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JUNOS Cookbook

Book Description

The Juniper Networks routing platforms are becoming the go-tosolution for core, edge, metro and remote office networks, andJUNOS software is behind it all. The operating system is so full ofindustrial-strength routing protocols and IP innovations that thosetreading into the world of JUNOS will need clarification,explanation, and a showcase example or two. Look no further. ThisJUNOS Cookbook provides it all and more.

Yes, you can mine through the 5,000 pages of documentation ortake a two-thousand-dollar training course, but JUNOS'sinterprocess sophistication can be baffling unless you know theshortcuts and tricks, as well as those rays of illuminatingcomprehension that can come only from those who live with it.JUNOS Cookbook is the first comprehensive book about JUNOSsoftware and it provides over 200 time-saving step-by-steptechniques including discussions about the processes andalternative ways to perform the same task. It's been tested andtech-reviewed by field engineers who know how to take JUNOS out fora spin and it's applicable to the entire line of M-, T-, andJ-series routers. JUNOS Cookbook will not only pay foritself the first few times you use it, it will make your networkeasier to manage and update.

"Aviva Garrett has done a tremendous job of distilling the featuresof JUNOS software in a form that will be useful for a wideaudience-students, field engineers, network architects, and othernetworking professionals alike will benefit from this book. Formany people, this is the only book on JUNOS they will need."Pradeep Sindhu, CTO and Founder, Juniper Networks

"This cookbook is superb. Aviva Garrett has masterfullyassembled a complete set of practical real-world examples withstep-by-step instructions. Security, management, routing: it's allhere!" Stephen Gill, Research Fellow, Team Cymru

"A technical time-saver for any NOC or SOC working with JUNOS.It's clear, concise, and informative recipes are are an invaluableresource. " Scott A. McIntyre, Security Officer, XS4ALL InternetB.V

Table of Contents

  1. JUNOS Cookbook
    1. SPECIAL OFFER: Upgrade this ebook with O’Reilly
    2. Foreword
    3. Preface
      1. Organization
      2. What's in This Book
      3. Conventions
      4. Comments and Questions
      5. Safari® Enabled
      6. Acknowledgments
    4. 1. Router Configuration and File Management
      1. Introduction
        1. JUNOS CLI Modes
        2. Learning About the CLI While on the Router
        3. How We Show Commands and Configurations in This Book
      2. 1.1. Configuring the Router for the First Time
        1. Problem
        2. Solution
        3. Discussion
        4. See Also
      3. 1.2. Configuring the Router from the CLI
        1. Problem
        2. Solution
        3. Discussion
        4. See Also
      4. 1.3. Getting Exclusive Access to Configure the Router
        1. Problem
        2. Solution
        3. Discussion
      5. 1.4. Displaying the Commands to Recreate a Configuration
        1. Problem
        2. Solution
        3. Discussion
        4. See Also
      6. 1.5. Including Comments in the Configuration
        1. Problem
        2. Solution
        3. Discussion
      7. 1.6. Checking the Syntax of the Configuration
        1. Problem
        2. Solution
        3. Discussion
      8. 1.7. Activating the Router Configuration
        1. Problem
        2. Solution
        3. Discussion
        4. See Also
      9. 1.8. Debugging a Failed Commit
        1. Problem
        2. Solution
        3. Discussion
      10. 1.9. Exiting Configuration Mode
        1. Problem
        2. Solution
        3. Discussion
        4. See Also
      11. 1.10. Keeping a Record of Configuration Changes
        1. Problem
        2. Solution
        3. Discussion
        4. See Also
      12. 1.11. Determining What Changes You Have Made to the Configuration
        1. Problem
        2. Solution
        3. Discussion
