “Single Page” Applications
      2. JSPs
      3. XML and XSL
      4. Web Application Frameworks
      5. Google Web Toolkit
      6. HTML5, AJAX, and More...
    2. Java Web Applications
      1. The Servlet Lifecycle
      2. Servlets
      3. The HelloClient Servlet
      4. The Servlet Response
      5. Servlet Parameters
      6. The ShowParameters Servlet
      7. User Session Management
      8. The ShowSession Servlet
      9. The ShoppingCart Servlet
      10. Cookies
      11. The ServletContext API
      12. Asynchronous Servlets
    3. WAR Files and Deployment
      1. Configuration with web.xml and Annotations
      2. URL Pattern Mappings
      3. Deploying HelloClient
      4. Error and Index Pages
      5. Security and Authentication
      6. Protecting Resources with Roles
      7. Secure Data Transport
      8. Authenticating Users
      9. Procedural Authorization
    4. Servlet Filters
      1. A Simple Filter
      2. A Test Servlet
      3. Declaring and Mapping Filters
      4. Filtering the Servlet Request
      5. Filtering the Servlet Response
    5. Building WAR Files with Ant
      1. A Development-Oriented Directory Layout
      2. Deploying and Redeploying WARs with Ant
    6. Implementing Web Services
      1. Defining the Service
      2. Our Echo Service
      3. Using the Service
      4. Data Types
    7. Conclusion
  18. 16. Swing
    1. Components
      1. Peers and Look-and-Feel
      2. The MVC Framework
      3. Painting
      4. Enabling and Disabling Components
      5. Focus, Please
      6. Other Component Methods
      7. Layout Managers
      8. Insets
      9. Z-Ordering (Stacking Components)
      10. The revalidate() and doLayout() Methods
      11. Managing Components
      12. Listening for Components
      13. Windows, Frames and Splash Screens
      14. Other Methods for Controlling Frames
      15. Content Panes
      16. Desktop Integration
    2. Events
      1. Event Receivers and Listener Interfaces
      2. Event Sources
      3. Event Delivery
      4. Event Types
      5. The java.awt.event.InputEvent Class
      6. Mouse and Key Modifiers on InputEvents
      7. Focus Events
    3. Event Summary
      1. Adapter Classes
      2. Dummy Adapters
    4. The AWT Robot!
    5. Multithreading in Swing
  19. 17. Using Swing Components
    1. Buttons and Labels
      1. HTML Text in Buttons and Labels
    2. Checkboxes and Radio Buttons
    3. Lists and Combo Boxes
    4. The Spinner
    5. Borders
    6. Menus
    7. Pop-Up Menus
      1. Component-Managed Pop Ups
    8. The JScrollPane Class
    9. The JSplitPane Class
    10. The JTabbedPane Class
    11. Scrollbars and Sliders
    12. Dialogs
      1. File Selection Dialog
      2. The Color Chooser
  20. 18. More Swing Components
    1. Text Components
      1. The TextEntryBox Application
      2. Formatted Text
      3. Filtering Input
      4. Validating Data
      5. Say the Magic Word
      6. Sharing a Data Model
      7. HTML and RTF for Free
      8. Managing Text Yourself
    2. Focus Navigation
      1. Trees
      2. Nodes and Models
      3. Save a Tree
      4. Tree Events
      5. A Complete Example
    3. Tables
      1. A First Stab: Freeloading
      2. Round Two: Creating a Table Model
      3. Round Three: A Simple Spreadsheet
      4. Sorting and Filtering
      5. Printing JTables
    4. Desktops
    5. Pluggable Look-and-Feel
    6. Creating Custom Components
      1. Generating Events
      2. A Dial Component
      3. Model and View Separation
  21. 19. Layout Managers
    1. FlowLayout
    2. GridLayout
    3. BorderLayout
    4. BoxLayout
    5. CardLayout
    6. GridBagLayout
      1. The GridBagConstraints Class
      2. Grid Coordinates
      3. The fill Constraint
      4. Spanning Rows and Columns
      5. Weighting
      6. Anchoring
      7. Padding and Insets
      8. Relative Positioning
      9. Composite Layouts
    7. Other Layout Managers
    8. Absolute Positioning
  22. 20. Drawing with the 2D API
    1. The Big Picture
    2. The Rendering Pipeline
    3. A Quick Tour of Java 2D
      1. Filling Shapes
      2. Drawing Shape Outlines
      3. Convenience Methods
      4. Drawing Text
      5. Drawing Images
      6. The Whole Iguana
    4. Filling Shapes
      1. Solid Colors
      2. Color Gradients
