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LabVIEW Signal Processing

Book Description

Get results fast, with LabVIEW Signal Processing!

This practical guide to LabVIEW Signal Processing and control system capabilities is designed to help you get results fast. You'll understand LabVIEW's extensive analysis capabilities and learn to identify and use the best LabVIEW tool for each application. You'll review classical DSP and other essential topics, including control system theory, curve fitting, and linear algebra.

Along the way, you'll use LabVIEW's tools to construct practical applications that illuminate:

  • Arbitrary waveform generation.

  • Aliasing, signal separation, and their effects.

  • The separation of two signals close in frequency but differing in amplitudes.

  • Predicting the cost of producing a product in multiple quantities.

  • Noise removal in biomedical applications.

  • Determination of system stability and design linear state feedback.

  • The accompanying website contains the complete LabVIEW FDS evaluation version, including analysis library, relevant elements of the G Math Toolkit, and complete demos of several other important products, including the Digital Filter Design Toolkit and the Signal Processing Suite.

    Whether you're a professional or student, LabVIEW represents an extraordinary opportunity to streamline signal processing and control systems projects--and this book is all you need to get started.

    Table of Contents

    1. Copyright
      1. Dedication
    2.  
    3. Virtual Instrumentation Series
    4. Preface: Good Stuff to Know before You Get Started
      1. What Is LabVIEW?
      2. What Is Data Analysis?
      3. LabVIEW’s Analysis Capabilities
      4. Objectives of This Book
      5. Organization
      6. Conventions Used in This Book
      7. Your Very Own Software Disk
      8. How to Install the Software
      9. Restrictions of the LabVIEW Evaluation Version
      10. Performing the Activities
      11. Purchasing LABVIEW
      12. About the Authors
      13. Acknowledgments
      14. Summary
    5. Introduction
      1. An Introduction to Digital Signal Processing for Instrumentation
      2. Measuring Devices Through the Ages
      3. The Evolution of Signal Processing Theory
      4. Possible Future Trends
      5. Using Design Tools Such As LabVIEW
      6. References
        1. Bibliography
    6. 1. Background
      1. Overview
        1. Goals
        2. Key Terms
      2. Sampling Signals
      3. Quantization
      4. Sampling Considerations
      5. Why Do You Need Antialiasing Filters?
      6. Why Use Decibels?
      7. Overview of the Analysis Library
      8. Wrap It Up!
      9. Review Questions
      10. Additional Activities
      11. Real World Applications: Data Acquisition System Virtual Instrument (LabVIEW) developed for Particle Impact Noise Detection (PIND) Testing of Pressure Sensors used in the Space Shuttle Main Engine
        1. Background
        2. Particle Impact Noise Detection (PIND)
        3. Description of PIND-DAS Virtual Instrument
        4. Description and Function of PIND-DAS System
        5. Development and Validation
        6. Structure and Operation
        7. Acknowledgments
    7. 2. Signal Generation
      1. Overview
        1. Goals
        2. Key Terms
      2. Normalized Frequency
      3. Wave and Pattern VIs
        1. Phase Control
      4. Wrap It Up!
      5. Review Questions
      6. Additional Activities
      7. Real World Applications: Signal Processing in Industrial Testing Using LabVIEW™
        1. Introduction
        2. Signal Processing and Analysis
    8. 3. Signal Processing
      1. Overview
        1. Goals
        2. Key Terms
      2. The Discrete Fourier Transform (DFT) and the Fast Fourier Transform (FFT)
        1. DFT Calculation Example
        2. Magnitude and Phase Information
      3. Frequency Spacing and Symmetry of the DFT/FFT
        1. Even Number of Samples
        2. Odd Number of Samples
        3. Fast Fourier Transform
        4. Zero Padding
        5. FFT VIs in the Analysis Library
      4. The Power Spectrum
        1. Loss of Phase Information
        2. Frequency Spacing Between Samples
      5. Wrap It Up!
