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Leadership Lessons from West Point

Book Description

With Leadership Lessons from West Point as a guide, leaders in the business, nonprofit, and government sectors can learn leadership techniques and practices from contributors who are teaching or have taught at the U.S. Military Academy at West Point and have served in positions of leadership that span the globe. These military experts cover a broad range of topics that are relevant to any leadership development program in any sector. The articles in this important resource offer insight into what leadership means to these experts—in both war and peacetime—and describe their views on quiet leadership, mission, values, taking care of people, organizational learning, and leading change.

Table of Contents

  1. Copyright
  2. leader to leader Institute
  3. A NOTE FROM THE LEADER TO LEADER INSTITUTE
  4. FOREWORD
  5. ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
  6. ABOUT THE CONTRIBUTORS
  7. INTRODUCTION
  8. I. LEADERSHIP AND VALUES DEVELOPMENT
    1. 1. BECOMING A LEADER DEVELOPER
      1. 1.1. Leader Development: The True Measure of a Leader's Success
      2. 1.2. Leader Development Is a Deliberate Process
      3. 1.3. Three Phases of Leader Development
        1. 1.3.1. Phase One: Learning from the Best Leaders
        2. 1.3.2. Phase Two: Leading
        3. 1.3.3. Phase Three: Reflecting on Why You Lead
      4. 1.4. Final Thoughts
    2. 2. LEARNING FROM FAILURE
      1. 2.1. Teach Yourself to Lead by Reflecting on Your Strengths and Weaknesses
        1. 2.1.1. Level One: Failures in What We Do
        2. 2.1.2. Level Two: Failures of Who We Are
        3. 2.1.3. Level Three: Failures of Who We Want to Be
      2. 2.2. Remembering Our Own Personal Leadership Failures
      3. 2.3. "Our Life Is Our Message"
      4. 2.4. Note
    3. 3. YOU MUST LEAD YOURSELF FIRST
      1. 3.1. Take Responsibility for Your Own Actions
      2. 3.2. Great Leaders Also Need to Be Great Followers
      3. 3.3. One Person Can Make a Difference and Lead Successfully
      4. 3.4. Three Great Leadership Lessons
    4. 4. INFLUENCING YOUR ORGANIZATION'S MORAL PHILOSOPHY
      1. 4.1. Being Preyed on Taught Me a Hard Lesson
      2. 4.2. The Army's Case for Shaping Moral Philosophy
      3. 4.3. Recruiting and Selecting People Who Match Organizational Values
      4. 4.4. Socializing Recruits to Embrace Organizational Values
      5. 4.5. Establishing Clear Rules of Acceptable Conduct in the Organization
      6. 4.6. Clarifying Boundaries by Punishing Those Who Step Outside Them
      7. 4.7. Pushing Beyond Compliance: Toward Internalization
      8. 4.8. The Next Level: Embodying Your Organization's Values
        1. 4.8.1. A Values Case Study: Beech-Nut Then and Now
        2. 4.8.2. An Alternate Values System: Johnson & Johnson
      9. 4.9. Teaching Ethics
      10. 4.10. Policing Their Own Ranks
      11. 4.11. The Problem of Tolerating Unacceptable Behavior
      12. 4.12. Conclusion
      13. 4.13. Notes
    5. 5. DEVELOPING ORGANIZATIONAL VALUES IN OTHERS
      1. 5.1. The Enduring Nature of Army Values
      2. 5.2. Why Values Are So Important
      3. 5.3. How Leaders Get Others to Internalize Organizational Values
      4. 5.4. Step One: Self-Identification and Selection
        1. 5.4.1. How Businesses and Other Organizations Can Use Self-Identification and Selection
      5. 5.5. Step Two: Early Socialization Process
        1. 5.5.1. An Early Socialization Case Study: How I Learned About My Duty to Others
        2. 5.5.2. Early Socialization of Families
        3. 5.5.3. How Businesses and Other Organizations Can Use the Early Socialization Process
      6. 5.6. Step Three: Use of Role Models
        1. 5.6.1. Role Models Who Sponsor Cadets
        2. 5.6.2. Senior Leaders as Role Models
        3. 5.6.3. A Role Model Case Study: How I Learned About Honor, Integrity, and Moral Courage
        4. 5.6.4. Lasting Relationships
        5. 5.6.5. How Businesses and Other Organizations Can Use Role Models
      7. 5.7. Step Four: Sharing of Stories and Examples