      3. Textures
      4. Desktop Colors
    5. Stroking Shape Outlines
    6. Using Fonts
      1. Font Metrics
    7. Displaying Images
      1. The Image Class
      2. Image Observers
      3. Scaling and Size
    8. Drawing Techniques
      1. Double Buffering
      2. Limiting Drawing with Clipping
      3. Offscreen Drawing
    9. Printing
  23. 21. Working with Images and Other Media
    1. Loading Images
      1. ImageObserver
      2. MediaTracker
      3. ImageIcon
      4. ImageIO
    2. Producing Image Data
      1. Drawing Animations
      2. BufferedImage Anatomy
      3. Color Models
      4. Creating an Image
      5. Updating a BufferedImage
    3. Filtering Image Data
      1. How ImageProcessor Works
      2. Converting an Image to a BufferedImage
      3. Using the RescaleOp Class
      4. Using the AffineTransformOp Class
    4. Saving Image Data
    5. Simple Audio
    6. Java Media Framework
  24. 22. JavaBeans
    1. What’s a Bean?
      1. What Constitutes a Bean?
    2. The NetBeans IDE
      1. Installing and Running NetBeans
    3. Properties and Customizers
    4. Event Hookups and Adapters
      1. Taming the Juggler
      2. Molecular Motion
    5. Binding Properties
      1. Constraining Properties
    6. Building Beans
      1. The Dial Bean
      2. Design Patterns for Properties
    7. Limitations of Visual Design
    8. Serialization Versus Code Generation
    9. Customizing with BeanInfo
      1. Getting Properties Information
    10. Handcoding with Beans
      1. Bean Instantiation and Type Management
      2. Working with Serialized Beans
      3. Runtime Event Hookups with Reflection
    11. BeanContext and BeanContextServices
    12. The Java Activation Framework
    13. Enterprise JavaBeans and POJO-Based Enterprise Frameworks
  25. 23. Applets
    1. The Politics of Browser-Based Applications
    2. Applet Support and the Java Plug-in
    3. The JApplet Class
      1. Applet Lifecycle
      2. The Applet Security Sandbox
      3. Getting Applet Resources
      4. The <applet> Tag
      5. Attributes
      6. Parameters
      7. ¿Habla Applet?
      8. The Complete <applet> Tag
      9. Loading Class Files
      10. Packages
      11. appletviewer
    4. Java Web Start
    5. Conclusion
  26. 24. XML
    1. The Butler Did It
    2. A Bit of Background
      1. Text Versus Binary
      2. A Universal Parser
      3. The State of XML
      4. The XML APIs
      5. XML and Web Browsers
    3. XML Basics
      1. Attributes
      2. XML Documents
      3. Encoding
      4. Namespaces
      5. Validation
      6. HTML to XHTML
    4. SAX
      1. The SAX API
      2. Building a Model Using SAX
      3. XMLEncoder/Decoder
    5. DOM
      1. The DOM API
      2. Test-Driving DOM
      3. Generating XML with DOM
      4. JDOM
    6. XPath
      1. Nodes
      2. Predicates
      3. Functions
      4. The XPath API
      5. XMLGrep
    7. XInclude
      1. Enabling XInclude
    8. Validating Documents
      1. Using Document Validation
      2. DTDs
      3. XML Schema
      4. The Validation API
    9. JAXB Code Binding and Generation
      1. Annotating Our Model
      2. Generating a Java Model from an XML Schema
      3. Generating an XML Schema from a Java Model
    10. Transforming Documents with XSL/XSLT
      1. XSL Basics
      2. Transforming the Zoo Inventory
      3. XSLTransform
      4. XSL in the Browser
    11. Web Services
    12. The End of the Book
  27. A. The Eclipse IDE
    1. The IDE Wars
    2. Getting Started with Eclipse
      1. Importing the Learning Java Examples
    3. Using Eclipse
      1. Getting at the Source
      2. The Lay of the Land
      3. Running the Examples
      4. Building the Ant-Based Examples
      5. Loner Examples
    4. Eclipse Features
      1. Coding Shortcuts
      2. Autocorrection
      3. Refactoring
      4. Diffing Files
      5. Organizing Imports
      6. Formatting Source Code
    5. Conclusion
  28. B. BeanShell: Java Scripting
    1. Running BeanShell
    2. Java Statements and Expressions
      1. Imports
    3. BeanShell Commands
    4. Scripted Methods and Objects
      1. Scripting Interfaces and Adapters
    5. Changing the Classpath
    6. Learning More . . .
  29. Glossary
  30. Index
  31. About the Authors
  32. Colophon
  33. Copyright