        4. See Also
      13. 1.12. Configuring the Router by Copying a File from a Server
        1. Problem
        2. Solution
        3. Discussion
      14. 1.13. Configuring the Router by Copying Text from a Terminal Window
        1. Problem
        2. Solution
        3. Discussion
      15. 1.14. Backing Up the Router's Configuration
        1. Problem
        2. Solution
        3. Discussion
        4. See Also
      16. 1.15. Scheduling the Activation of a Configuration
        1. Problem
        2. Solution
        3. Discussion
      17. 1.16. Provisionally Activating a Configuration
        1. Problem
        2. Solution
        3. Discussion
      18. 1.17. Loading a Previous Router Configuration
        1. Problem
        2. Solution
        3. Discussion
        4. See Also
      19. 1.18. Creating an Emergency Rescue Configuration
        1. Problem
        2. Solution
        3. Discussion
        4. See Also
      20. 1.19. Backing Up Filesystems on M-Series and T-Series Routers
        1. Problem
        2. Solution
        3. Discussion
        4. See Also
      21. 1.20. Backing Up Filesystems on J-Series Routers
        1. Problem
        2. Solution
        3. Discussion
        4. See Also
      22. 1.21. Restoring a Backed-Up Filesystem
        1. Problem
        2. Solution
        3. Discussion
        4. See Also
      23. 1.22. Installing a Different Software Release on M-Series and T-Series Routers
        1. Problem
        2. Solution
        3. Discussion
        4. See Also
      24. 1.23. Installing a Different Software Release on J-Series Routers
        1. Problem
        2. Solution
        3. Discussion
        4. See Also
      25. 1.24. Creating an Emergency Boot Disk
        1. Problem
        2. Solution
        3. Discussion
        4. See Also
      26. 1.25. Gathering Software Version Information
        1. Problem
        2. Solution
        3. Discussion
        4. See Also
      27. 1.26. Gathering Hardware Inventory Information
        1. Problem
        2. Solution
        3. Discussion
        4. See Also
      28. 1.27. Finding Out How Long the Router Has Been Up
        1. Problem
        2. Solution
        3. Discussion
        4. See Also
      29. 1.28. Gathering Information Before Contacting Support
        1. Problem
        2. Solution
        3. Discussion
        4. See Also
      30. 1.29. Managing Routers with Similar Configurations
        1. Problem
        2. Solution
        3. Discussion
        4. See Also
      31. 1.30. Managing Redundant Routing Engines
        1. Problem
        2. Solution
        3. Discussion
        4. See Also
      32. 1.31. Using the Second Routing Engine to Upgrade to a New Software Version
        1. Problem
        2. Solution
        3. Discussion
        4. See Also
    5. 2. Basic Router Security and Access Control
      1. Introduction
        1. Strategies for Choosing Passwords
        2. User Authentication
        3. Password Encryption
      2. 2.1. Allowing Access to the Router
        1. Problem
        2. Solution
        3. Discussion
        4. See Also
      3. 2.2. Controlling Root Authentication
        1. Problem
        2. Solution
        3. Discussion
        4. See Also
      4. 2.3. Logging In to the Router's Console
        1. Problem
        2. Solution
        3. Discussion
      5. 2.4. Setting the Login Authentication Methods
        1. Problem
        2. Solution
        3. Discussion
        4. See Also
      6. 2.5. Setting Up Login Accounts on the Router
        1. Problem
        2. Solution
        3. Discussion
        4. See Also
      7. 2.6. Changing the Format of Plain-Text Passwords
        1. Problem
        2. Solution
        3. Discussion
        4. See Also
      8. 2.7. Changing the Plain-Text Password Encryption Method
        1. Problem
        2. Solution
        3. Discussion
        4. See Also
      9. 2.8. Creating a Login Account for Remote Authentication