        1. 5.7.1. Inculcating Values Through Negative Stories
        2. 5.7.2. How Businesses Can Use Their Own Stories and Examples to Inculcate Values
      8. 5.8. Step Five: Feedback and Performance Evaluations
        1. 5.8.1. Feedback Through Counseling
        2. 5.8.2. Disciplining Mistakes of Omission versus Mistakes of Commission
        3. 5.8.3. Formal Performance Evaluations
      9. 5.9. Conclusion
    6. 6. THE AUTHENTIC HIGH-IMPACT LEADER
      1. 6.1. Challenges to Authenticity
      2. 6.2. Components of Authentic Leadership
        1. 6.2.1. Self-Awareness
        2. 6.2.2. Self-Regulation
        3. 6.2.3. Commitment to Self
        4. 6.2.4. Follower Perceptions and Attributions
        5. 6.2.5. The Essence of Authenticity
      3. 6.3. High-Impact Leadership: The Multiplying Effects of Authentic Leadership
        1. 6.3.1. Leadership Multiplier Effects
        2. 6.3.2. Referent Power and Idiosyncrasy Credits
        3. 6.3.3. Leader Latitude
        4. 6.3.4. Pseudo-Authenticity and the Boomerang Effect
      4. 6.4. Authentic Leadership in Operation
      5. 6.5. Authentic Leadership Development
        1. 6.5.1. Developing the Self-Concept
        2. 6.5.2. Moral Development and Virtue
      6. 6.6. Taking Authenticity to the Collective Level: A Culture of Authenticity
      7. 6.7. Authenticity Revisited
      8. 6.8. Notes
    7. 7. LEADER DEVELOPMENT AND SELF-AWARENESS IN THE U.S. ARMY BENCH PROJECT
      1. 7.1. Goals of the Bench
      2. 7.2. The Role of Self-Awareness in Development
      3. 7.3. Developing Leader Adaptability and Self-Awareness
      4. 7.4. Assessment One: Senior Leaders
        1. 7.4.1. Mental Adaptability
        2. 7.4.2. Keeping a Broad Perspective
        3. 7.4.3. Stress Management
        4. 7.4.4. Communication Skills
        5. 7.4.5. Moving Around the Front
        6. 7.4.6. The Ability to Develop Subordinates and Build Teams
        7. 7.4.7. Integrity
        8. 7.4.8. A Positive and Optimistic Outlook
      5. 7.5. Assessment Two: Junior Leaders
        1. 7.5.1. Competence
        2. 7.5.2. Character
        3. 7.5.3. Development of Subordinates
        4. 7.5.4. Communication Skills
      6. 7.6. Assessment Three: Senior Noncommissioned Officers
        1. 7.6.1. Sees the Big Picture
        2. 7.6.2. Forward Thinking
        3. 7.6.3. Communication Skills
        4. 7.6.4. Developing Others and Building Teams
        5. 7.6.5. Integrity
        6. 7.6.6. Leadership by Example
        7. 7.6.7. Loyalty to Soldiers
      7. 7.7. Conclusion
      8. 7.8. Notes
  9. II. LEADERSHIP STYLES AND SITUATIONS
    1. 8. TEAMING HIGH-POTENTIAL TALENT
      1. 8.1. The Problem with High-Potential Talent
      2. 8.2. How We Became World Champions
      3. 8.3. Strategy One: Share Responsibility Among All Team Members
        1. 8.3.1. Share Leadership Power
        2. 8.3.2. Share the Burden of Leadership
        3. 8.3.3. Techniques for Sharing Leadership
      4. 8.4. Strategy Two: Set and Maintain High Standards for the Team
        1. 8.4.1. Build a Legacy of Excellence
        2. 8.4.2. Cut Low Performers from the Team
        3. 8.4.3. Recruit Team Members Who Will Fit In
      5. 8.5. Strategy Three: Develop Respect Among Team Members for Each Other
        1. 8.5.1. Recruit the Right Team
        2. 8.5.2. Form Relationships Among the Team
        3. 8.5.3. Ensure Leadership Competence
        4. 8.5.4. Give Clear Direction
        5. 8.5.5. Recognize That Sound Character Is Critical
      6. 8.6. Strategy Four: Ensure Humility and Recognize Individual Differences
        1. 8.6.1. Leverage the Power of Teams
        2. 8.6.2. Increase Team Members' Self-Awareness
        3. 8.6.3. Value Each Other's Differences
      7. 8.7. Strategy Five: Communicate Constantly
        1. 8.7.1. Give Performance Feedback
        2. 8.7.2. Debrief After Each Mission
        3. 8.7.3. Provide Behavioral Feedback
        4. 8.7.4. "Pass the Rock"
        5. 8.7.5. Require Nondefensive Listening
        6. 8.7.6. Make Sure You Have a Good Coach
      8. 8.8. Conclusion
      9. 8.9. Notes
    2. 9. LEADING AS IF YOUR LIFE DEPENDED ON IT
      1. 9.1. What Is In Extremis Leadership?
