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Lean Sigma: A Practitioner’s Guide, Second Edition

Book Description

The Practical Guide to Lean Sigma Problem-Solving— Expanded & Updated!

Lean Sigma delivers results—if you use the right tools and techniques. In this thoroughly updated edition, Ian Wedgwood details his proven best-practices from more than sixty successful Six Sigma and Lean deployments in multiple industries, helping you identify and apply the solutions that will work best in your projects.

This expanded edition of Lean Sigma: A Practitioner’s Guide offers detailed guidance on process improvement, standardization, accelerated improvement, and more. Wedgwood helps you identify potential Lean Sigma projects, even in processes without obvious targets. He illuminates fast, effective routes to solving specific business problems, and explains why these solutions work.

Next, he presents detailed “tools roadmaps”: step-by-step instructions showing exactly how and when to use each of these tools:

• 5 Whys

• 5S

• Affinity

• ANOVA

• Box plot

• Capability

• C&E matrix

• Chi-Square

• Concept ideation, design, selection

• Control charts

• Control plan summary

• Core process map

• Critical path analysis

• Customer interviewing

• Customer requirements tree

• Customer surveys

• D-Study

• Demand profiling

• Demand segmentation

• DOE

• Fishbone diagram

• Handoff map

• KPOVs & data

• Load chart

• MSAs

• Multi-Cycle analysis

• Multi-Vari studies

• Murphy’s analysis

• Normality test

• OEE

• Pareto chart

• Process performance mgmt.

• Poka Yoke

• Process board

• Process FMEA

• Process scorecard /dashboard

• Process variables (I/O) map

• Project charter

• Pull systems & Kanban

• Rapid changeover (SMED)

• Regression

• SIPOC

• Spaghetti map

• Standard work instructions

• SPC

• Swimlane map

• Test of equal variance

• Time

• Total productive maintenance

• T-tests

• Value stream map

With this guide, all Green, Black, or Master Black Belts will benefit from decades of Six Sigma and Lean consulting experience.

Register your product at informit.com/register for convenient access to downloads, updates, and corrections as they become available