        1. Problem
        2. Solution
        3. Discussion
        4. See Also
      10. 2.9. Creating a Group Login Account
        1. Problem
        2. Solution
        3. Discussion
        4. See Also
      11. 2.10. Customizing Account Privileges
        1. Problem
        2. Solution
        3. Discussion
      12. 2.11. Creating a Privilege Class that Hides Encrypted Passwords
        1. Problem
        2. Solution
        3. Discussion
      13. 2.12. Setting Up RADIUS User Authentication
        1. Problem
        2. Solution
        3. Discussion
        4. See Also
      14. 2.13. Setting Up TACACS+ User Authentication
        1. Problem
        2. Solution
        3. Discussion
      15. 2.14. Restricting Inbound SSH and Telnet Access
        1. Problem
        2. Solution
        3. Discussion
        4. See Also
      16. 2.15. Setting the Source Address for Telnet Connections
        1. Problem
        2. Solution
        3. Discussion
        4. See Also
      17. 2.16. Creating a Login Banner
        1. Problem
        2. Solution
        3. Discussion
      18. 2.17. Finding Out Who Is Logged In to the Router
        1. Problem
        2. Solution
        3. Discussion
        4. See Also
      19. 2.18. Logging Out of the Router
        1. Problem
        2. Solution
        3. Discussion
      20. 2.19. Forcibly Logging a User Out
        1. Problem
        2. Solution
        3. Discussion
    6. 3. IPSec
      1. Introduction
      2. 3.1. Configuring IPSec
        1. Problem
        2. Solution
        3. Discussion
      3. 3.2. Configuring IPSec Dynamic SAs
        1. Problem
        2. Solution
        3. Discussion
      4. 3.3. Creating IPSec Dynamic SAs on J-Series Routers or Routers with AS PICs
        1. Problem
        2. Solution
        3. Discussion
      5. 3.4. Using Digital Certificates to Create Dynamic IPSec SAs
        1. Problem
        2. Solution
        3. Discussion
    7. 4. SNMP
      1. Introduction
        1. SNMP Management Model
        2. MIBs and OIDs
        3. SNMP Security
      2. 4.1. Configuring SNMP
        1. Problem
        2. Solution
        3. Discussion
      3. 4.2. Setting Router Information for the MIB-II System Group
        1. Problem
        2. Solution
        3. Discussion
        4. See Also
      4. 4.3. Setting Up SNMP Traps
        1. Problem
        2. Solution
        3. Discussion
      5. 4.4. Controlling SNMP Access to the Router
        1. Problem
        2. Solution
        3. Discussion
        4. See Also
      6. 4.5. Using a Firewall Filter to Protect SNMP Access
        1. Problem
        2. Solution
        3. Discussion
        4. See Also
      7. 4.6. Controlling Access to Router MIBs
        1. Problem
        2. Solution
        3. Discussion
      8. 4.7. Extracting Software Inventory Information with SNMP
        1. Problem
        2. Solution
        3. Discussion
        4. See Also
      9. 4.8. Extracting Hardware Inventory Information with SNMP
        1. Problem
        2. Solution
        3. Discussion
      10. 4.9. Collecting Router Operational Information with SNMP
        1. Problem
        2. Solution
        3. Discussion
      11. 4.10. Logging SNMP Access to the Router
        1. Problem
        2. Solution
        3. Discussion
        4. See Also
      12. 4.11. Logging Enterprise-Specific Traps
        1. Problem
        2. Solution
        3. Discussion
        4. See Also
      13. 4.12. Using RMON Traps to Monitor the Router's Temperature
        1. Problem
        2. Solution
        3. Discussion
        4. See Also
      14. 4.13. Configuring SNMPv3
        1. Problem
        2. Solution
        3. Discussion
      15. 4.14. Tracking Router Configuration Changes
        1. Problem
        2. Solution
        3. Discussion
      16. 4.15. Setting Up SNMPv3 Traps
        1. Problem
        2. Solution
        3. Discussion
    8. 5. Logging
      1. Introduction
      2. 5.1. Turning On Logging
        1. Problem
