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Laser Surface Engineering

Book Description

Lasers can alter the surface composition and properties of materials in a highly controllable way, which makes them efficient and cost-effective tools for surface engineering. This book provides an overview of the different techniques, the laser-material interactions and the advantages and disadvantages for different applications. Part one looks at laser heat treatment, part two covers laser additive manufacturing such as laser-enhanced electroplating, and part three discusses laser micromachining, structuring and surface modification. Chemical and biological applications of laser surface engineering are explored in part four, including ways to improve the surface corrosion properties of metals.

  • Provides an overview of thermal surface treatments using lasers, including the treatment of steels, light metal alloys, polycrystalline silicon and technical ceramics
  • Addresses the development of new metallic materials, innovations in laser cladding and direct metal deposition, and the fabrication of tuneable micro- and nano-scale surface structures
  • Chapters also cover laser structuring, surface modification, and the chemical and biological applications of laser surface engineering

Table of Contents

  1. Cover image
  2. Title page
  3. Table of Contents
  4. Copyright
  5. List of contributors
  6. Woodhead Publishing Series in Electronic and Optical Materials
  7. Dedication
  8. Preface
  9. Part One: Thermal surface treatments using lasers
    1. 1. Structures, properties and development trends of laser-surface-treated hot-work steels, light metal alloys and polycrystalline silicon
      1. Abstract
      2. 1.1 Introduction
      3. 1.2 Laser treatment of hot-work alloy tool steels
      4. 1.3 Laser treatment of light metal casting alloys
      5. 1.4 Texturization of polycrystalline silicon for the purpose of photovoltaics
      6. 1.5 Development trends of selected laser-treated engineering materials determined using new computer-integrated prediction methodology
      7. 1.6 Conclusion
      8. 1.7 Comments
    2. 2. Laser nitriding and carburization of materials
      1. Abstract
      2. Acknowledgment
      3. 2.1 Introduction
      4. 2.2 Overview on surface alloying of materials by laser irradiation
      5. 2.3 Laser nitriding of titanium
      6. 2.4 Laser carburization of materials
      7. 2.5 Future trends
      8. 2.6 Sources of further information and advice
    3. 3. Mechanical properties improvement of metallic rolls by laser surface alloying
      1. Abstract
      2. 3.1 Introduction
      3. 3.2 Mechanical properties improvement of metallic rolls by laser surface alloying: experimental procedures
      4. 3.3 Laser surface alloying of C-B-W-Cr nano-powders on nodular cast-iron rolls (NCIR)
      5. 3.4 Laser surface alloying of NiCr-Cr<sub xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops">3</sub>CC<sub xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops">2</sub> powders on semisteel rolls powders on semisteel rolls
      6. 3.5 Laser surface alloying of NiCr-Cr<sub xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops">3</sub>CC<sub xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops">2</sub> powders on cast steel rolls powders on cast steel rolls
      7. 3.6 Wear behavior of the three kinds of alloyed layers and three roll substrates
      8. 3.7 Conclusions
    4. 4. Laser surface treatment of AISI 304 steel with the presence of B<sub xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops">4</sub>C particles at the surfaceC particles at the surface
      1. Abstract
      2. Acknowledgment
      3. 4.1 Introduction
      4. 4.2 Experimental producers
      5. 4.3 Results and discussion
      6. 4.4 Conclusion
    5. 5. Characterization and modification of technical ceramics through laser surface engineering
      1. Abstract
      2. 5.1 Introduction
      3. 5.2 Background of laser surface treatment of technical ceramics
      4. 5.3 Materials and experimental procedures
      5. 5.4 Establishment of laser processing parameters and associated issues
      6. 5.5 Modifications of Si<sub xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops">3</sub>NN<sub xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops">4</sub> and ZrO and ZrO<sub xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops">2</sub> technical ceramics through laser surface treatment technical ceramics through laser surface treatment
      7. 5.6 Compositional changes
      8. 5.7 Microstructural modifications
      9. 5.8 Fracture toughness (<span xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" class="bold"><span class="italic">K</span></span><sub xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops">1c</sub>) modifications) modifications
      10. 5.9 Temperature distribution and phase transition
      11. 5.10 Conclusions
  10. Part Two: Laser additive manufacturing in surface treatment and engineering
