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Lean Six Sigma and Statistical Tools for Engineers and Engineering Managers by Xuru Ding, Wei Zhan

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CHAPTER 3

DMAIC: The Process of Lean Six Sigma

Every product or process has an intended function with an expected outcome—called a nominal value—and every outcome has some variation. If you sign your name twice, the signatures will not look exactly the same. Similarly, two vehicles of the same model and year are not exactly the same. These are known as variations. Such variation in a set of data can be measured by levels of “sigma,” as we shall explain. Individual customers don’t experience the average performance of a product; instead, they each experience a variation of the product, some better than the average and some worse. By reducing the variation of a product or process, more consumers can receive products or services of higher quality. ...

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