You are previewing Lean Software Development: An Agile Toolkit.

Lean Software Development: An Agile Toolkit

Cover of Lean Software Development: An Agile Toolkit by Mary Poppendieck... Published by Addison-Wesley Professional
  1. Copyright
    1. Dedication
  2. The Agile Software Development Series
  3. Foreword
  4. Foreword
  5. Preface
    1. Acknowledgments
  6. Introduction
    1. Lean Principles, Thinking Tools, Agile Practices
    2. Guided Tour
  7. 1. Eliminate Waste
    1. The Origins of Lean Thinking
    2. Tool 1: Seeing Waste
      1. Partially Done Work
      2. Extra Processes
      3. Extra Features
      4. Task Switching
      5. Waiting
      6. Motion
      7. Defects
      8. Management Activities
    3. Tool 2: Value Stream Mapping
      1. Map Your Value Stream
      2. An Agile Value Stream Map
    4. Try This
  8. 2. Amplify Learning
    1. The Nature of Software Development
      1. Perspectives on Quality
    2. Tool 3: Feedback
      1. Software Development Feedback Loops
    3. Tool 4: Iterations
      1. Iteration Planning
      2. Team Commitment
      3. Convergence
      4. Negotiable Scope
    4. Tool 5: Synchronization
      1. Synch and Stabilize
      2. Spanning Application
      3. Matrix
    5. Tool 6: Set-Based Development
      1. Set-Based Versus Point-Based
      2. Set-Based Software Development
    6. Try This
  9. 3. Decide as Late as Possible
    1. Concurrent Development
      1. Concurrent Software Development
      2. Cost Escalation
    2. Tool 7: Options Thinking
      1. Delaying Decisions
      2. Options
      3. Microsoft Strategy, circa 1988
      4. Options Thinking in Software Development
    3. Tool 8: The Last Responsible Moment
    4. Tool 9: Making Decisions
      1. Depth-First Versus Breadth-First Problem Solving
      2. Intuitive Decision Making
      3. The Marines
      4. Simple Rules
      5. Simple Rules for Software Development
    5. Try This
  10. 4. Deliver as Fast as Possible
    1. Why Deliver Fast?
    2. Tool 10: Pull Systems
      1. Manufacturing Schedules
      2. Software Development Schedules
      3. Software Pull Systems
      4. Information Radiators
    3. Tool 11: Queuing Theory
      1. Reducing Cycle Time
      2. How Queues Work
    4. Tool 12: Cost Of Delay
      1. Product Model
      2. Application Model
      3. Tradeoff Decisions
    5. Try This
  11. 5. Empower the Team
    1. Beyond Scientific Management
      1. CMM
      2. CMMI
    2. Tool 13: Self-Determination
      1. The NUMMI Mystery
      2. A Management Improvement Process
    3. Tool 14: Motivation
      1. Magic at 3M
      2. Purpose
      3. The Building Blocks of Motivation
      4. Long Days and Late Nights
    4. Tool 15: Leadership
      1. Leadership
      2. Respected Leaders
      3. Master Developers
      4. The Fuzzy Front End
      5. Where Do Master Developers Come From?
      6. Project Management
    5. Tool 16: Expertise
      1. Nucor
      2. Xerox
      3. Communities of Expertise
      4. Standards
    6. Try This
  12. 6. Build Integrity In
    1. Integrity
      1. Perceived Integrity
      2. Conceptual Integrity
      3. The Key to Integrity
    2. Tool 17: Perceived Integrity
      1. Model-Driven Design
      2. Maintaining Perceived Integrity
    3. Tool 18: Conceptual Integrity
      1. Software Architecture Basics
      2. Emerging Integrity
    4. Tool 19: Refactoring
      1. Keeping Architecture Healthy
      2. Maintaining Conceptual Integrity
      3. Isn't Refactoring Rework?
    5. Tool 20: Testing
      1. Communication
      2. Feedback
      3. Scaffolding
      4. As-Built
      5. Maintenance
    6. Try This
  13. 7. See the Whole
    1. Systems Thinking
    2. Tool 21: Measurements
      1. Local Optimization
      2. Why Do We Suboptimize?
      3. Measuring Performance
      4. Information Measurements
    3. Tool 22: Contracts
      1. Can There Be Trust Between Firms?
      2. But Software Is Different
      3. The Purpose of Contracts
      4. Fixed-Price Contracts
      5. Time-and-Materials Contracts
      6. Multistage Contracts
      7. Target-Cost Contracts
      8. Target-Schedule Contracts
      9. Shared-Benefit Contracts
      10. The Key: Optional Scope
    4. Try This
  14. 8. Instructions and Warranty
    1. Caution—Use Only as Directed
    2. Instructions
      1. Sphere of Influence
      2. Large Company
      3. Small Company
      4. Special Work Environments
    3. Troubleshooting Guide
    4. Warranty
  15. Bibliography
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Chapter 1. Eliminate Waste

The Origins of Lean Thinking

In the late 1940s, a small company named Toyota set out to manufacture cars for Japan, but it had a problem. Since people did not have much money, cars had to be cheap. Mass production was the cheapest way to make cars, but mass production meant making thousands of the same kind of car, and the Japanese market was simply not large enough to need all those cars. So the question was, how could Toyota make cars in small quantities but keep them as inexpensive as mass-produced cars?

From this dilemma, the Toyota Production System emerged to form the basis of a whole new way to think about manufacturing, logistics, and eventually product development. The mastermind behind this new way of thinking ...

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