        2. Solution
        3. Discussion
        4. See Also
      3. 5.2. Limiting the Messages Collected
        1. Problem
        2. Solution
        3. Discussion
      4. 5.3. Including the Facility and Severity in Messages
        1. Problem
        2. Solution
        3. Discussion
      5. 5.4. Changing the Size of a Logging File
        1. Problem
        2. Solution
        3. Discussion
      6. 5.5. Clearing the Router's Logfiles
        1. Problem
        2. Solution
        3. Discussion
      7. 5.6. Sending Log Messages to Your Screen
        1. Problem
        2. Solution
        3. Discussion
      8. 5.7. Sending Logging Messages to a Log Server
        1. Problem
        2. Solution
        3. Discussion
      9. 5.8. Saving Logging Messages to the Other Routing Engine
        1. Problem
        2. Solution
        3. Discussion
        4. See Also
      10. 5.9. Turning Off Logging
        1. Problem
        2. Solution
        3. Discussion
      11. 5.10. Turning On Basic Tracing
        1. Problem
        2. Solution
        3. Discussion
      12. 5.11. Monitoring Interface Traffic
        1. Problem
        2. Solution
        3. Discussion
    9. 6. NTP
      1. Introduction
      2. 6.1. Setting the Date and Time on the Router Manually
        1. Problem
        2. Solution
        3. Discussion
      3. 6.2. Setting the Time Zone
        1. Problem
        2. Solution
        3. Discussion
      4. 6.3. Synchronizing Time When the Router Boots
        1. Problem
        2. Solution
        3. Discussion
        4. See Also
      5. 6.4. Synchronizing Time Periodically
        1. Problem
        2. Solution
        3. Discussion
      6. 6.5. Authenticating NTP
        1. Problem
        2. Solution
        3. Discussion
      7. 6.6. Checking NTP Status
        1. Problem
        2. Solution
        3. Discussion
    10. 7. Router Interfaces
      1. Introduction
      2. 7.1. Viewing Interface Status
        1. Problem
        2. Solution
        3. Discussion
        4. See Also
      3. 7.2. Viewing Traffic Statistics on an Interface
        1. Problem
        2. Solution
        3. Discussion
        4. See Also
      4. 7.3. Setting an IP Address for the Router
        1. Problem
        2. Solution
        3. Discussion
        4. See Also
      5. 7.4. Setting the Router's Source Address
        1. Problem
        2. Solution
        3. Discussion
        4. See Also
      6. 7.5. Configuring an IPv4 Address on an Interface
        1. Problem
        2. Solution
        3. Discussion
        4. See Also
      7. 7.6. Configuring an IPv6 Address on an Interface
        1. Problem
        2. Solution
        3. Discussion
        4. See Also
      8. 7.7. Configuring an ISO Address on an Interface
        1. Problem
        2. Solution
        3. Discussion
        4. See Also
      9. 7.8. Creating an MPLS Protocol Family on a Logical Interface
        1. Problem
        2. Solution
        3. Discussion
        4. See Also
      10. 7.9. Configuring an Interface Description
        1. Problem
        2. Solution
        3. Discussion
      11. 7.10. Choosing Primary and Preferred Interface Addresses
        1. Problem
        2. Solution
        3. Discussion
      12. 7.11. Using the Management Interface
        1. Problem
        2. Solution
        3. Discussion
      13. 7.12. Finding Out What IP Addresses Are Used on the Router
        1. Problem
        2. Solution
        3. Discussion
        4. See Also
      14. 7.13. Configuring Ethernet Interfaces
        1. Problem
        2. Solution
        3. Discussion
      15. 7.14. Using VRRP on Ethernet Interfaces
        1. Problem
        2. Solution
        3. Discussion
      16. 7.15. Connecting to an Ethernet Switch
        1. Problem
        2. Solution
        3. Discussion
      17. 7.16. Configuring T1 Interfaces
        1. Problem
        2. Solution
        3. Discussion
      18. 7.17. Performing a Loopback Test on a T1 Interface
