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Leadership in Action: An Evolutionary View: What Followers Want from Their Leaders by Robert Hogan, Robert B. Kaiser, David Winsborough

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NEEDS AND PROBLEMS

Group living has both costs and benefits for individuals. Three fundamental needs, rooted in biology, are inevitable by-products of group living and are key to the survival of individuals:

1. Getting along with other group members

2. Gaining status within the group

3. Making sense out of the world

Early tribal groups had to solve tough adaptive problems to survive and reproduce. Of all the problems they had to overcome, three in particular reflect the major, recurring threats to the survival of early human groups that were best solved by social coordination and a rational leader-follower structure:

1. Choosing when and where to move

2. Peacekeeping within the group

3. Defending against rival groups

The three tough problems ...

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