      6. Review Questions
      7. Additional Activities
      8. Real World Applications: The Statistical Properties of Acoustical Fields in a Reverberation Room
        1. Introduction
        2. LabVIEW Implementation
          1. Sensor
          2. Calibrate
          3. Acquire
          4. Analyze
        3. Conclusions
          1. References
    9. 4. Windowing
      1. Overview
        1. Goals
        2. Key Terms
      2. About Spectral Leakage and Smoothing Windows
      3. Windowing Applications
      4. Characteristics of Different Types of Window Functions
        1. What Type of Window Do I Use?
      5. Wrap It Up!
      6. Review Questions
      7. Additional Activities
      8. Real World Applications: Extracting Features from CTFM Sonar
        1. CTFM Ultrasonic Signals
        2. Problem
        3. Acquiring the Audio Signal
        4. Signal Processing of the Audio Signal
        5. Feature extraction
        6. Recognition
        7. Conclusion
        8. Acknowledgment
        9. Suggested exercises:
    10. 5. Measurement
      1. Overview
        1. Goals
        2. Key Terms
      2. The Measurement VIs
      3. Calculating the Frequency Spectrum of a Signal
      4. Coherent Gain (CG) and Equivalent Noise Bandwidth (ENBW)
        1. Coherent Gain
        2. Equivalent Noise Bandwidth (ENBW)
      5. Harmonic Distortion
        1. Total Harmonic Distortion
        2. Using the Harmonic Analyzer VI
      6. Wrap It Up!
      7. Review Questions
      8. Additional Activities
      9. Real World Applications: Periodic Signal Analyzer
        1. Introduction
          1. Application
          2. Input
          3. Output
          4. Method
          5. Example
          6. References
      10. Real World Applications: Voltage Fluctuation on High Voltage Network
        1. Introduction
        2. System Requirements
        3. System Design
        4. System Performance
        5. Results
        6. Conclusion
        7. Summary
    11. 6. Digital Filtering
      1. Overview
        1. Goals
        2. Key Terms
      2. What Is Filtering?
      3. Ideal Filters
        1. How Filters Affect Signal Frequency Content
      4. Practical (Nonideal) Filters
        1. The Transition Band
        2. Passband Ripple and Stopband Attenuation
      5. Advantages of Digital Filters over Analog Filters
      6. IIR and FIR Filters
        1. Filter Coefficients
        2. Advantages and Disadvantages of FIR and IIR Filters
      7. Infinite Impulse Response Filters
        1. Practical IIR Filters
        2. Butterworth Filters
        3. Chebyshev Filters
        4. Chebyshev II or Inverse Chebyshev Filters
        5. Elliptic Filters
        6. IIR Filter Comparison
        7. How Do I Decide Which Filter to Use?
      8. The Transient Response of IIR Filters
      9. Finite Impulse Response Filters
      10. Digital Filter Design Toolkit
      11. Wrap It Up!
      12. Review Questions
      13. Additional Activities
      14. Real World Applications: LabVIEW Exercise to Model and Analyze ECG/EKG Data
        1. Introduction
        2. Procedure
        3. References
    12. 7. Curve Fitting
      1. Overview
        1. Goals
        2. Key Terms
      2. About Curve Fitting
        1. Mean Squared Error
        2. Applications of Curve Fitting
      3. General Least Square Linear Fit
      4. Nonlinear Levenberg-Marquardt Fit
      5. Fitting a Curve to Gaussian (Normal) Data Points
      6. Wrap It Up!
      7. Review Questions
      8. Additional Activities
      9. Real World Applications: LabVIEW Signal Processing in Biomechanics
        1. Biomechanics
        2. EMG Data Acquisition and Analysis
        3. Force Platform Data Acquisition and Analysis
        4. Measurement of Segmental Moments of Inertia Using the Quick Release Method
        5. Inverse Dynamic Analysis of Lower Extremity Movement Patterns
        6. Mechanics of Impact
        7. References
    13. 8. Linear Algebra
      1. Overview
        1. Goals
        2. Key Terms
      2. Linear Systems and Matrix Analysis
        1. Types of Matrices
        2. Determinant of a Matrix
        3. Transpose of a Matrix
        4. Obtaining One Vector as a Linear Combination of Other Vectors (Linear Dependence)