      2. 9.2. How We Learned About In Extremis Leadership
      3. 9.3. Characteristics of In Extremis Leadership
        1. 9.3.1. Characteristics 1 and 2: Inherent Motivation and the Learning Orientation
        2. 9.3.2. Characteristic 3: Shared Risk
        3. 9.3.3. Characteristic 4: Elements of a Common Lifestyle
        4. 9.3.4. Characteristic 5: Competence
        5. 9.3.5. Characteristic 6: Trust
        6. 9.3.6. Characteristic 7: Loyalty
        7. 9.3.7. Broadening the Exploration
      4. 9.4. In Extremis Leadership Is Authentic Leadership
      5. 9.5. Is In Extremis Leadership Values Based?
      6. 9.6. Putting the Theory to Work: Developing In Extremis Leaders
        1. 9.6.1. Competence
        2. 9.6.2. Inherent Motivation
        3. 9.6.3. Learning Orientation
        4. 9.6.4. Shared Risk
        5. 9.6.5. Common Lifestyle
        6. 9.6.6. In Extremis Approximations
      7. 9.7. Does Conventional Leader Development Fall Short?
      8. 9.8. How to Develop In Extremis Leaders
        1. 9.8.1. Develop Inspiration by Telling Stories
        2. 9.8.2. Develop Inspiration Using Technology to Link to the In Extremis
        3. 9.8.3. Develop Inspiration by Fusing Reality and Development
        4. 9.8.4. Develop Inspiration by Exceeding People's Expectations
      9. 9.9. In Extremis Lessons for Business and Life
        1. 9.9.1. Lesson 1: Motivation Is Most Powerful When Paired with an Emphasis on Learning
        2. 9.9.2. Lesson 2: Sharing Risk Enhances Credibility and Can Improve a Leader's Effectiveness in Risky Situations
        3. 9.9.3. Lesson 3: Your Lifestyle Reveals to Your Followers What You Value
        4. 9.9.4. Lesson 4: When You Develop Competence, You're Also Developing Trust and Loyalty
        5. 9.9.5. Lesson 5: Extreme Threat Reveals the True Character of Leaders and Followers
        6. 9.9.6. Lesson 6: Followers Care About What You Bring to the Table Today; Your Résumé Is Irrelevant
        7. 9.9.7. Lesson 7: Most Leaders Are Blind to Their Dependence on Mere Positional Authority, Rather than Leadership, Until a Threat Emerges
      10. 9.10. Conclusion: The Best Leaders Want to Be Leaders with Passion
      11. 9.11. Notes
    3. 10. CREATING URGENCY AND INSPIRING YOUR TEAM
      1. 10.1. My First Lesson in Motivation: People Need Focus and Direction
      2. 10.2. Influencing Others: Start by Building Strong Relationships
        1. 10.2.1. Building Relationships Is the Bedrock Competency of Leaders
        2. 10.2.2. People Are the Mission
      3. 10.3. Building Your Motivated Team
        1. 10.3.1. Shared Leadership: Surround Yourself with Great People
        2. 10.3.2. Your Team Should Be Your Second Family
        3. 10.3.3. Be a Problem Solver, Not a Problem Messenger
      4. 10.4. Common Pitfalls in Motivating People
        1. 10.4.1. Don't Instill Panic; Instead, Set Priorities and the Right Pace to Accomplish Them
        2. 10.4.2. Take Care of Your People, But Don't Lose Sight of the Mission
      5. 10.5. Some Final Advice
    4. 11. QUIET LEADERSHIP
      1. 11.1. Communicating Intent
      2. 11.2. Adopting Multiple Perspectives
        1. 11.2.1. Know Your People
        2. 11.2.2. Listen to Your People
        3. 11.2.3. Care for Your People
      3. 11.3. A Sustainable Fortitude
      4. 11.4. Conclusion
      5. 11.5. Note
    5. 12. LEADING WITHOUT WORDS
      1. 12.1. How Communication Affects Leadership
      2. 12.2. The Leader Communication Process
      3. 12.3. What Leaders Need to Know About Nonverbal Communication
      4. 12.4. Body Language Basics
      5. 12.5. Dimensions of Nonverbal Communication