    1. 6. Compositional modification of Ni-base alloys for laser-deposition technologies
      1. Abstract
      2. Acknowledgments
      3. 6.1 Introduction
      4. 6.2 Microstructural design to improve toughness
      5. 6.3 Selection of the refining element
      6. 6.4 Experimental procedure
      7. 6.5 Microstructures and phases
      8. 6.6 Analysis of crack growth paths
      9. 6.7 Microstructural evolutions
      10. 6.8 The microstructural refinement–cracking relationship
      11. 6.9 Conclusions
    2. 7. New metallic materials development by laser additive manufacturing
      1. Abstract
      2. Acknowledgments
      3. 7.1 Introduction
      4. 7.2 Selective laser melting of TiC/Ti nanocomposites parts with novel nanoscale reinforcement and enhanced wear performance
      5. 7.3 Development of porous stainless steel with controllable microcellular features using selective laser melting
      6. 7.4 Conclusion
      7. 7.5 Future trends
    3. 8. Innovations in laser cladding and direct laser metal deposition
      1. Abstract
      2. Acknowledgments
      3. 8.1 Introduction
      4. 8.2 Fundamentals of laser cladding and direct laser metal deposition
      5. 8.3 High precision 2D- and 3D-processing
      6. 8.4 High productivity processing
      7. 8.5 Process control
      8. 8.6 Conclusions and future trends
    4. 9. Laser-enhanced electroplating for generating micro/nanoparticles with continuous wave and pulsed Nd-YAG laser interactions
      1. Abstract
      2. Acknowledgment
      3. 9.1 Introduction
      4. 9.2 Experimental setup
      5. 9.3 Results and discussion
      6. 9.4 Conclusions
    5. 10. Laser hybrid fabrication of tunable micro- and nano-scale surface structures and their functionalization
      1. Abstract
      2. 10.1 Introduction
      3. 10.2 Fabrication of nanoporous copper structures
      4. 10.3 Fabrication of 3D manganese-based nanoporous structure (3D-Mn-NPS)
      5. 10.4 Fabrication of micro-nano hierarchical Cu/Cu<sub xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops">2</sub>O structureO structure
      6. 10.5 Functionalization of tunable micro-nano surface structures
      7. 10.6 Conclusion
    6. 11. Laser-controlled intermetallics synthesis during surface cladding
      1. Abstract
      2. Acknowledgment
      3. 11.1 Introduction
      4. 11.2 Laser control of self-propagated high-temperature synthesis (SHS) as synergism of the two high-tech processes
      5. 11.3 Overlapping of laser cladding and SHS processes for the fabrication of the functional graded (FG) iron, nickel, and titanium aluminides in the surface layers
      6. 11.4 Temperature distribution during the layerwise surface laser remelting of exothermal powder compositions
      7. 11.5 Theoretical and numerical modelling of selective laser sintering/melting (SLS/M) and SHS hybrid processes
      8. 11.6 Conclusion
    7. 12. Deposition and surface modification of thin solid structures by high-intensity pulsed laser irradiation
      1. Abstract
      2. Acknowledgments
      3. 12.1 Introduction
      4. 12.2 Thin films with patterned surfaces obtained by laser deposition methods
      5. 12.3 Direct femtosecond laser surface processing in far- and near-field
      6. 12.4 Resources
      7. 12.5 Conclusions
  11. Part Three: Laser struturing and surface modification
    1. 13. Tailoring material properties induced by laser surface processing
      1. Abstract
      2. Acknowledgments
      3. 13.1 Introduction
      4. 13.2 Laser texturing of silicon for improving surface functionalities
      5. 13.3 Femtosecond laser interactions with polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA)
      6. 13.4 Nd:YAG laser melting of magnesium alloy for corrosion resistance and surface wettability improvement
      7. 13.5 Conclusions
    2. 14. Femtosecond laser micromachining on optical fiber
      1. Abstract
      2. 14.1 Introduction
      3. 14.2 Femtosecond laser micromachining of optical fibers
      4. 14.3 Optical fiber microstructures fabricated by femtosecond laser micromachining
      5. 14.4 Optical sensing devices based on optical fiber microstructures
      6. 14.5 Current and future trends
    3. 15. Spatiotemporal manipulation of ultrashort pulses for three-dimensional (3-D) laser processing in glass materials
      1. Abstract
      2. Acknowledgment
      3. 15.1 Introduction
      4. 15.2 Tailoring the focal spot by spatiotemporal manipulation of ultrashort laser pulses
      5. 15.3 Three-dimensional (3-D) istropic resolutions at low numerical apertures (NAs) using the combination of slit beam shaping and spatiotemporal focusing methods
      6. 15.4 Visualization of the spatiotemporally focused femtosecond laser beam using two-photon fluorescence excitation
      7. 15.5 Enhanced femosecond laser filamentation using spatiotemporally focused beams
      8. 15.6 Conclusion and future trends
      9. Appendix: derivation of the angular chirp coefficient
    4. 16. Tribology optimization by laser surface texturing: from bulk materials to surface coatings