        1. Problem
        2. Solution
        3. Discussion
      19. 7.18. Setting Up a BERT Test on a T1 Interface
        1. Problem
        2. Solution
        3. Discussion
      20. 7.19. Configuring Frame Relay on a T1 Interface
        1. Problem
        2. Solution
        3. Discussion
      21. 7.20. Configuring a SONET Interface
        1. Problem
        2. Solution
        3. Discussion
      22. 7.21. Using APS to Protect Against SONET Circuit Failures
        1. Problem
        2. Solution
        3. Discussion
        4. See Also
      23. 7.22. Configuring an ATM Interface
        1. Problem
        2. Solution
        3. Discussion
      24. 7.23. Dealing with Nonconfigurable Interfaces
        1. Problem
        2. Solution
        3. Description
      25. 7.24. Configuring Interfaces Before the PICs Are Installed
        1. Problem
        2. Solution
        3. Discussion
    11. 8. IP Routing
      1. Introduction
        1. IPv4 and IPv6 Addresses
        2. Default Route Preferences
        3. Selecting Active Routes
      2. 8.1. Viewing the Routes in the Routing Table
        1. Problem
        2. Solution
        3. Discussion
        4. See Also
      3. 8.2. Viewing Routes to a Particular Prefix
        1. Problem
        2. Solution
        3. Discussion
        4. See Also
      4. 8.3. Viewing Routes Learned from a Specific Protocol
        1. Problem
        2. Solution
        3. Discussion
      5. 8.4. Displaying the Routes in the Forwarding Table
        1. Problem
        2. Solution
        3. Discussion
      6. 8.5. Creating Static Routes
        1. Problem
        2. Solution
        3. Discussion
        4. See Also
      7. 8.6. Blackholing Routes
        1. Problem
        2. Solution
        3. Discussion
        4. See Also
      8. 8.7. Filtering Traffic Using Unicast Reverse-Path Forwarding
        1. Problem
        2. Solution
        3. Discussion
        4. See Also
      9. 8.8. Aggregating Routes
        1. Problem
        2. Solution
        3. Discussion
      10. 8.9. Load-Balancing Traffic Flows
        1. Problem
        2. Solution
        3. Discussion
        4. See Also
      11. 8.10. Adding Martian Addresses
        1. Problem
        2. Solution
        3. Discussion
        4. See Also
      12. 8.11. Changing Route Preferences to Migrate to Another IGP
        1. Problem
        2. Solution
        3. Discussion
        4. See Also
      13. 8.12. Configuring Routing Protocols to Restart Without Losing Adjacencies
        1. Problem
        2. Solution
        3. Discussion
        4. See Also
    12. 9. Routing Policy and Firewall Filters
      1. Introduction
        1. Defining Policies and Filters
        2. Applying Policies and Filters
      2. 9.1. Creating a Simple Routing Policy
        1. Problem
        2. Solution
        3. Discussion
        4. See Also
      3. 9.2. Changing a Route's Routing Information
        1. Problem
        2. Solution
        3. Discussion
      4. 9.3. Filtering Routes by IP Address
        1. Problem
        2. Solution
        3. Discussion
      5. 9.4. Filtering Long Prefixes
        1. Problem
        2. Solution
        3. Discussion
      6. 9.5. Filtering Unallocated Prefix Blocks
        1. Problem
        2. Solution
        3. Discussion
        4. See Also
      7. 9.6. Creating a Chain of Routing Policies
        1. Problem
        2. Solution
        3. Discussion
      8. 9.7. Making Sure a Routing Policy Is Functioning Properly
        1. Problem
        2. Solution
        3. Discussion
        4. See Also
      9. 9.8. Creating a Simple Firewall Filter that Matches Packet Contents
        1. Problem
        2. Solution
        3. Discussion
        4. See Also
      10. 9.9. Creating a Firewall Filter that Negates a Match
        1. Problem
        2. Solution
        3. Discussion
      11. 9.10. Reordering Firewall Terms
        1. Problem
        2. Solution
        3. Discussion
