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Knowledge Management Toolkit, The

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The only "how-to" guide for building an enterprise knowledge management system!

Until now, implementing Knowledge Management (KM) has been like nailing jelly to the wall-but not anymore! The Knowledge Management Toolkit delivers hands-on techniques and tools for making KM happen at your company. You'll learn exactly how to use KM to make sure that every key decision is fully informed as you build on your existing intranet, data warehouse, and project management investments. Top researcher Amrit Tiwana walks you through the development of an enterprise KM system from start to finish, showing how every stage can serve as a foundation for later enhancements.

  • 10-step roadmap for implementing KM successfully

  • Checklists help you focus on critical issues every step of the way

  • Interactive toolkit format guides your strategic design decisions

  • Identify your key intangibles-and audit the knowledge you already have

  • Staff your project team and manage it effectively

  • Build a foundation of KM infrastructure that can evolve through results-driven, incremental steps

  • Mobilize your organization's subtle, "tacit" knowledge

  • Calculate and maximize ROI in KM systems

  • www.kmtoolkit.com-stay informed with the author's dedicated Web site, which provides ongoing support and updates from the KM community!

  • Discover the best ways to align KM with business strategy, avoid key KM pitfalls such as excessive formalization and overreliance on technology, master prototyping, and understand the new role of the Chief Knowledge Officer. Tiwana also presents KM case studies from leading companies worldwide, from Nortel to Rolls Royce. If you're ready to transform KM from business-school theory to real-world competitive advantage, start right here!

    CD-ROM INCLUDED

  • Knowledge Management Toolkit, including an interactive 10-step KM roadmap and easy-to-customize KM evaluation forms -complete and unrestricted!

  • MindManager Personal for creating, organizing, and sharing knowledge maps

  • Performance Now Enterprise, a trial version of the #1 change management tool

  • FrontPage 2000 45-day trial

  • Plus great tools for data mining, integrating mobile systems, workflow, modeling, and more!

