Large MIMO systems, with tens to hundreds of antennas, are a promising emerging communication technology. This book provides a unique overview of this technology, covering the opportunities, engineering challenges, solutions, and state-of-the-art of large MIMO test beds. There is in-depth coverage of algorithms for large MIMO signal processing, based on meta-heuristics, belief propagation and Monte Carlo sampling techniques, and suited for large MIMO signal detection, precoding, and LDPC code designs. The book also covers the training requirement and channel estimation approaches in large-scale point-to-point and multi-user MIMO systems; spatial modulation is also included. Issues like pilot contamination and base station cooperation in multi-cell operation are addressed. A detailed exposition of MIMO channel models, large MIMO channel sounding measurements in the past and present, and large MIMO test beds is also presented. An ideal resource for academic researchers, next generation wireless system designers and developers, and practitioners in wireless communications.