          1. How Can You Determine Linear Independence? (Matrix Rank)
        5. “Magnitude” (Norms) of Matrices
        6. Determining Singularity (Condition Number)
      3. Basic Matrix Operations and Eigenvalue-Eigenvector Problems
        1. Dot Product and Outer Product
        2. Eigenvalues and Eigenvectors
      4. Matrix Inverse and Solving Systems of Linear Equations
        1. Solutions of Systems of Linear Equations
      5. Matrix Factorization
        1. Pseudoinverse
      6. Wrap It Up!
      7. Review Questions
      8. Additional Activities
      9. Real World Applications: Joint Time Frequency Analysis of Electromyographic Signals for Investigating Neuromuscular Coordination
        1. Introduction
        2. Traditional EMG Analysis
        3. Problems With Traditional Analysis of EMG Frequency
        4. Research Methods
        5. Design of the Virtual Instrument
        6. Sample Data
        7. Summary
        8. References
      10. Real World Applications: The Science ToolBox® An Attempt to Deliver a Turnkey Science Instrumentation Workstation
        1. Introduction
        2. The Science ToolBox
        3. The Virtual Scientist
    14. 9. Probability and Statistics
      1. Overview
        1. Goals
        2. Key Terms
      2. Probability and Statistics
      3. Statistics
        1. Mean
        2. Median
        3. Sample Variance
        4. Standard Deviation
        5. Mode
        6. Moment about Mean
        7. Histogram
        8. Mean Squared Error (MSE)
        9. Root Mean Square (RMS)
      4. Probability
        1. Random Variables
        2. Normal Distribution
      5. Wrap It Up!
      6. Review Questions
      7. Additional Activities
      8. Real World Applications: Signal Processing of Biomedical Data Using PC
        1. Introduction to Biomedical Data
          1. The Need of Feasibility in Biomedical Signal Processing
            1. Data Collection
            2. Data Preparation
            3. Data Qualification
            4. Data Analysis
            5. Data Presentation
          2. Technical Characteristic of a Workstation for Cardiovascular Applications
          3. A PC based work station for experimental surgery
            1. The Experimental Activity
            2. Transducer
            3. Coupling
            4. Acquisition unit
            5. Software description
              1. Waveform Display
              2. Computed Data
              3. Control panel
        2. References
    15. 10. Control Systems
      1. Overview
        1. Goals
        2. Key Terms
      2. Linear, Time-Invariant Control Systems
        1. Time-Invariant Systems
        2. Linear Systems
        3. Transfer Function Model
        4. Zero-Pole Representation
        5. Residual-Pole Representation
        6. State Variable Model
      3. Frequency Domain Analysis
      4. Nyquist Plot
      5. Root-Locus
      6. Linear State Feedback
        1. The Concept of Stability
        2. Design of Linear State Feedback
      7. Wrap It Up!
      8. Review Questions
      9. Additional Activities
      10. Real World Applications: Development of Full Order Observers and State Feedback Control for the Inverted Pendulum using the GSim Software for LabVIEW
        1. Introduction
        2. System Description
        3. Control Schemes for the System
          1. State-Feedback Control
          2. Full Order State Observers
        4. Controller Simulations on LabVIEW
          1. State Feedback Control
          2. State Feedback Control using a Full Order Observer
        5. Controller Implementations on LabVIEW
        6. Conclusions
          1. References
    16. 11. Digital Filter Design Toolkit
      1. Overview
        1. Goals
        2. Key Terms
      2. Review of Digital Filters
        1. Filtering
        2. Why Digital Filters?
        3. Filter Response Characteristics
      3. The Digital Filter Design Toolkit
        1. Main Menu
        2. Design Options
        3. Loading Previously Saved Specifications
        4. Customizing the DFD Application
        5. Quitting the DFD Application
        6. Manipulating the Graphical Display
        7. Panning and Zooming Options
        8. Graph Cursors
      4. Designing IIR Filters