Table of Contents

  1. About This E-Book
  2. Title Page
  3. Copyright Page
  4. Dedication Page
  5. Contents
  6. Preface
  7. Acknowledgments
  8. About the Author
  9. 1. Introduction
    1. Overview
    2. Intended Audience
    3. Prerequisites
    4. Basics
      1. A Process
      2. Entities
      3. Deliverables
      4. Methodologies
      5. Lean Sigma Roadmaps
    5. How to Use This Book
      1. Problem Categories
    6. And Finally . . .
  10. I: Project Roadmaps to Solve Business Problems
    1. 2. Process Improvement Projects (DMAIC)
      1. Overview
      2. Define
      3. Measure and Analyze
      4. Improve
      5. Control
    2. 3. Standardization Projects (DMASC)
      1. Overview
      2. Define
      3. Measure
      4. Analyze
      5. Standardize
      6. Control
    3. 4. Accelerated Improvement Projects (Kaizen)
      1. Overview
      2. Pre-Event
      3. Event
      4. Post-Event
    4. 5. Discovery—Identifying Projects
      1. Overview
      2. Tool Approach
  11. II: Routes to Solution
    1. 6. Global Process Problems
      1. A: On-Time Delivery Issues
        1. Overview
        2. Examples
        3. Measuring Performance
        4. Tool Approach
      2. B: Capacity of Process Is Too Low
        1. Overview
        2. Examples
        3. Measuring Performance
        4. Tool Approach
      3. C: RTY, Defects, Accuracy, Quality, Scrap, and Rework Issues
        1. Overview
        2. Examples
        3. Measuring Performance
        4. Tool Approach
      4. D: %Uptime Is Too Low
        1. Overview
        2. Examples
        3. Measuring Performance
        4. Tool Approach
      5. E: Pace of Process Is Too Slow
        1. Overview
        2. Examples
        3. Measuring Performance
        4. Tool Approach
      6. F: Process Has Enough Capacity but Fails Intermittently
        1. Overview
        2. Examples
        3. Measuring Performance
        4. Tool Approach
      7. G: Process Has Enough Capacity, but Process Lead Time Is Too Long
        1. Overview
        2. Examples
        3. Measuring Performance
        4. Tool Approach
      8. H: Individual Steps Meet Takt, Global Process Does Not
        1. Overview
        2. Examples
        3. Measuring Performance
        4. Tool Approach
      9. I: Demand from the Customer Is Too Variable
        1. Overview
        2. Examples
        3. Measuring Performance
        4. Tool Approach
      10. J: Too Many Entity Types (Products)
        1. Overview
        2. Examples
        3. Measuring Performance
        4. Tool Approach
      11. K: High Schedule Variation
        1. Overview
        2. Examples
        3. Measuring Performance
        4. Tool Approach
      12. L: Measurement System Broken
        1. Overview
        2. Examples
        3. Measuring Performance
        4. Tool Approach
        5. Other Considerations
      13. M: Performance Characteristic Not Good Enough
        1. Overview
        2. Examples
        3. Measuring Performance
        4. Tool Approach
      14. N: Planned Maintenance Takes Too Long
        1. Overview
        2. Examples
        3. Measuring Performance
        4. Tool Approach
      15. O: Setup/Changeover Takes Too Long
        1. Overview
        2. Examples
        3. Measuring Performance
        4. Tool Approach
      16. P: Too Much Unplanned Maintenance
        1. Overview
        2. Examples
        3. Measuring Performance
        4. Tool Approach
      17. Q: Process Can’t Make Product at All
        1. Overview
        2. Examples
        3. Measuring Performance
        4. Tool Approach
      18. R: Resource Usage Is Too High (Headcount Reduction)
        1. Overview
        2. Examples
        3. Measuring Performance
        4. Tool Approach
      19. S: Inventory Is Too High
        1. Overview
        2. Examples
        3. Measuring Performance
        4. Tool Approach
      20. T: Waste/Process Loss Is Too High
        1. Overview
        2. Examples
        3. Measuring Performance
        4. Tool Approach
      21. U: High Forecast Variation
        1. Overview
        2. Examples
        3. Measuring Performance
        4. Tool Approach
      22. V: Not Enough Sales
        1. Overview
        2. Examples
        3. Measuring Performance
        4. Tool Approach
      23. W: Backlog of Orders Is Too High
        1. Overview
        2. Examples
        3. Measuring Performance
        4. Tool Approach
      24. X: Payments Made to Suppliers Not Optimized
        1. Overview
        2. Examples
        3. Measuring Performance
        4. Tool Approach
      25. Y: Accounts Receivable Are Too High
        1. Overview
        2. Examples
        3. Measuring Performance
        4. Tool Approach
    2. 7. Individual Step Process Problems
      1. 1: A Single Process Step Does Not Meet Takt
        1. Overview
        2. Measuring Performance
        3. Tool Approach
      2. 2: The Pace for a Single Process Step Is Too Slow
        1. Overview
        2. Measuring Performance
        3. Tool Approach
      3. 3: Too Much Variation in the Cycle Time of a Single Step
        1. Overview
        2. Measuring Performance
        3. Tool Approach
  12. III: Roadmaps to Guide in the Practical Application of Each Lean Sigma Tool
    1. 8. Tools
      1. 01: 5 Whys
        1. Overview
        2. Other Options
      2. 02: 5S
        1. Overview
        2. Logistics
        3. Roadmap
      3. 03: Affinity
        1. Overview
        2. Logistics
        3. Roadmap
        4. Interpreting the Output
      4. 04: ANOVA
        1. Overview
        2. Roadmap
        3. Interpreting the Output
        4. Other Options
      5. 05: Box Plot
        1. Overview
        2. Interpreting the Output
      6. 06: Capability—Attribute
        1. Overview
        2. Roadmap
        3. Interpreting the Output
      7. 07: Capability—Continuous
        1. Overview
        2. Roadmap
        3. Interpreting the Output
        4. Other Options
      8. 08: Cause and Effect (C&E) Matrix
        1. Overview
        2. Logistics
        3. Roadmap
        4. Interpreting the Output
        5. Other Options: Two-Phase C&E
      9. 09: Chi-Square
        1. Overview
        2. Roadmap
        3. Interpreting the Output
      10. 10: Concept Ideation, Design, and Selection
        1. Overview
        2. Logistics
        3. Roadmap Version 1
        4. Roadmap Version 2
      11. 11: Control Charts
        1. Overview
        2. Roadmap
