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Large MIMO Systems by B. Sundar Rajan, A. Chockalingam

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9  Channel estimation in large MIMO systems

In the previous chapters, large MIMO detection algorithms were presented under the assumption of perfect knowledge of channel gains at the receiver. However, in practice, these gains are estimated at the receiver, either blindly/semi-blindly or through pilot transmissions (training). In FDD systems, channel gains estimated at the receiver are fed back to the transmitter (e.g., for precoding purposes). In TDD systems, where channel reciprocity holds, the transmitter can estimate the channel and use it for precoding. Due to noise and the finite number of pilot symbols used for channel estimation, the channel estimates are not perfect, i.e., there are estimation errors. This has an influence on the achieved ...

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