  • Table of Contents

    1. Copyright
      1. Dedication
    2. Preface
    3. Acknowledgments
    4. I. The Rubber Meets the Road
      1. 1. Introduction
        1. Knowledge Management: A Goldmine or an Empty Piggy-bank?
          1. Why Knowledge?
          2. What's Knowledge?
            1. So What's Knowledge Management?
          3. KM's Value Proposition
          4. Why Now?
            1. Who Should Be Pursuing Knowledge Management?
          5. What's Behind the Buzz?
            1. Under the Magnifying Glass
            2. What Knowledge Management Is Not About
        2. What This Book Is About
          1. Thank You, Dr. Davenport
        3. What This Book Will Do
          1. The 10-Step Roadmap Helps You—
          2. Identify Knowledge That Is Critical to Your Business
          3. Align Business Strategy and Knowledge Management
          4. Analyze Knowledge Existing in Your Company
          5. Build Upon, Not Discard, Existing IT Investments
          6. Focus on Processes, and Tacit, Not Just Explicit Knowledge
          7. Design a Future-Proof, Adaptable KM System Architecture
          8. Build and Deploy a Results-Driven KM System
          9. Implement Reward Structures, Leadership, and Cultural Enablers Needed to Make KM Work
          10. Calculate ROI and Apply Knowledge Metrics
          11. Learn From War Stories
          12. Why Not the "M" Word?
        4. How to Use This Book
          1. How This Book Is Organized
          2. Assumptions About Your Company
          3. My Vocabulary: More than Words Can Say
        5. What This Book Is Not About
        6. Endnotes
      2. 2. The Knowledge Edge
        1. Getting to Why: The New World
        2. The Missing Pieces
        3. Accounting for Abnormal Differences
        4. A Common Theme
        5. Intellectual Capital
          1. Knowledge, Market Value, and Prosperity
            1. The Back of the Envelope at Ford Motor Company
        6. The 24 Drivers of KM
        7. Knowledge-Centric Drivers
          1. Failure to Know What You Already Know
          2. The Emergent Need for Smart Knowledge Distribution
          3. Knowledge Sluggishness
          4. Knowledge Velocity
          5. Tacitness of Knowledge
            1. Knowledge Walks Out of the Door
          6. Knowledge = Power
          7. Systemic Unlearning Requirements
        8. Technology Drivers
          1. Technology—Trials, Triumphs, and Tribulations
          2. Compression of Product and Process Life Cycles
          3. The Need for a Perfect Link Between Knowledge, Business Strategy, and IT
        9. Organizational Structure-Based Drivers
          1. Functional Convergence
          2. Emergence of the Project-Centric Company
          3. Deregulation
          4. Globalization
          5. Product and Service Convergence
        10. Personnel-Focused Drivers
          1. Cross-Functional Collaboration
          2. Team Mobility and Fluidity
          3. Complex Expectations
        11. Process Drivers
          1. Repeated Mistakes and Reinvention of Solutions
          2. Predictive Anticipation
          3. Responsiveness of Competitors
        12. Economic Drivers
          1. Extraordinary Leverage and Increasing Returns
            1. Beyond Economics: Increasing Returns on Knowledge
            2. Overdependence on IT for Competitive Breakthroughs
          2. The Quest for a Silver Bullet
        13. Creating the Knowledge Edge
          1. Competing Through Process
          2. Eliminating the Wrong Tradeoffs
          3. Beware of Relabeled Cans of Worms
          4. The Road Ahead
        14. Lessons Learned
        15. Endnotes
      3. 3. From Information to Knowledge
        1. From Data to Information to Knowledge
          1. Knowledge
          2. How Is It Different From Information?
          3. Tacit Knowledge
        2. From Data to Knowledge
          1. Data
            1. The More, the Better?
          2. Information and Noise
            1. The Data-Rich and Information-Poor Society
            2. The Big Slip Between the Swipe and the Refrigerator
            3. Shared Data
            4. Information Flow Is Not Knowledge Flow
          3. Beyond Information Flow
        3. Classifying Knowledge
          1. Categories of Knowledge
          2. Types of Knowledge
          3. Components of Knowledge
            1. Ground Truth and Truth Maintenance
            2. Judgment
            3. Experiential Knowledge and Knowledge Scripts
            4. Values, Assumptions, and Beliefs
            5. Intelligence
          4. Integration of Knowledge Sources
        4. The Three Fundamental Steps
          1. Knowledge Acquisition
            1. Professional Intellect: Know-What to Care-Why
          2. Knowledge Sharing
            1. The Collaborative Nature of Knowledge
          3. Knowledge Utilization
            1. The Telephone as a Role Model for KM Systems Design
            2. Supporting Informal Knowledge
            3. The Perils of Excessive Formalization
        5. Knowledge Management Systems and Existing Technology