      12. 9.11. Filtering Traffic Transiting the Router
        1. Problem
        2. Solution
        3. Discussion
        4. See Also
      13. 9.12. Using a Firewall Filter to Count Traffic on an Interface
        1. Problem
        2. Solution
        3. Discussion
      14. 9.13. Logging the Traffic on an Interface
        1. Problem
        2. Solution
        3. Discussion
        4. See Also
      15. 9.14. Limiting Traffic on an Interface
        1. Problem
        2. Solution
        3. Discussion
      16. 9.15. Protecting the Local Routing Engine
        1. Problem
        2. Solution
        3. Discussion
      17. 9.16. Rate-Limiting Traffic Flow to the Routing Engine
        1. Problem
        2. Solution
        3. Discussion
      18. 9.17. Using Counters to Determine Whether a Router Is Under Attack
        1. Problem
        2. Solution
        3. Discussion
        4. See Also
    13. 10. RIP
      1. Introduction
      2. 10.1. Configuring RIP
        1. Problem
        2. Solution
        3. Discussion
        4. See Also
      3. 10.2. Having RIP Advertise Its Routes
        1. Problem
        2. Solution
        3. Discussion
        4. See Also
      4. 10.3. Configuring RIP for IPv6
        1. Problem
        2. Solution
        3. Discussion
        4. See Also
      5. 10.4. Enabling RIP Authentication
        1. Problem
        2. Solution
        3. Discussion
      6. 10.5. Routing RIP Traffic over Faster Interfaces
        1. Problem
        2. Solution
        3. Discussion
      7. 10.6. Sending Version 1 Update Messages
        1. Problem
        2. Solution
        3. Discussion
      8. 10.7. Tracing RIP Protocol Traffic
        1. Problem
        2. Solution
        3. Discussion
        4. See Also
    14. 11. IS-IS
      1. Introduction
      2. 11.1. Configuring IS-IS
        1. Problem
        2. Solution
        3. Discussion
      3. 11.2. Viewing the IS-IS Link-State Database
        1. Problem
        2. Solution
        3. Discussion
      4. 11.3. Viewing Routes Learned by IS-IS
        1. Problem
        2. Solution
        3. Discussion
        4. See Also
      5. 11.4. Configuring IS-IS for IPv6
        1. Problem
        2. Solution
        3. Discussion
        4. See Also
      6. 11.5. Configuring a Level 1–Only Router
        1. Problem
        2. Solution
        3. Discussion
      7. 11.6. Controlling DIS Election
        1. Problem
        2. Solution
        3. Discussion
      8. 11.7. Enabling IS-IS Authentication
        1. Problem
        2. Solution
        3. Discussion
      9. 11.8. Redistributing Static Routes into IS-IS
        1. Problem
        2. Solution
        3. Discussion
      10. 11.9. Leaking IS-IS Level 2 Routes into Level 1
        1. Problem
        2. Solution
        3. Discussion
      11. 11.10. Adjusting IS-IS Link Costs
        1. Problem
        2. Solution
        3. Discussion
      12. 11.11. Improving IS-IS Convergence Times
        1. Problem
        2. Solution
        3. Discussion
      13. 11.12. Moving IS-IS Traffic off a Router
        1. Problem
        2. Solution
        3. Discussion
      14. 11.13. Disabling IS-IS on an Interface
        1. Problem
        2. Solution
        3. Discussion
      15. 11.14. Tracing IS-IS Protocol Traffic
        1. Problem
        2. Solution
        3. Discussion
        4. See Also
    15. 12. OSPF
      1. Introduction
      2. 12.1. Configuring OSPF
        1. Problem
        2. Solution
        3. Discussion
      3. 12.2. Viewing Routes Learned by OSPF
        1. Problem
        2. Solution
        3. Discussion
      4. 12.3. Viewing the OSPF Link-State Database
        1. Problem
        2. Solution
        3. Discussion
      5. 12.4. Configuring OSPF for IPv6
        1. Problem
        2. Solution
        3. Discussion
        4. See Also
      6. 12.5. Configuring a Multiarea OSPF Network
        1. Problem
        2. Solution
        3. Discussion
      7. 12.6. Setting Up Stub Areas
