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LabVIEW® for Electric Circuits, Machines, Drives, and Laboratories

Book Description

The first interactive, LabVIEW-based guide to electrical system analysis and operation.

For the first time, you can master electric circuits, machines, devices, and power electronics, hands on-without the use of expensive equipment. Using custom-written LabVIEW Virtual Instruments, Nesimi Ertugrul walks you through every key topic associated with the analysis and operation of a wide range of AC and DC circuits, electrical machines, and drives-including high-voltage/current/power applications covered in no other book. Ertugrul presents detailed background on every topic, along with full VI panels, complete laboratory practices, hardware information, wiring diagrams, printed circuit layouts, and self-study questions: everything you need to achieve true mastery.

  • Periodic waveforms, harmonics, equivalent circuits, and DC circuit analysis

  • AC circuit analysis, phasors, complex powers, power factor correction, and three-phase AC systems

  • Magnetic circuits, BH characteristics, and losses

  • Transformers, asynchronous motors, synchronous machines, stepper motors, brushless permanent magnet motors, and switched reluctance motors

  • Diode and SCR conduction, diode rectifiers, AC choppers, cycloconverters, and inverters

  • Advanced motor drives and control techniques

  • Complete version of LabView 6 is on our website:  http://www.phptr.com/bookstore/product.asp?isbn=0130618861&rl=1#info4.

    Contains a complete copy of LabVIEW 6 Evaluation Version, plus all Virtual Instrumentations (VIs) presented in the book, enabling readers to test diverse operating conditions for a wide range of circuits.

