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Large-Scale Inference by Bradley Efron

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9

Sets of Cases (Enrichment)

Microarray experiments, through a combination of insufficient data per gene and the difficulties of large-scale simultaneous inference, often yield disappointing results. In search of greater detection power, enrichment analysis considers the combined outcomes of biologically determined sets of genes, for example the set of all the genes in a predefined genetic pathway. If all 20 z-values in a hypothetical pathway were positive, we might assign significance to the pathway’s effect, whether or not any of the individual zi were deemed non-null. We will consider enrichment methods in this chapter, and some of the theory, which of course applies just as well to similar situations outside the microarray context.

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