We mentioned earlier that the kinds of generic type instantiations discussed so far in this chapter have all been concrete type instantiations. We described this as meaning that all of the parameter arguments are real Java types. For example, List<String> and List<Date> are instantiations of the generic List class with the concrete types String and Date. Now we’re going to look at another kind of generic type instantiation: wildcard instantiation.

As we’ll see in this section, wildcards are Java’s way of introducing polymorphism into the type parameter portion of the generic equation. A wildcard instantiation uses a question mark (?) in place of an actual type parameter at instantiation time and denotes that the type can be assigned any of a range of possible instantiations of the generic type. The ? wildcard by itself is called the unbounded wildcard and denotes that any type instantiation is acceptable (assignable to the type).

    List<?> anyInstantiationOfList = new ArrayList<Date>();
    anyInstantiationOfList = new ArrayList<String>(); // another instantiation

In this snippet, we declared a variable anyInstantiationOfList whose type is the unbounded wildcard instantiation of the generic List type. (What a mouthful.) This means that the type we instantiated can be assigned any particular concrete instantiation of the List type, whether Dates, Strings, or Foos. Here, we assigned it a List<Date> first and, subsequently, a List<String>.

A Supertype of All Instantiations

The unbounded wildcard instantiation is a kind of supertype of all of these concrete instantiations. In contrast to the generic type relationships that we saw earlier, which followed only raw, “base” generic types, wildcards let us implement polymorphism on the parameter types. The unbounded wildcard is to generic type parameters what the Object type is to regular Java types: a supertype of everything.

    // A List<Object> is not a List<Date>!
    List<Object> objectList = new ArrayList<Date>() // Error!

    // A List<?> can be a List<Date>
    List<?> anyList = new ArrayList<Date>(); // Yes!

We are reminded in this example that List<Object> is not a List<Date>; polymorphism doesn’t flow that way with generic instantiations of concrete types. But List<?>, the unbounded wildcard instantiation, can be assigned any instantiation of List. As we go on, we’ll see that wildcards add a new dimension to the assignability of generic types.

Bounded Wildcards

A bounded wildcard is a wildcard that uses the extends keyword just as a type variable would to limit the range of assignable types. For example:

    List<? extends Date> dateInstantiations = new ArrayList<Date>();
    dateInstantiations = new ArrayList<MyDate>(); // another instantiation

Our dateInstantiations variable is limited to holding instantiations of List on parameter types of Date and its subclasses. So, we can assign it a List<Date> or a List<MyDate>. In the same way that the unbounded wildcard serves as a superclass for all instantiations of a generic type, bounded wildcards create more limited supertypes covering a narrower range of instantiations. In this case, our wildcard instantiation, List<? extends Date>, is the supertype of all instantiations of List on Date types. As with type parameter bounds, the bound Date is called the upper bound of the type.

Wildcard bounds may extend interfaces as well as use the & syntax to add interface requirements to the bound:

    Trap< ? extends Catchable & Releaseable > trap;

In this case, the instantiation serves as a supertype of the set of instantiations on types implementing both the Catchable and Releaseable interfaces.

Thinking Outside the Container

Let’s be clear about what the wildcard means in the context of a container type such as List. The unbounded wildcard instantiation may be assigned any type instantiation, but it does ultimately refer to some particular type instantiation. A wildcard instantiation serves as the type of a variable, and that variable eventually holds some actual concrete instantiation of the generic type:

    List<?> someInstantiationOfList;
    someInstantiationOfList = new ArrayList<Date>();
    someInstantiationOfList = new ArrayList<String>();

In this example, our List<?> variable is either a List<String> or a List<Date>. It is not some new kind of List that can hold either String or Date elements.

In the same way, a wildcard with bounds ultimately holds one of the concrete instantiations assignable to its bounds. Imagine for a moment that we have a private class Foo with only one subclass Bar and no others. The expression Collection<? extends Foo> in this case means the set of two possibilities: either Collection<Foo> or Collection<Bar>—that is, either a Collection of elements with a common supertype of Foo or a collection of elements with a common supertype of Bar. Again, the wildcard instantiation matches either of those generic type instantiations. It does not create a new type of collection that can contain either Foos or Bars. (That is actually the job of Collection<Foo>, which can contain both Foo and Bar elements.)

For this reason, wildcard type instantiations are valid types for referencing an object, but they cannot be used as the type to create an instance of an object. In general, you cannot use a wildcard type with the new keyword to allocate an object instance because the wildcard denotes one or a possible set of objects. It doesn’t make sense.