          1. Differences Between a KM System and a Data Warehouse
            1. Types of Information Managed
            2. Context
            3. Size
            4. Content Focus
            5. Performance
            6. Networks
          2. Differences Between a KM System, an Intranet, and an Extranet
            1. Content Focus
            2. Performance
            3. Broader Base
            4. Productizing Knowledge
            5. Reciprocity
          3. Differences Between a KM System and GroupWare
          4. Differences From Project Management Tools
            1. Retrofitting Knowledge to Information Technology
        6. Taming the Tiger's Tail
          1. The Survival Imperative
          2. Difficulties and Coping Mechanisms for Knowledge Management
            1. Knowledge Management Is Expensive
            2. Incompatible Combinations of Technology and People
            3. Sharing Knowledge: The New Way of Thinking
            4. Knowledge Markets, Not Hierarchies
        7. Business and Knowledge
          1. How Companies Learn to Learn
        8. Knowledge-Friendly Companies
        9. Knowledge-Sharing Companies
        10. Is Your Company Ready for Knowledge Management?
        11. Lessons Learned
        12. Endnotes
    5. II. The Road Ahead: Implementing Knowledge Management
      1. 4. The 10-Step KM Roadmap
        1. The 10-Step Knowledge Management Road map
        2. Phase 1: Infrastructural Evaluation
          1. Step 1: Analysis of Existing Infrastructure
          2. Step 2: Aligning KM and Business Strategy
        3. Phase 2: Knowledge Management System Analysis, Design, and Development
          1. Step 3: Knowledge Management Architecture and Design
          2. Step 4: Knowledge Audit and Analysis
          3. Step 5: Designing the Knowledge Management Team
          4. Step 6: Creating the Knowledge Management System Blueprint
          5. Step 7: Developing the Knowledge Management System
        4. Phase 3: Deployment
          1. Step 8: Pilot Testing and Deployment Using the RDI Methodology
          2. Step 9: The CKO, Reward Structures, Technology, and Change Management
        5. Phase 4: Metrics for Performance Evaluation
          1. Step 10: Metrics for Knowledge Work
        6. Lessons Learned
    6. IIA. The First Phase: Infrastructural Evaluation and Leverage
      1. 5. The Leveraged Infrastructure
        1. The Approach: Leverage, Leverage, Leverage
        2. Leveraging the Internet
          1. Global Reach
          2. Platform Independence
        3. Enabling Technologies for the Knowledge Management Technology Framework
          1. Knowledge Flow Meta Component
            1. Collaborative Environments and GroupWare
            2. Intranets and Extranets
            3. Pointers to Expertise
          2. Information Mapping Meta Component
          3. Document Management
          4. Information Source Meta Component
            1. Project Management Tools
            2. Multimedia
          5. Information and Knowledge Exchange Meta Component
            1. Transparent Capture Enablers
            2. Web Conferencing, Water Coolers, and Telephones
            3. Mind Mapping
          6. Intelligent Agent/Network Mining Meta Component
            1. Intelligent Decision Support Systems
            2. Intelligent Agent-Based Tools
          7. Integrating Technology
        4. Knowledge Servers
        5. Lessons Learned
        6. Endnotes
      2. 6. Aligning Knowledge Management and Business Strategy
        1. From Strategic Programming to Strategic Planning
          1. Moving Beyond Fallible Data Patterns
          2. Moving Beyond SWOT Analysis
          3. Codification or Personalization?
        2. Knowledge Maps to Link Knowledge to Strategy
          1. Starting at the Top
          2. Creating a Knowledge Map
          3. Analyzing Knowledge Gaps
          4. Adding Up the Numbers
          5. Summary
        3. Strategic Imperatives for a Successful KM System
          1. Twenty-four Lessons: Critical Success Factors
            1. Lesson 1: There Is No "One Right Way"
            2. Lesson 2: Reach a Working Definition of Knowledge
            3. Lesson 3: Focus on Processes and Not Just Technology
            4. Lesson 4: Live with Vague Knowledge Measures
            5. Lesson 5: Salability Necessitates Demonstration of Short-Term Impact
            6. Lesson 6: Count in Tacit Knowledge
            7. Lesson 7: Create a Shared Context
            8. Lesson 8: Begin with What You Have
            9. Lesson 9: Accommodate Reasoning and Assumptions
            10. Lesson 10: Future Think
            11. Lesson 11: Minimize Routing Retransmissions
            12. Lesson 12: Give Incentives, Not Faster Computers
            13. Lesson 13: Allow Everyone Access, and Allow Everyone to Contribute
            14. Lesson 14: Allow Confidentiality
            15. Lesson 15: Allow Access Anytime, Anywhere
            16. Lesson 16: Update Automatically
            17. Lesson 17: Supply Resource Maps to Ease Navigation