        1. Implementation of IIR filters
        2. IIR Filter Designs
        3. Applications of IIR Filters
        4. A Note About the Activities in this Chapter
      5. Designing FIR Filters
        1. Applications of FIR filters
        2. Classical FIR Filter Design and Arbitrary FIR Filter Design
        3. Front Panel
      6. Analyzing Your Filter Design
        1. Impulse Response
        2. Step Response
        3. Frequency Response (Magnitude Response and Phase Response)
        4. The Z-Domain: Transfer Function H(z) and the Pole-Zero Plot
      7. Format of Filter Coefficient Text Files
        1. FIR Coefficient File Format
        2. IIR Coefficient File Format
      8. Wrap It Up!
      9. Review Questions
      10. Additional Activities
      11. Real World Applications: A Virtual Sound-Level Meter
        1. Introduction
        2. The Software
        3. Results
        4. Future Work
    17. 12. G Math Toolkit
      1. Overview
        1. Golas
        2. Key Terms
      2. Organization of the G Math Toolkit
      3. Parser VIs
        1. Direct and Indirect Forms
        2. Comparison with Formula Node
        3. Error Structure
        4. Functions Available for Use with Parser VIs
        5. A note about the activities in this chapter.
      4. Solving Differential Equations
        1. Solving Nonhomogeneous Differential Equations
        2. A General Class of Second-Order Differential Equations
      5. Wrap It Up!
      6. Review Questions
      7. Additional Activities
      8. Real World Applications: Using LabVIEW and the G Math Toolkit to Develop a User-Configurable Telemetry Program
        1. Introduction
        2. Hardware Requirements
        3. Software Requirements
        4. System Design
          1. Data Retrieval
          2. Telemetry Display and Conversion of Data
        5. Postflight Processing of Log Files
        6. Commanding and Science Data
        7. Conclusions
        8. Future Work
      9. Real World Applications: An Interactive Instrumentation System for Wafer Emissivity Estimation
        1. Introduction
        2. Emissivity model
        3. Parameter Estimation
        4. Conclusions
        5. Acknowledgments
        6. References
    18. A. Mathematical Background
      1. Overview
      2. A-1. Laplace Transforms
    19. B. Error Codes
      1. Analysis Error Codes
      2. G Math Toolkit Error Codes
      3. Functions for Use with G Math Toolkit Parser VIs
      4. G Math Toolkit Parser Error Codes
    20. C. Frequently Asked Questions
      1. Background
      2. Signal Generation
      3. Signal Processing
      4. Windows
      5. Digital Filters
      6. Curve Fitting
    21. D. References
      1. National Instruments Manuals
      2. National Instruments Application Notes
      3. Other Documents
    22. E. National Instruments Contact Information, Resources, and Toolkits
      1. How to Contact National Instruments
      2. Resources to Help You
        1. LabVIEW Documentation and Online Help
        2. EXAMPLES Directory
        3. Info-LabVIEW
        4. Fax-on-Demand Information Retrieval System
        5. World Wide Web
        6. LabVIEW Internet FTP Site
        7. Educational VI Exchange
        8. Application and Technical Notes
        9. Technical Support
        10. National Instruments Customer Education
        11. LabVIEW Basics—Interactive: A Multimedia Training CD-ROM
        12. Training Videos
        13. National Instruments Catalogue
        14. LabVIEW Graphical Programming
        15. LabVIEW for Everyone
        16. LabVIEW Power Programming
        17. Seminars
        18. Instrupedia™ 97
        19. Software Showcase
        20. The Instrumentation Newsletter
        21. LabVIEW Technical Resource
        22. National Instruments Alliance Members
      3. LabVIEW Add-On Toolkits
        1. Application Builder
        2. JTFA Toolkit
        3. Digital Filter Design Toolkit
        4. Third Octave Analyzer Toolkit
        5. Wavelet and Filter Bank Toolkit
        6. Virtual Bench/DSA Toolkit
        7. Signal Processing Suite
        8. PID Control Toolkit
        9. Control and Simulation Toolkit
        10. Fuzzy Logic Control Toolkit
        11. G Math Toolkit
    23. Glossary
      1. Numbers/Symbols