        3. Interpreting the Output
        4. Other Options
      12. 12: Control Plan Summary
        1. Overview
        2. Logistics
        3. Roadmap
        4. Other Options
      13. 13: Core Process Map
        1. Overview
        2. Logistics
        3. Roadmap
        4. Other Options
      14. 14: Critical Path Analysis
        1. Overview
        2. Roadmap
        3. Interpreting the Output
      15. 15: Customer Interviewing
        1. Overview
        2. Logistics
        3. Roadmap
        4. Interpreting the Output
      16. 16: Customer Requirements Tree
        1. Overview
        2. Logistics
        3. Roadmap
        4. Interpreting the Output
      17. 17: Customer Surveys
        1. Overview
        2. Logistics
        3. Roadmap
        4. Interpreting the Output
      18. 18: D-Study
        1. Overview
        2. Logistics
        3. Roadmap
      19. 19: Demand Profiling
        1. Overview
        2. Logistics
        3. Roadmap
        4. Interpreting the Output
        5. Other Options
      20. 20: Demand Segmentation
        1. Overview
        2. Logistics
        3. Roadmap
        4. Interpreting the Output
      21. 21: DOE—Introduction
        1. Overview
        2. Logistics
        3. Roadmap
        4. Other Considerations
      22. 22: DOE—Screening
        1. Overview
        2. Roadmap
        3. Other Options
      23. 23: DOE—Characterizing
        1. Overview
        2. Roadmap
        3. Other Options
      24. 24: DOE—Optimizing
        1. Overview
        2. Roadmap
        3. Other Options
      25. 25: Fishbone Diagram
        1. Overview
        2. Logistics
        3. Roadmap
        4. Interpreting the Output
      26. 26: Handoff Map
        1. Overview
        2. Logistics
        3. Roadmap
        4. Interpreting the Output
      27. 27: KPOVs and Data
        1. Overview
        2. Roadmap
      28. 28: Load Chart
        1. Overview
        2. Logistics
        3. Roadmap
        4. Interpreting the Output
        5. Other Options
      29. 29: MSA—Validity
        1. Overview
        2. Logistics
        3. Roadmap
        4. Interpreting the Output
      30. 30: MSA—Attribute
        1. Overview
        2. Logistics
        3. Roadmap
        4. Interpreting the Output
      31. 31: MSA—Continuous
        1. Overview
        2. Logistics
        3. Roadmap
        4. Interpreting the Output
        5. Other Options
      32. 32: MSA—Process Variation Study (Nested ANOVA)
        1. Overview
        2. Roadmap
        3. Interpreting the Output
      33. 33: Multi-Cycle Analysis
        1. Overview
        2. Logistics
        3. Roadmap
        4. Interpreting the Output
      34. 34: Multi-Vari Studies
        1. Overview
        2. Logistics
        3. Roadmap
      35. 35: Murphy’s Analysis
        1. Overview
        2. Logistics
        3. Roadmap
        4. Interpreting the Output
      36. 36: Normality Test
        1. Overview
        2. Roadmap
        3. Interpreting the Output
      37. 37: Overall Equipment Effectiveness (OEE)
        1. Overview
        2. Logistics
        3. %Uptime
        4. %Pace
        5. %Quality
        6. Special Cases
        7. Interpreting the Output
        8. Other Options
      38. 38: Pareto Chart
        1. Overview
        2. Roadmap
        3. Interpreting the Output
      39. 39: Process Performance Management
        1. Overview
        2. Logistics
        3. Roadmap
      40. 40: Poka Yoke (Mistake-Proofing)
        1. Overview
        2. Logistics
        3. Roadmap
      41. 41: Process Board
        1. Overview
        2. Logistics
        3. Roadmap
      42. 42: Process FMEA
        1. Overview
        2. Logistics
        3. Roadmap
        4. Interpreting the Output
      43. 43: Process Scorecard/Dashboard
        1. Overview
        2. Logistics
        3. Roadmap
        4. Other Options
      44. 44: Process Variables (Input/Output) Map
        1. Overview
        2. Logistics
        3. Roadmap
        4. Interpreting the Output
      45. 45: Project Charter
        1. Overview
        2. Logistics
        3. Roadmap
      46. 46: Pull Systems and Kanban
        1. Overview
        2. Logistics
        3. Roadmap
        4. Other Options
      47. 47: Rapid Changeover (SMED)
        1. Overview
        2. Logistics
        3. Roadmap
      48. 48: Regression
        1. Overview
        2. Roadmap
        3. Interpreting the Output
        4. Other Options
      49. 49: SIPOC
        1. Overview
        2. Logistics
        3. Roadmap
        4. Interpreting the Output
      50. 50: Spaghetti (Physical Process) Map
        1. Overview
        2. Roadmap
        3. Interpreting the Output
      51. 51: Standard Work Instructions
        1. Overview
        2. Logistics
        3. Roadmap
      52. 52: Statistical Process Control (SPC)
        1. Overview
        2. Logistics
        3. Roadmap
        4. Interpreting the Output
      53. 53: Swimlane Map
        1. Overview
        2. Logistics
        3. Roadmap
        4. Interpreting the Output
        5. Other Options
      54. 54: Test of Equal Variance
        1. Overview
        2. Roadmap
        3. Interpreting the Output
      55. 55: Time—Global Process Cycle Time
        1. Note
        2. Overview
        3. Logistics
        4. Roadmap
        5. Interpreting the Output
      56. 56: Time—Individual Step Cycle Time
        1. Note
        2. Overview
        3. Logistics
        4. Roadmap
        5. Interpreting the Output
      57. 57: Time—Process Lead Time
        1. Note
        2. Overview
        3. Logistics
        4. Roadmap
        5. Interpreting the Output
      58. 58: Time—Replenishment Time
        1. Overview
        2. Logistics
        3. Roadmap
        4. Interpreting the Output
      59. 59: Time—Takt Time
        1. Note
        2. Overview
        3. Logistics
        4. Roadmap
        5. Interpreting the Output
      60. 60: Total Productive Maintenance
        1. Overview
        2. Logistics
        3. Roadmap
      61. 61: t-Test—1-Sample
        1. Overview
        2. Roadmap
        3. Interpreting the Output
        4. Other Options
      62. 62: t-Test—2-Sample
        1. Overview
        2. Roadmap
        3. Interpreting the Output
        4. Other Options
      63. 63: t-Test—Paired
        1. Overview
        2. Roadmap
      64. 64: Value Stream Map
        1. Overview
        2. Logistics
        3. Roadmap
        4. Interpreting the Output
  13. Index