        1. Problem
        2. Solution
        3. Discussion
      8. 12.7. Creating a Not-So-Stubby Area
        1. Problem
        2. Solution
        3. Discussion
      9. 12.8. Summarizing Routes in OSPF
        1. Problem
        2. Solution
        3. Discussion
      10. 12.9. Enabling OSPF Authentication
        1. Problem
        2. Solution
        3. Discussion
      11. 12.10. Redistributing Static Routes into OSPF
        1. Problem
        2. Solution
        3. Discussion
      12. 12.11. Adjusting OSPF Link Costs
        1. Problem
        2. Solution
        3. Discussion
      13. 12.12. Improving OSPF Convergence Times
        1. Problem
        2. Solution
        3. Discussion
      14. 12.13. Moving OSPF Traffic off a Router
        1. Problem
        2. Solution
        3. Discussion
      15. 12.14. Disabling OSPF on an Interface
        1. Problem
        2. Solution
        3. Discussion
      16. 12.15. Tracing OSPF Protocol Traffic
        1. Problem
        2. Solution
        3. Discussion
        4. See Also
    16. 13. BGP
      1. Introduction
        1. BGP Attributes
      2. 13.1. Configuring a BGP Session Between Routers in Two ASs
        1. Problem
        2. Solution
        3. Discussion
        4. See Also
      3. 13.2. Configuring BGP on Routers Within an AS
        1. Problem
        2. Solution
        3. Discussion
      4. 13.3. Diagnosing TCP Session Problems
        1. Problem
        2. Solution
        3. Discussion
        4. See Also
      5. 13.4. Adjusting the Next-Hop Attribute
        1. Problem
        2. Solution
        3. Discussion
        4. See Also
      6. 13.5. Adjusting Local Preference Values
        1. Problem
        2. Solution
        3. Discussion
        4. See Also
      7. 13.6. Removing Private AS Numbers from the AS Path
        1. Problem
        2. Solution
        3. Discussion
      8. 13.7. Prepending AS Numbers to the AS Path
        1. Problem
        2. Solution
        3. Discussion
      9. 13.8. Filtering BGP Routes Based on AS Paths
        1. Problem
        2. Solution
        3. Discussion
      10. 13.9. Restricting the Number of Routes Advertised to a BGP Peer
        1. Problem
        2. Solution
        3. Discussion
        4. See Also
      11. 13.10. Authenticating BGP Peers
        1. Problem
        2. Solution
        3. Discussion
        4. See Also
      12. 13.11. Setting Up Route Reflectors
        1. Problem
        2. Solution
        3. Discussion
        4. See Also
      13. 13.12. Mitigating Route Instabilities with Route Flap Damping
        1. Problem
        2. Solution
        3. Discussion
        4. See Also
      14. 13.13. Adding a BGP Community to Routes
        1. Problem
        2. Solution
        3. Discussion
        4. See Also
      15. 13.14. Load-Balancing BGP Traffic
        1. Problem
        2. Solution
        3. Discussion
        4. See Also
      16. 13.15. Tracing BGP Protocol Traffic
        1. Problem
        2. Solution
        3. Discussion
        4. See Also
    17. 14. MPLS
      1. Introduction
        1. LSPs
        2. MPLS Header and Labels
        3. MPLS Forwarding
        4. MPLS Routing and Forwarding Tables
        5. Signaling Protocols
        6. CSPF
      2. 14.1. Configuring LSPs Using LDP as the Signaling Protocol
        1. Problem
        2. Solution
        3. Discussion
        4. See Also
      3. 14.2. Viewing Information and LDP-Signaled LSPs in the Routing Tables
        1. Problem
        2. Solution
        3. Discussion
        4. See Also
      4. 14.3. Verifying that an LDP-Signaled LSP Is Carrying Traffic
        1. Problem
        2. Solution
        3. Discussion
      5. 14.4. Enabling LDP Authentication
        1. Problem
        2. Solution
        3. Discussion
      6. 14.5. Tracing LDP Operations
        1. Problem
        2. Solution
        3. Discussion
        4. See Also
      7. 14.6. Setting Up RSVP-Signaled LSPs