          2. Lesson 18: Use Other Databases in Addition to Corporate Best Practices Databases
            1. Lesson 19: Provide Management Support
            2. Lesson 20: Focus on Technology and Internal Consulting Support for Collaboration
            3. Lesson 21: Support Informality
            4. Lesson 22: Remember that Less Is More—The Art of Packaging Knowledge
            5. Lesson 23: Provide Logical Business Extensions
            6. Lesson 24: Determine Your Knowledge Delivery Weltanschuung
          3. The Knowledge-Strategy Link Revisited
        4. Assessing Focus
        5. Lessons Learned
        6. Endnotes
    7. IIB. The Second Phase: KM System Analysis, Design, and Development
      1. 7. Infrastructural Foundations
        1. Technology Components of the KM Architecture
          1. Two Primary Enablers: Storage and Communications
          2. Selecting Technology
            1. Process Support
            2. Cost Versus Value-Added Technology
        2. The Seven-Layer KM System Architecture
        3. Foundation for the Interface Layer
          1. Selection Criteria for the Collaborative Platform
        4. The Web or Notes?
          1. The Vital Integrator: The World Wide Web
            1. Client Software
            2. Server Software
            3. Server Hardware
            4. Gateways
            5. GroupWare Versus Web Client Interface?
        5. Collaborative Intelligence and Filtering Layer
          1. Infrastructural Elements of Collaborative Intelligence
            1. Driving Decisions With Data
            2. Artificial Intelligence
            3. Data Warehouses
            4. Genetic Algorithm Tools
            5. Neural Networks
            6. Expert Reasoning and Rule-Based Systems
            7. Case-Based Reasoning
            8. Video Conferencing
            9. Push or Pull?
            10. Summary: Technological Fit
          2. Level of Knowledge Granularity in Objects
          3. Infrastructural Elements for Searching, Indexing, and Retrieval
            1. Meta Searching
            2. Hierarchical Searching
            3. Attribute Searching
            4. Content Searching
            5. Combining Search Strategies
          4. Tagging Knowledge Elements With Attributes
            1. Activities Attribute
            2. Domain Attribute
            3. Form Attribute
            4. Type Attribute
            5. Products and Services Attribute
            6. Time Attribute
            7. Location Attribute
          5. Push/Pull Revisited
          6. Summary
        6. Lessons Learned
        7. Endnotes
      2. 8. Knowledge Audit and Analysis
        1. Hindsight + Insight = Foresight
          1. Why Audit Knowledge?
        2. Measuring Knowledge Growth
          1. The Road From Art to Science
          2. Making Coffee: A Knowledge-Based Example
            1. Stage 0: Total Ignorance
            2. Stage 1: You Can Tell Good From Bad Coffee
            3. Stage 2: You Have Created a List of Variables
            4. Stage 3: You Can Determine the Significance of Variables
            5. Stage 4: You Can Now Measure Variables
            6. Stage 5: Repeatable Methodology or Recipe
            7. Stage 6: Repeatable Methodology + Localized Adaptability
            8. Stage 7: A Formal or Informal Model
            9. Stage 8: Perfect Knowledge
        3. The Knowledge Audit Team
          1. Planning a Knowledge Audit
          2. Conducting the Knowledge Audit
          3. Defining the Goals
            1. Constraint-Based Pruning
          4. Determining the Ideal State
          5. Selecting the Audit Method
          6. Documenting Knowledge Assets
          7. Analyzing the Populated Capability Quadrants
        4. Choosing Your Company's K-Spots
          1. Strategic Positioning Within the Technology Framework
          2. The Four Positioning Choices
            1. Strategic Position A
            2. Strategic Position B
            3. Strategic Position C
            4. Strategic Position D
        5. Lessons Learned
        6. Endnotes
      3. 9. Designing the KM Team
        1. Sources of Expertise
          1. Local Experts and Intradepartmental Gurus
          2. Internal IT Departments
          3. Nonlocal Experts and Extradepartmental Gurus
          4. Consultants
          5. Managers
        2. Team Composition and Selection Criteria
          1. Temporary Versus Permanent Team Members
        3. Team Life Span and Sizing Issues
        4. The Knowledge Management Project Leader
          1. Internal Dynamics
          2. Translation and Delegation
          3. User Participation
            1. Prototypes: A Stitch in Time Saves Nine
        5. The KM Team's Project Space
          1. Managing Stakeholder Expectations
          2. Team Constitution Validity: Summarizing the Process
        6. Points of Failure
          1. The Breakpoint: Buy-In Failure
          2. Categorizing Risks
          3. Controlling and Balancing Requirements
          4. Solving User Buy-In Problems
        7. Lessons Learned
        8. Endnotes