    Table of Contents

    1. Copyright
      1. Dedication
    2. National Improvements | Virtual Instrumentation Series
    3. Preface
      1. Acknowledgments
    4. 1. Introduction
      1. 1.1. Some Features of Virtual Instruments
      2. 1.2. Hardware Suggestions
    5. 2. Basic Definitions and DC Circuits
      1. 2.1. Periodic Waveforms, and Average and RMS Values
        1. 2.1.1. Virtual Instrument Panel
        2. 2.1.2. Self-Study Questions
      2. 2.2. Periodic Waveforms and Harmonics
        1. 2.2.1. Virtual Instrument Panel
        2. 2.2.2. Self-Study Questions
      3. 2.3. DC Circuits
        1. 2.3.1. Equivalent Resistance and Series/Parallel Resistance Circuits
          1. 2.3.1.1. Virtual Instrument Panel
          2. 2.3.1.2. Self-Study Questions
        2. 2.3.2. Mesh Analysis
          1. 2.3.2.1. Virtual Instrument Panel
          2. 2.3.2.2. Self-Study Questions
      4. 2.4. Thevenin's and Norton's Equivalent Circuits
        1. 2.4.1. Virtual Instrument Panel
        2. 2.4.2. Self-Study Questions
      5. 2.5. References
        1. Bibliography
    6. 3. AC Circuits
      1. 3.1. Fundamental Definitions
        1. Power Factor
        2. Phasors
        3. Impedance
        4. Per-Unit Values
      2. 3.2. AC Circuit Analysis
        1. 3.2.1. Equivalent Impedances and Circuits
          1. 3.2.1.1. Virtual Instrument Panel
          2. 3.2.1.2. Self-Study Questions
        2. 3.2.2. A Reverse Study
          1. 3.2.2.1. Virtual Instrument Panel
          2. 3.2.2.2. Self-Study Questions
      3. 3.3. Power and Power Triangles in AC Circuits
        1. 3.3.1. Virtual Instrument Panel
        2. 3.3.2. Self-Study Questions
      4. 3.4. Power Factor Correction
        1. 3.4.1. Virtual Instrument Panel
        2. 3.4.2. Self-Study Questions
      5. 3.5. Star-Delta and Delta-Star Conversion in Three-Phase AC Circuits
        1. 3.5.1. Virtual Instrument Panel
        2. 3.5.2. Self-Study Questions
      6. 3.6. Voltage and Currents in Star- and Delta-Connected Loads
        1. 3.6.1. Virtual Instrument Panel
        2. 3.6.2. Self-Study Questions
      7. 3.7. Voltage and Current Phasors in Three-Phase Systems
        1. 3.7.1. Virtual Instrument Panel
        2. 3.7.2. Self-Study Questions
      8. 3.8. Power in Three-Phase AC Circuits
        1. Power Measurement Techniques
          1. 1. Two-Wattmeter Method
          2. 2. Three-Wattmeter Method
          3. 3. One-Wattmeter Method
        2. 3.8.1. Virtual Instrument Panel
        3. 3.8.2. Self-Study Questions
      9. 3.9. Three-Phase Power Measurement and Data Logging
        1. Measurement Equations
        2. 3.9.1. Virtual Instrument Panel
        3. 3.9.2. Some Features of the VI and Operating Scenarios
          1. Example Setting 1
          2. Example Setting 2
          3. Example Setting 3
          4. Example Setting 4
      10. 3.10. References
        1. Bibliography
    7. 4. Magnetic Circuits and Measurements
      1. 4.1. Background Information
        1. Definitions of EMF and MMF
      2. 4.2. Analysis of Magnetic Circuits
        1. Magnetic Circuit 1
        2. Magnetic Circuit 2
        3. 4.2.1. Virtual Instrument Panel
        4. 4.2.2. Self-Study Questions
      3. 4.3. BH Characteristics and Losses
        1. 4.3.1. Virtual Instrument Panel
        2. 4.3.2. Self-Study Questions
      4. 4.4. Measuring Magnetization Characteristics
        1. 4.4.1. Principles of the Method
        2. 4.4.2. Experimental Setup
        3. 4.4.3. Virtual Instrument Panel
          1. Sample Test Results
      5. 4.5. References
        1. Bibliography
    8. 5. Electric Machines Laboratory
      1. 5.1. Introduction
        1. Real-Time Measurement Interfaces
        2. Precautions in Real-Time Measurement
      2. 5.2. Determining Moment of Inertia
        1. 5.2.1. Virtual Instrument Panel
        2. 5.2.2. Recommended Laboratory Hardware
      3. 5.3. Losses in DC Motors
        1. 5.3.1. Virtual Instrument Panel
          1. Part 1, Armature Resistance Test
          2. Part 2, Steady Speed Test
          3. Part 3, Retardation Test (Polar moment of inertia of the machine set)
          4. Part 4, Power Losses Against Speed Graphs
          5. Part 5, No-Load Iron Losses versus Speed