        1. Problem
        2. Solution
        3. Discussion
        4. See Also
      8. 14.7. Viewing Information About RSVP-Signaled LSPs in the Routing Tables
        1. Problem
        2. Solution
        3. Discussion
        4. See Also
      9. 14.8. Verifying Packet Labels
        1. Problem
        2. Solution
        3. Discussion
      10. 14.9. Verifying that the RSVP-Signaled LSP Is Carrying Traffic
        1. Problem
        2. Solution
        3. Discussion
      11. 14.10. Configuring RSVP Authentication
        1. Problem
        2. Solution
        3. Discussion
      12. 14.11. Protecting an LSP's Path
        1. Problem
        2. Solution
        3. Discussion
        4. See Also
      13. 14.12. Using Fast Reroute to Reduce Packet Loss Following a Link Failure
        1. Problem
        2. Solution
        3. Discussion
        4. See Also
      14. 14.13. Automatically Allocating Bandwidth
        1. Problem
        2. Solution
        3. Discussion
        4. See Also
      15. 14.14. Prioritizing LSPs
        1. Problem
        2. Solution
        3. Discussion
      16. 14.15. Allowing IGP Traffic to Use an LSP
        1. Problem
        2. Solution
        3. Discussion
      17. 14.16. Installing LSPs into the Unicast Routing Table
        1. Problem
        2. Solution
        3. Discussion
        4. See Also
      18. 14.17. Tracing RSVP Operations
        1. Problem
        2. Solution
        3. Discussion
        4. See Also
    18. 15. VPNs
      1. Introduction
        1. VPN-IPv4 Addresses
        2. Routing Tables for VPNs
      2. 15.1. Setting Up a Simple Layer 3 VPN
        1. Problem
        2. Solution
        3. Discussion
        4. See Also
      3. 15.2. Viewing the VPN Routing Tables
        1. Problem
        2. Solution
        3. Discussion
        4. See Also
      4. 15.3. Adding a VPN for a Second Customer
        1. Problem
        2. Solution
        3. Discussion
        4. See Also
    19. 16. IP Multicast
      1. Introduction
      2. 16.1. Configuring PIM-SM
        1. Problem
        2. Solution
        3. Discussion
      3. 16.2. Manually Establishing a PIM-SM RP
        1. Problem
        2. Solution
        3. Discussion
        4. See Also
      4. 16.3. Using Auto-RP to Dynamically Map RPs
        1. Problem
        2. Solution
        3. Discussion
        4. See Also
      5. 16.4. Setting Up a PIM-SM Bootstrap Router
        1. Problem
        2. Solution
        3. Discussion
        4. See Also
      6. 16.5. Filtering PIM-SM Bootstrap Messages
        1. Problem
        2. Solution
        3. Discussion
        4. See Also
      7. 16.6. Configuring Multiple RPs in a PIM-SM Domain with Anycast RP
        1. Problem
        2. Solution
        3. Discussion
        4. See Also
      8. 16.7. Configuring Multiple RPs in a PIM-SM Domain Anycast PIM
        1. Problem
        2. Solution
        3. Discussion
        4. See Also
      9. 16.8. Limiting the Group Ranges an RP Services
        1. Problem
        2. Solution
        3. Discussion
      10. 16.9. Viewing Multicast Routes
        1. Problem
        2. Solution
        3. Discussion
      11. 16.10. Checking the Groups for Which a PIM-SM Router Maintains Join State
        1. Problem
        2. Solution
        3. Discussion
        4. See Also
      12. 16.11. Manually Configuring IGMP
        1. Problem
        2. Solution
        3. Discussion
      13. 16.12. Using SSM
        1. Problem
        2. Solution
        3. Discussion
        4. See Also
      14. 16.13. Connecting PIM-SM Domains Using MSDP and MBGP
        1. Problem
        2. Solution
        3. Discussion
        4. See Also
      15. 16.14. Configuring PIM-DM
        1. Problem
        2. Solution
        3. Discussion
      16. 16.15. Tracing PIM Packets
        1. Problem
        2. Solution
        3. Discussion
        4. See Also
    20. About the Author
    21. Colophon
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