      4. 10. Creating the KM System Blueprint
        1. Analyzing Lost Opportunities
        2. The Knowledge Management Architecture
        3. Components of a Knowledge Management System
          1. The Knowledge Repository
            1. The Evils of Integrative Repositories
            2. Content Centers
            3. Open and Distributed
            4. Knowledge Aggregation and Mining
            5. From Skills Databases to Knowledge Directories
            6. Automated Categorization
            7. Personalized Content Filtering and Push Delivery
          2. The Collaborative Platform
            1. Collaborative Filtering
            2. Community-Centered Collaborative Filtering
            3. Meta Knowledge
            4. Accommodating Multiple Degrees of Context
            5. Technology Choices
        4. Designing Integrative and Interactive Knowledge Applications
          1. Integrative Application Support
            1. Knowledge Flow Models: Centripetality and Centrifugality
          2. The Interactive Application Component
          3. The Fit Into Overall Architecture
        5. Build or Buy?
          1. Interoperability Considerations
          2. Performance and Scalability
        6. User Interface Design Considerations
        7. A Network View of the KM Architecture
        8. Future-Proofing the Knowledge Management System
        9. Lessons Learned
        10. Endnotes
      5. 11. Developing the KM System
        1. The Building Blocks: Seven Layers
        2. The Interface Layer
          1. Channels for Tacit and Explicit Knowledge
          2. Contextual Expression at the Interface
          3. Platform Independence
          4. Learning From Intranets
          5. Optimizing Video Content
          6. Universal Authorship
          7. A Walkthrough: Urban Motors
            1. The Opening Page
            2. Search Mechanisms
            3. People and Pointers
            4. Thesauri
            5. Places
            6. Documents
            7. Licenses
          8. Document Management through the Interface Layer
            1. Applying DMA Standards
          9. Complementing DMA with WebDAV
            1. Events
            2. Reference
            3. Services and Links
            4. Customizability
        3. The Access and Authentication Layer
          1. Virtual Private Networks
          2. Standards and Protocols for Expansive Networks
          3. Biometrics and Other Forms of Authentication
        4. The Collaborative Filtering and Intelligence Layer
          1. From Static to Dynamic Structures
            1. Virtual Folders
            2. Automatic Full Text Indexing
            3. Automatic Meta Tagging
          2. From Client/Server to Agent/Computing
            1. Benefits of Agent Mobility
            2. Mobile Agents for Knowledge Management
            3. Agents and Push Models for Knowledge Delivery
        5. The Application Layer
        6. The Transport Layer
        7. The Middleware and Legacy Integration Layer
        8. The Repositories Layer
        9. Lessons Learned
        10. Endnotes
    8. IIC. The Third Phase: KMS Deployment
      1. 12. Prototyping and Deployment
        1. Moving From Firefighting to Systems Deployment?
        2. Prototyping
          1. Pilot Deployments
            1. Selecting a Pilot Project
          2. Lessons From Data Warehouses
        3. Pre-RDI Deployment Methods
          1. The Information Packaging Methodology
          2. The Big-Bang Approach to Deployment
          3. Enterprise Integration: Boon or Bane?
        4. The Results Driven Incremental Methodology
          1. Steps Involved in the RDI Methodology
          2. Business Releases
            1. The Traps in Selecting the Release Sequence
            2. Process Divisibility and RDI Releases
          3. RDI's Role in Tool and Task Reinvention
            1. Cross-Functional Synergy
            2. Functional Complexity
            3. Avoiding Overengineering
            4. Developing Clear Communication Processes
            5. Human Barriers in Technology Design
            6. One Infinite Loop
        5. Lessons Learned
        6. Endnotes
      2. 13. The CKO and Reward Structures
        1. From the CIO to the CKO
          1. Knowledge Management Leadership Roles
            1. The CKO's Job Description
            2. The CKO as Organizational Glue
            3. Initiatives and the CKO
        2. The Successful CKO
          1. History
        3. Reward Structures to Ensure Knowledge Management Success
        4. Lessons Learned
        5. Endnotes
    9. IID. The Final Phase and Beyond: Measuring ROI and Performance
      1. 14. Metrics for Knowledge Work
        1. Traditional Metrics
          1. Financial ROI and Tobin's q
          2. Total Cost of Ownership
          3. Learning More From the Telephone
          4. The Metric Is the Limitation
        2. Common Pitfalls in Choosing Metrics
          1. Using Too Many Metrics
          2. Delayed and Risky Reward Ties
          3. Choosing Metrics That Are Hard to Control
