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Learning As Self-organization by Joseph S. King, Karl H. Pribram

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1.

Respondents, Operants, and Emergents

Duane M. Rumbaugh

Respondents, Operants, and Emergents:Toward an Integrated Perspective on Behavior

Duane M. Rumbaugh, David A. Washburn, and William A. HillixGeorgia State University and San Diego State University

Key Words: respondents, operants, emergents, competence, comparative

Abstract

A triarchic organization of behavior, building on Skinner’s description of respondents and operants, is proposed by introducing a third class of behavior called “emergents.” Emergents are new responses, never specifically reinforced, that require operations more complex than association. Some of these operations occur naturally only in animals above a minimum level of brain complexity, and are developed in an interaction ...

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