          6. Part 6, Torque/Speed Characteristic
        2. 5.3.2. Laboratory Hardware
      4. 5.4. Electromechanical Device Experiment
        1. Part 1, Data Acquisition
        2. Part 2, AC Characteristics of the Magnetic Circuit
        3. View Input Data for AC
        4. View and Analyze Simulation Hysteresis Loop
        5. View and Analyze Real Data Hysteresis Loop
        6. Calculate Total Power Losses and Eddy Current Losses
        7. Part 3, DC Characteristics of Magnetic Circuits
        8. View DC Data
        9. Theoretical Force Calculation
        10. 5.4.1. Laboratory Hardware
      5. 5.5. Tests for AC Circuits
        1. 5.5.1. Single-Phase AC Circuit Test
          1. Hardware for the Single-Phase Circuit Test
        2. 5.5.2. Three-Phase AC Circuit Test
          1. Hardware for Three-Phase AC Circuit Test
        3. 5.5.3. Power Factor Correction Test
          1. Hardware for Power Factor Correction Test
      6. 5.6. Transformer Test
        1. Practical Transformer
        2. Open-Circuit Test
        3. Short-Circuit Test
        4. Full-Load Test
        5. 5.6.1. Virtual Instrument Panel
          1. Experimental Tests: Open-Circuit and Short-Circuit
          2. Analysis
          3. Full-Load Test
          4. Simulation with Phasors
        6. 5.6.2. Self-Study Questions
        7. 5.6.3. Sample Results
      7. 5.7. Asynchronous (Induction) Motor Test
        1. 5.7.1. Theory
          1. Measuring the Equivalent Stator Winding Resistance R1
          2. Blocked-Rotor Test
          3. No-Load (Light-Running) Test
          4. Performance Characteristics
        2. 5.7.2. Virtual Instrument Panel
          1. Measuring Stator Resistance
          2. Blocked-Rotor Test
          3. No-Load Test
          4. Performance Characteristics
        3. 5.7.3. Self-Study Questions
        4. 5.7.4. Laboratory Hardware
      8. 5.8. Synchronization Observer
        1. 5.8.1. Virtual Instrument Panel and Laboratory Hardware
          1. Procedures for the Synchronization Test
      9. 5.9. Synchronous Machine Test
        1. Equivalent Circuit and Phasors
        2. Open-Circuit Test
        3. Short-Circuit Test
        4. Synchronous Impedance
        5. Zero Power Factor Characteristic and Potier Triangle
        6. Slip Test
        7. Power and Phasor Analysis
        8. 5.9.1. Virtual Instrument Panel
          1. Measuring Stator Resistance
          2. Open-Circuit Test
          3. Short-Circuit Test
          4. Synchronous Impedance
          5. Synchronization
          6. Zero Power Factor Test
          7. Slip Test
          8. Power and Phasor Analysis
        9. 5.9.2. Self-Study Questions
        10. 5.9.3. Sample Results
          1. Open-Circuit Test Results (Fig. 5-74)
          2. Short-Circuit Test Results (Fig. 5-75)
          3. Synchronous Impedance (Fig. 5-76)
          4. Zero Power Factor Test (Fig. 5-77 and Fig. 5-78)
          5. Slip Test (Fig. 5-79)
          6. Power and Phasor Analysis (Fig. 5-80 and Fig. 5-81)
      10. 5.10. References
        1. Bibliography
    9. 6. Introduction to Power Electronics Circuits
      1. 6.1. Diode Conduction
        1. 6.1.1. Virtual Instrument Panel
        2. 6.1.2. Self-Study Questions
      2. 6.2. SCR Conduction
        1. 6.2.1. Virtual Instrument Panel
        2. 6.2.2. Study Guides
      3. 6.3. Three-Phase Half-Way Diode Rectifier
        1. 6.3.1. Fundamental Theory
          1. Development of Current Conduction States for the VI
        2. 6.3.2. Virtual Instrument Panel
          1. Simulation Controls
          2. Circuit Settings
          3. Circuit Animation
          4. Waveform Chart
          5. Calculated Values
        3. 6.3.3. Implementation DetailsPer-Unit Values and Chart
          1. Commutation Time
          2. Three-Phase Supply
          3. Two Equation Runge-Kutta
      4. 6.4. Single-Phase AC Chopper
        1. 6.4.1. Virtual Instrument Panel
          1. Simulation Inputs
          2. Waveform Chart
          3. Calculated Values
          4. Error Messages
        2. 6.4.2. Features of the VI
          1. Single Phase Chopper Calc Sub-VI
          2. Chopper Two State Determination Sub-VI
          3. Voltage Across Thyristors Sub-VI
          4. Beta Calculation Sub-VI
        3. 6.4.3. Self-Study Questions