      1. Abstract
      2. Acknowledgments
      3. 16.1 Introduction
      4. 16.2 Laser ablation behaviors of different materials
      5. 16.3 Tribological application of laser surface texturing (LST) to bulk materials
      6. 16.4 Tribological application of LST to surface coatings
      7. 16.5 Conclusion and future trends
    5. 17. Fabrication of periodic submicrometer and micrometer arrays using laser interference-based methods
      1. Abstract
      2. 17.1 Introduction
      3. 17.2 Multibeam interference patterns
      4. 17.3 Laser interference lithography
      5. 17.4 Direct laser interference patterning
      6. 17.5 Laser interference patterning systems
    6. 18. Ultrashort pulsed laser surface texturing
      1. Abstract
      2. 18.1 Introduction
      3. 18.2 Physics of thermal versus nonthermal ultrashort pulsed laser surface texturing
      4. 18.3 Nanosecond pulsed surface texturing
      5. 18.4 Picosecond pulsed surface texturing
      6. 18.5 Femtosecond pulsed laser surface texturing
      7. 18.6 Attosecond pulsed laser surface texturing: would it reasonably be applicable to surface modifications?
      8. 18.7 Conclusion
    7. 19. Laser-guided discharge surface texturing
      1. Abstract
      2. 19.1 Introduction
      3. 19.2 Mechanisms of laser-guided discharge texturing (LGDT)
      4. 19.3 Experiments of LGDT
      5. 19.4 Comparison with Nd:YAG laser-textured surfacing (YAGLT) and electrical discharge surfacing (EDT)
      6. 19.5 Conclusions
    8. 20. Laser surface treatment to improve the surface corrosion properties of nickel-aluminum bronze
      1. Abstract
      2. Acknowledgments
      3. 20.1 Introduction
      4. 20.2 Solid-state laser treatment and development of laser-processing parameters
      5. 20.3 Experimental procedure
      6. 20.4 Characterization of laser-processed microstructure
      7. 20.5 Corrosion performance
      8. 20.6 Conclusion
    9. 21. Laser surface engineering of titanium and its alloys for improved wear, corrosion and high-temperature oxidation resistance
      1. Abstract
      2. 21.1 Introduction
      3. 21.2 Titanium and its alloys
      4. 21.3 Physical metallurgy of titanium and its alloys
      5. 21.4 Alloy classification
      6. 21.5 Surface dependent engineering properties
      7. 21.6 Surface engineering
      8. 21.7 Laser surface engineering
      9. 21.8 Laser surface engineering of titanium and its alloys
      10. 21.9 Conclusion and future trends
    10. 22. Laser-initiated ablation of materials
      1. Abstract
      2. 22.1 Introduction
      3. 22.2 Mechanisms involved in ablation
      4. 22.3 Demagnified image ablation machining using excimer laser beams
      5. 22.4 Issues arising from ablation
      6. 22.5 Possible solutions to such issues
      7. 22.6 Methods of examining ablation mechanisms
      8. 22.7 Conclusion
  12. Part Four: Chemical and biological applications of laser surface engineering
    1. 23. Luminescence spectroscopy as versatile probes for chemical diagnostics on the solid–liquid interface
      1. Abstract
      2. 23.1 Introduction
      3. 23.2 Chemical analysis of lanthanide and actinide ions by time-resolved laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy (TRLFS)
      4. 23.3 Analysis of TRLFS data
      5. 23.4 Recent progress in chemical analysis of actinides by laser spectroscopy
      6. 23.5 Recent trends in chemical analysis of actinides by laser spectroscopy
      7. 23.6 Future trends in laser spectroscopy
    2. 24. Ablation effects of femtosecond laser functionalization on surfaces
      1. Abstract
      2. 24.1 Introduction
      3. 24.2 Laser techniques and materials
      4. 24.3 Topographical effects
      5. 24.4 Chemical and microstructural effects
      6. 24.5 Potential applications
      7. 24.6 Conclusions
    3. 25. Laser surface engineering in dentistry
      1. Abstract
      2. 25.1 Introduction
      3. 25.2 Effect of lasers on soft tissues
      4. 25.3 Effect of lasers on hard tissues
      5. 25.4 Future trends
    4. 26. Laser-assisted fabrication of tissue engineering scaffolds from titanium alloys
      1. Abstract
      2. Acknowledgments
      3. 26.1 Introduction
      4. 26.2 Influence of the selective laser sintering (SLS)-technique-obtained 3-D porous matrix for tissue engineering on the culture of multipotent mesenchymal stem cells
      5. 26.3 Preclinical testing of SLS-obtained titan and nitinol implants’ biocompatibility and biointegration
      6. 26.4 Finite-elemental optimization of SLS-obtained implants’ porous structure
      7. 26.5 The SLS-assisted functional design of porous drug delivery systems based on nitinol
      8. 26.6 Future remarks
    5. 27. Laser melting of NiTi and its effects on <span xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" class="italic">in vitro</span> mesenchymal stem cell responses mesenchymal stem cell responses
      1. Abstract
      2. 27.1 Introduction
      3. 27.2 Experimental details
      4. 27.3 Results and discussion
      5. 27.4 Conclusions
  13. Index