## Appendix A Fundamentals: Bits, Bytes, Files, and Data

The terms *bits, bytes*, and *files* will be explained in this appendix. Data formatting concepts will be discussed here as well.

### General Data Concepts

**Hexadecimal numbers** (or *hex* numbers) are useful when describing bits and bytes, so understand hex first. Hex numbers are a base-16 counting system, whereas *binary numbers* are a base-2 counting system. You are probably more familiar with a base-10 counting system, since we humans have 10 fingers in general.

The 10 decimal digits are 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, and 9. The two binary digits are 0 and 1. The sixteen hex digits are 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, A, B, C, D, E, and F.

First, have a look at Table A.1, then it will be explained.

**Table ...**