Lower Bounds

We saw the extends construct used to specify an upper bound for both type variables and wildcard instantiations. It implies a type that is “at the top” of the object hierarchy for the bound. Wildcard instantiations actually allow another type of bound called a lower bound as well. A lower bound is specified with the keyword super and, as you might guess, requires that instantiations be of a certain type or any of its supertypes, up to Object. For example:

    List< ? super MyDate > listOfAssignableFromMyDate;
    listOfAssignableFromMyDate = new ArrayList<MyDate>();
    listOfAssignableFromMyDate = new ArrayList<Date>();
    listOfAssignableFromMyDate = new ArrayList<Object>();

This wildcard instantiation creates a type that can hold any instantiation of List on the type MyDate or any of its supertypes. In our example world, that means the wildcard type can be assigned one of only three types: List<MyDate>, List<Date>, or List<Object>. Here, we have cut off the object inheritance hierarchy after three generations. No further subclasses of MyDate can be used.

As we hinted in the example, it may help to read ? super MyDate as “Assignable from MyDate.” Lower bounds are useful for cases where we want to be sure that a particular container instantiation can hold a particular element type, without limiting it to just the specific type of the element. We’ll show a good example of this when we talk about generic methods later. For now, just try to digest this as complementary to upper bounds.

One last thing about lower bounds: only the wildcard instantiation syntax can use the super keyword to refer to lower bounds. Bounds of type variables in generic class declarations cannot have lower bounds. Erasure replaces all references to the type variables with their upper bounds, so runtime types have no way to enforce the contract.

Reading, Writing, and Arithmetic

We’ve glossed over an important issue so far in our discussion of wildcard types: namely, how can we use them? What kinds of types does the compiler enforce for variables and arguments that referred to the type variables in the generic class? For example, if we have a List<?> list of any instantiation type, what are the rules about putting objects into it and getting them back out? What is their type?

We have to take the two cases separately. Drawing on the analogy of a container, we’ll call getting a return value from a method on an object as a specific type reading the object as a type. Conversely, we’ll call passing arguments of a specific type to methods of the object writing the object as a type. So, for example, a List<Date> can be read and written as the Date type and a Trap<Mouse> has methods that can be read and written as the Mouse type.

To be more precise, though, we should say that List<Date> can be read as the Date type, but can be written as any subtype of Date. After all, we could add a MyDate to a List<Date>. Let’s look now at the wildcard instantiation List< ? extends Date >. We know it holds an instantiation of the List type on some type of Date. What more can we say about the elements of such a List, which could hold any instantiation of the Date type? Well, the elements will always be subtypes of Date. This means that at a minimum, we should be able to read the object through our wildcard type as type Date:

    List< ? extends Date > someDateList = new ArrayList<MyDate>();
    Date date = someDateList.get( 0 ); // read as Date

The compiler lets us assign the value directly to a Date because it knows that whatever the instantiation of the List, the elements must be a subtype of Date. (Of course, we could have read the object as type Object or any supertype of Date if we’d wanted to as well.)

But what about going the other way and writing? If someDatelist could be an instantiation of List on any subclass of Date, how can we know what type of objects to write to it? (How can we safely call its add() method?) The answer is that we can’t. Since we don’t know the correct type, the compiler won’t let us write anything to the List through our wildcard instantiation of the type:

    List< ? extends Date > someDateList = new ArrayList<MyDate>();
    someDatelist.add( new Date() ); // Compile-time Error!
    someDatelist.add( new MyDate() ); // Compile-time Error!

Another way to put this is that because our wildcard instantiation has an upper bound of Date, we can only read the type as Date. We’ll reiterate that in the form of a rule in a moment.

Recall that an unbounded wildcard is really just a wildcard with a bound of type Object <? extends Object>. Obviously, even an unbounded wildcard instantiation holds objects that can be assigned to Object, so it’s OK to read an unbounded wildcard as the Object type:

    List<?> someList = new ArrayList<String>();
    Object object = someList.get( 0 ); // read as Object

But, of course, we cannot know the actual type of the elements, so we cannot write to the list through our unbounded wildcard type.

What about lower bounds? Well, the situation is neatly reversed with respect to reading and writing. Because we know that the elements of any instantiation matching our lower bounded wildcard must be a supertype of the lower bound, we can write to the object as the lower bound type through our wildcard:

    List< ? super MyDate > listAssignableMyDate = new ArrayList<Date>();
    listAssignableMyDate.add( new MyDate() );
    listAssignableMyDate.add( new Date() ); // Compile-time Error!

But because we do not know what supertype of MyDate the elements are, we cannot read the list as any specific type. Of course, the List must still hold some type of Object, so we can always read the lower bounded list as type Object through the wildcard. The type Object is the default upper bound:

    Object obj = listAssignableMyDate.get( 0 ); // read as Object

Whew. Well, having gone through that explanation, we can now sum it up concisely in an easy-to-remember rule:

Wildcard instantiations of generic types can be read as their upper bound and written as their lower bound.