        1. 12.5.1. Proxemics: How People Define Their Relationships Through Personal Space
        2. 12.5.2. Kinesics: How People Use Various Body Movements to Communicate
        3. 12.5.3. Paralanguage: The Way People Speak Sends a Message
        4. 12.5.4. Perception and Use of Time: Another Nonverbal Message
      6. 12.6. Enhancing Your Nonverbal Communication
      7. 12.7. Conclusion: Gestalt Communication Facilitates More Effective Leadership
    6. 13. DEVELOPING CHARISMA WITH CAUTION
      1. 13.1. Leadership Lessons Can Come Early in Life
      2. 13.2. The Impact of Charisma on Organizations and Individuals
        1. 13.2.1. Charismatic Leaders Are a Tough Act to Follow
        2. 13.2.2. Charismatic Leaders Instill Devotion to Themselves, But Maybe Not to the Organization
        3. 13.2.3. The Power We Find in Charismatic Leaders Is the Type of Power They Personally Derive
        4. 13.2.4. Charismatic Leaders Can Create Organizational Cultures Where Dissenting Views Do Not Exist
        5. 13.2.5. Charismatic Leaders Can Weaken Creativity
        6. 13.2.6. We Spend More Time Developing Charismatic Leaders While Neglecting Other Leaders
        7. 13.2.7. It Is Hard to Evaluate a Charismatic Leader's Effectiveness
      3. 13.3. How to Avoid the Pitfalls of Charisma
        1. 13.3.1. What to Do If You Are a Charismatic Leader
        2. 13.3.2. What to Do If You Work for a Charismatic Leader
        3. 13.3.3. How to Manage Charismatic Subordinates
    7. 14. TRUST: THE KEY TO COMBAT LEADERSHIP
      1. 14.1. Trusted Combat Leaders
      2. 14.2. Ten Attributes of a Leader Who Can Be Trusted in Combat
        1. 14.2.1. 1. Leader Competence
        2. 14.2.2. 2. Loyalty
        3. 14.2.3. 3. Honesty/Integrity
        4. 14.2.4. 4. Leadership by Example
        5. 14.2.5. 5. Self-Control
        6. 14.2.6. 6. Confidence
        7. 14.2.7. 7. Courage
        8. 14.2.8. 8. Sharing Information
        9. 14.2.9. 9. Personal Connection with Subordinates
        10. 14.2.10. 10. Strong Sense of Duty
        11. 14.2.11. The Universality of the Leadership Attributes
      3. 14.3. The Link Between Trust and Combat Leadership
        1. 14.3.1. Leaders Can Be Effective Only If Their Subordinates Trust Them
        2. 14.3.2. The Lack of Trust Undermines Effective Leadership
      4. 14.4. Notes
  10. III. LEADING ORGANIZATIONS
    1. 15. SOCIALIZED LEADERSHIP
      1. 15.1. Cadet Basic Training and Socializing New Leaders
      2. 15.2. Cadet Cultural Themes
      3. 15.3. Implications for Leaders
      4. 15.4. What Are Organizations to Do?
      5. 15.5. Note
    2. 16. LEADING AT THE BUSINESS END OF POLICY
      1. 16.1. What Happens When Your People Ignore Your Policies
      2. 16.2. Identifying the Gap Between Espoused Policies and In-Use Policies
      3. 16.3. A Beginner's Mistake: Attempting to Force Compliance with the Organization's Policies
      4. 16.4. One Person Enforcing a Policy Is Not a Policy—It Is Micromanagement
      5. 16.5. An Alternative Approach: Placing the Development of Your People Ahead of Results
      6. 16.6. Development Produces Empowerment That Produces Lasting Results
      7. 16.7. The Lesson Learned: A Leader Cannot Force Success
      8. 16.8. A Lesson in Leadership: Positional Power Does Not Facilitate Enduring Leadership
      9. 16.9. Note
    3. 17. HARNESSING THE POWER OF CULTURE AND DIVERSITY FOR ORGANIZATIONAL PERFORMANCE
      1. 17.1. What Culture Is, and Why It Matters to Organizations
        1. 17.1.1. Understanding Core American Values
        2. 17.1.2. Understanding Core Army Values
        3. 17.1.3. The Influence of Subcultures on a Larger Group
      2. 17.2. Cultural Diversity?