      5. 6.5. Cycloconverters
        1. 6.5.1. Virtual Instrument Panel
        2. 6.5.2. Features of the VI
      6. 6.6. PWM and Single-Phase Inverter (H-Bridge) Control Methods
        1. 6.6.1. Virtual Instrument Panel
          1. Part 1
          2. Part 2
          3. Screen 1.vi
          4. Screen 2.vi
          5. Screen 3.vi
          6. Screen 4.vi
        2. 6.6.2. Some Implementation Details of the Sub-VIs
          1. Append If Necessary.vi and Append If Required.vi
          2. Full Trans Wave.vi
          3. Half Trans Wave.vi
          4. High Pos.vi
          5. Triangle Sine Conv.vi
          6. Triangle Sine Wave Extra.vi
          7. RL Solver.vi
      7. 6.7. References
        1. Bibliography
    10. 7. Simulation of Electrical Machines and Systems
      1. 7.1. Rotating Field Simulation in AC Machines
        1. 7.1.1. Virtual Instrument Panel
          1. Rotating Magnetic Field in Three-Phase AC Motors
          2. Rotating Magnetic Field in Induction Motors
      2. 7.2. Dynamic Simulation of Three-Phase Induction (Asynchronous) Motor
        1. 7.2.1. Virtual Instrument Panel
        2. 7.2.2. Self-Study Questions
      3. 7.3. Dynamic Simulation of Brushless Permanent Magnet AC Motor Drives
        1. Motor and Drive Model
        2. 7.3.1. Virtual Instrument Panel
        3. 7.3.2. Self-Study Questions
      4. 7.4. Dynamic Simulation of Direct Current Motors
        1. DC Motor Drive Model
        2. 7.4.1. Virtual Instrument Panel
        3. 7.4.2. Self-Study Questions
      5. 7.5. Simulation of Stepper Motors
        1. VR Stepper Motors
        2. PM Stepper Motors
        3. Hybrid Stepper Motors
        4. Linear Stepper Motors
        5. Step Angle
        6. 7.5.1. Mathematical Model
        7. 7.5.2. Control of Stepper Motors
        8. 7.5.3. Virtual Instrument Panel
          1. Programming Details
      6. 7.6. Steering and Control of Four-Wheel Direct-Drive Electric Vehicles
        1. Drive Train Options in Road Vehicles
        2. Direct Drive
        3. 7.6.1. Criteria Used to Develop a LabVIEW Simulation
          1. Further Analysis
          2. Motor Simulation
        4. 7.6.2. Virtual Instrument Panel
        5. 7.6.3. Self-Study Questions
      7. 7.7. Fault-Tolerant Motor Drive for Critical Applications
        1. 7.7.1. Fault-Tolerant Motor Drive System
          1. Definition of a Fault-Tolerant System
          2. Potential Faults in the Motor Drive
          3. System Equations of the Two-Segment Motor
        2. 7.7.2. Virtual Instrument Panel
      8. 7.8. References
        1. Bibliography
    11. 8. Real-Time Control of Electrical Machines
      1. 8.1. DC Motor Control
        1. Permanent Magnet Brush DC Motors
        2. 8.1.1. Control of PM Brush DC Motors
          1. Feedback Devices
          2. Power Circuit, H-Bridge
          3. The Choice of Feedback Control
          4. Operating Quadrants and Speed (Velocity) Profiles
        3. 8.1.2. Hardware Implementation Details
        4. 8.1.3. Details of the Virtual Instruments and Front Panels
          1. Manual Control
          2. Automatic Control
          3. Closed-Loop Speed Response
          4. Scan Rates
          5. Rotating Motor Animation
          6. Programming Structure
            1. Sequence 1
            2. Sequence 2
            3. Sequence 3
      2. 8.2. Stepper Motor Control
        1. 8.2.1. Virtual Instrument Panel
      3. 8.3. Brushless Trapezoidal PM Motor Control
        1. 8.3.1. Virtual Instrument Panel
          1. Computer Simulation
          2. Real-Time Control
      4. 8.4. Starting Wound-Rotor Asynchronous Motors
        1. 8.4.1. Principles of the Starting
        2. 8.4.2. Hardware Details
        3. 8.4.3. Virtual Instrument Panel
      5. 8.5. Switched Reluctance Motor Control
        1. 8.5.1. Principles of Motor Control
          1. Inverter Topology
          2. Position Sensors
        2. 8.5.2. Virtual Instrumentation
      6. 8.6. References
        1. Bibliography
    12. Appendix
      1. For Chapter 1
      2. For Chapter 5
      3. For Chapter 8
        1. Front Panels of Multiple-Choice Quiz VIs
        2. Sample 1
        3. Sample 2
    13. About the Author
    14. License Agreement and Limited Warranty
    15. About the CD-ROM