To elaborate: all wildcard instantiations have an upper bound of Object even if none other is specified, so all wildcard instantiations can at least be read as type Object. But not all wildcards have a lower bound. Only those using the super construct have a lower bound and so only those wildcard instantiations can be written as a type more specific than Object.

<?>, <Object>, and the Raw Type

We’ve covered a lot of ground and the semantics can be a bit hard to follow. Let’s exercise our knowledge by reviewing a few cases that may or may not have similarities.

Natural questions to ask are, What good is the unbounded wildcard anyway? Why not just use the raw type? How do unbounded wildcard instantiation and raw types compare? The first difference is that the compiler will issue unchecked warnings when we use methods of the raw type. But that’s superficial. Why is the compiler warning us? It’s because it cannot stop us from abusing our raw type by foisting the wrong type of objects on it. Using an unbounded wildcard is like putting on boxing gloves and saying that we want to play by the rules. Doing so comes at a cost. The compiler guarantees that we are safe by allowing us only the operations that it knows are safe—namely, reading as type Object (the upper bound of everything). The compiler does not let us write to an unbounded wildcard at all. So why use the unbounded wildcard? To play by the rules of generics and guarantee that we don’t do anything unsafe.

Next, we can knock down any notion that an unbounded wildcard instantiation is similar to an instantiation on the type Object. Remember that a List<?> holds some instantiation of List. It could be a List<Date> for all we know. But a List<Object> is actually a list that holds concrete Object types. The List<Object> can be read and written as Object. The List<?> can only be read (not written) and only read as Object in a degenerate sense. The elements of List<?> are actually all of some unknown type. The elements of the unknown type list all have a common supertype that could be Object or some other common type that is more restrictive than Object. The knowledge of what “could be” in the List<?> doesn’t do much for us in practice, but means something completely different from List<Object>.

Finally, let’s round out the comparisons by asking how List<Object> and the raw type compare. Now we’re onto something. In fact, the raw type after erasure is effectively List<Object> as you’ll recall. But in this case, we’re telling the compiler that this is OK. Here, we are asking for a type with elements that can hold any type safely and the compiler obliges. The answer to the question of how List<Object> and the raw type List compare is that List<Object> is the “generic safe” version of the raw type of yesterday.

Wildcard Type Relationships

Before we leave our wild discussion of wildcard types, let’s return one more time to the notion of wildcard type instantiations as types in the Java type system. Earlier in this chapter, we described how regular concrete instantiations of generic types are related by virtue of their “base” generic type inheritance, only with the proviso that their type parameters are exactly the same. Later, we tried to instill the idea that wildcard instantiations add an inheritance relationship to the type parameters, which is the other half of the generic instantiation. Now, we’ll bring the two together. Things can get arcane pretty quickly, but the simple cases are easy to swallow.

The question is, if we have two different wildcard instantiations of a type or related types, how, if at all, are they related? For example, can an unbounded wildcard be assigned a value with a more restrictive bound because it can hold any instantiation?

    List< ? extends Date > dateLists = ...;
    List< ? >  anylists;
    anyLists = dateLists; // Ok!

The answer is yes. For purposes of assignability, wildcard instantiations can be considered as types with possible supertype or subtype relationships determined by their bounds. Let’s spell out the unbounded wildcard instantiation as it really is, an instantiation with an upper bound of Object:

    List< ? extends Date > dateLists = ...;
    List< ? extends Object >  objectLists;
    objectLists = dateLists; // Ok!

The rule is that if the “base” generic, raw type is assignable and the bounds of the wildcard instantiation are also assignable, the overall types are assignable. Let’s look at another example:

    List< ? extends Integer > intLists = ...;
    Collection< ? extends Number > numCollections;
    numCollections = intLists; // Ok!

What this effectively says is that some List of Integer types can be treated as some Collection of Number types through the wildcard instantiation. If you think about it, you’ll see that there is no conflict here. A List is certainly a Collection. And all we’re doing is widening the type by which we can read the elements from Integer to Number. In neither case could we have written to the collection via the wildcard instantiation anyway.

What all this ultimately means is that with the introduction of wildcard instantiations, the type relationships of Java generic classes become two-dimensional. There is the raw type relationship to consider and then the wildcard parameter relationship. In fact, if you consider that generic classes may have more than one type parameter, the relationships can get even more complicated (N-dimensional). Fortunately, none of this comes up very often in the real world.

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