      3. 17.3. Why the (Un)Lucky Seven Receive Special Focus in Terms of Diversity
      4. 17.4. The Danger of Stereotyping and Overgeneralizing
      5. 17.5. Diversity as a Force Multiplier in Organizations
        1. 17.5.1. Effectively Processing Cultural Diversity
        2. 17.5.2. Leveraging Culture and Diversity and Leading in the U.S. Army
        3. 17.5.3. Effective Army Leaders Leverage Culture to Maximize the Performance of Their Missions
        4. 17.5.4. Assessing the Culture of an Army Unit
        5. 17.5.5. Diversity Repercussions: When Army Leaders Fail to Lead
        6. 17.5.6. Changing the Culture of a Unit: A Case Study
        7. 17.5.7. Recap on Harnessing the Power of Organizational Culture
      6. 17.6. Examples of Diversity Success in the U.S. Army
      7. 17.7. The Leading Diversity Initiative: An Emerging Next Step in the Project
      8. 17.8. An Example of a Cultural Diversity Challenge Confronting the U.S. Army
      9. 17.9. Benefits to Society of Leveraging Cultural Diversity Effectively
      10. 17.10. Conclusion
      11. 17.11. Notes
    4. 18. DEVELOPING ORGANIZATIONAL COMMITMENT BY PUTTING PEOPLE FIRST
      1. 18.1. Developing Multiple Supportive Commitments
        1. 18.1.1. Purpose: "I Will Always Place the Mission First"
        2. 18.1.2. Values: "I Serve the People of the United States and Live the Army Values"
        3. 18.1.3. People: "I Will Never Leave a Fallen Comrade"
        4. 18.1.4. Esprit de Corps: "I Will Never Accept Defeat, Never Quit"
        5. 18.1.5. Higher Commitments: "I am a Guardian of the American Way of Life"
        6. 18.1.6. Leader Lessons for Developing Multiple Supportive Commitments
      2. 18.2. A Climate of Caring
        1. 18.2.1. Caring for Soldiers
        2. 18.2.2. Leader Support of Army Families
      3. 18.3. Soldier Training, Education, and Development
      4. 18.4. Opportunities for Excellence and "Being All You Can Be"
      5. 18.5. Lessons for Leaders
      6. 18.6. Conclusion
      7. 18.7. Notes
    5. 19. MANAGING EXPECTATIONS WHEN LEADING CHANGE
      1. 19.1. As a Change Agent, You Must First Identify Your Stakeholders
      2. 19.2. Managing Expectations Defined
        1. 19.2.1. Realistically Shaping Perceptions of Your Character and Intentions
        2. 19.2.2. Building Their Faith in the Long-Term Process
        3. 19.2.3. Realistically Shaping Perceptions of What Constitutes Short-Term Success
        4. 19.2.4. Realistically Shaping Perceptions of Your Stakeholders' Own Responsibilities
      3. 19.3. Lessons Learned in How to Manage Expectations
        1. 19.3.1. Lesson 1: Underpromise and Overdeliver
        2. 19.3.2. Lesson 2: Set Short-Term Goals with Key Stakeholders
        3. 19.3.3. Lesson 3: Have Stakeholders Commit in a Public Setting
        4. 19.3.4. Lesson 4: Use Message Repetition to Communicate Clarity
        5. 19.3.5. Lesson 5: Changing the Message Is a Strength, Not a Weakness
        6. 19.3.6. Lesson 6: Set Up Regular Meetings and a Communication Center
        7. 19.3.7. Lesson 7: Managing Expectations Calls for Establishing Two-Way Communication
        8. 19.3.8. Lesson 8: Always Communicate What Is Not Possible and Why
        9. 19.3.9. Lesson 9: The Organizational Leader Should Lead the Managing Expectations Efforts
        10. 19.3.10. Lesson 10: Being Positive Is a Catalyst in Managing Expectations
        11. 19.3.11. Lesson 11: Don't Fear Inevitable Incidents; Just Respond Promptly to Them
      4. 19.4. Know Your Context to Focus Your Efforts
      5. 19.5. A Nonmilitary Case Study: Managing Expectations at a Troubled High School
        1. 19.5.1. The Challenge: To Change the Organization's Culture and Systems
        2. 19.5.2. The Result: "The Pride Is Back!"
      6. 19.6. Conclusion
      7. 19.7. Notes