          4. Choosing Metrics That Are Hard to Focus On
          5. Choosing Metrics That Emphasize Hard Results and Neglect the "Soft Stuff"
          6. Choosing Metrics That Are Too Rear-View Oriented
          7. Measuring the Wrong Things
            1. All the Right Things Not Measured
        3. Three Ways to Measure
          1. Benchmarking
            1. The Wise Learn Many Things from Their Enemies
            2. Benchmark Targets
          2. The Benchmarking Process
          3. Benchmark Lessons
          4. House of Quality and Quality Function Deployment
            1. House of Quality Metrics Matrix
            2. Software Tools for QFD Analysis
          5. The Balanced Scorecard Technique
            1. Advantages of KM Balanced Scorecards
            2. Limitations of KM Balanced Scorecards
        4. Classifying and Evaluating Processes
        5. Alternative Metrics
          1. The Skandia Method
          2. The FASB Method
        6. Lessons Learned
        7. Endnotes
      2. 15. Case Studies
        1. Some Background
          1. Process Distribution in High-Performance KM Projects
        2. Knowledge Management in the Aerospace Industry: The Case of Rolls Royce
          1. The Problem
          2. Problem Scope
          3. Knowledge Management Project Goals
          4. Measurement
        3. Knowledge Management in Sales and Marketing: The Case of Platinum Technology
          1. The Problem
          2. The System
          3. Development Stages
          4. Measurement
        4. KM in Customer Support: The Case of Nortel
          1. Issues
          2. The Three Phases of Organizing Knowledge
        5. KM in the Semiconductor Industry: GaSonics International
          1. The Starting Point: Technical Publications
        6. The Goal: Three Months to Target
        7. KM Pilot Case: Monsanto Nutrition and Consumer Products
          1. KM to Build Economies of Reuse: The Case of Texas Instruments
        8. Lessons Learned
    10. III. Side Roads: Appendices
      1. A. The Knowledge Management Assessment Kit
        1. The 10-Step Populated Roadmap
        2. Phase 1: Infrastructural Evaluation
          1. Analyzing Knowledge Management and Your Business Strategy
            1. Your Business and Your Competition
          2. Initial Assessment of KM and Your Business
            1. Choosing a KM Focus
            2. Identifying and Assessing Key Resources
            3. Assessing Core Processes
        3. Phase 2: Analysis, Design, and Development
          1. Tags and Attributes
            1. Identifying Activities Attributes
            2. Identifying Domain Attributes
            3. Form Attribute
            4. Type Attribute
            5. Products and Services Attribute
            6. Time Attribute
            7. Location Attribute
          2. Deployment
            1. RDI Methodology Checklists
            2. Releases
        4. Putting It All Together
      2. B. Alternative Schemes for Structuring the KM System Front End
        1. Alternative Structures
          1. Alphabetical
          2. Alphanumeric
          3. Dewey Decimal Codes
          4. Classification Schemes for Public Libraries
          5. Universal Decimal Classification
          6. ACM Computing Classification System
          7. The Library of Congress Classification Scheme
          8. Predicast Revised Event Codes
          9. Can These Really Be Used?
      3. C. Software Tools
        1. Software Tools
          1. acCrawl
          2. acSGML
          3. Alpha StockVue 99
          4. Ascent
          5. BrainForest Professional for PalmPilot PDAs
          6. BusinessVue 2.0
          7. CBR Content Navigator
          8. Concept Explorer
          9. DataWare Knowledge Management Suite
          10. DeltaMiner
          11. Email Ferret
          12. Employee Appraiser 4.0
          13. File, Phone, and News Ferrets
          14. G2 WebMiner
          15. HyperKnowledge
          16. Hyperwave
          17. Info Ferret
          18. Inspiration Professional
          19. Intranetics
          20. KA2 Knowledge Agents
          21. KeyFlow
          22. KnowledgeSEEKER
          23. MarketFirst
          24. Microsoft FrontPage 2000
          25. Microsoft Project
          26. Mind Manager
          27. MIS Alea
          28. MIS InterfaceBuilder
          29. Opentext Livelink
          30. PalmPilot AportisDoc
          31. PalmPilot BrainForest Mobile Edition
          32. PalmPilot Datebk3
          33. Performance Now
          34. Perspecta
          35. Profiler
          36. Remote Control Toolbar
          37. RetrievalWare
          38. SemioMap
          39. SmartDraw
          40. SolutionSeries
          41. ThoughtFlow
          42. Web-Enabled ART* Enterprise
          43. Web Ferret
      4. D. Resources on the Web
        1. Knowledge Management: Web Pointers
        2. Intellectually Rich Companies
      5. SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY
        1. Bibliographic References and Further Reading
          1. Bibliography
      6. Glossary