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Juniper Networks® Reference Guide: JUNOS™ Routing, Configuration, and Architecture

Book Description

Juniper Networks® Reference Guide is the ideal implementation guide to the Juniper Networks® family of Internet routers and the network operating system JUNOS™. With concise explanations of internetworking theory and detailed examples, this book teaches readers how to configure, deploy, and maintain their Juniper Networks routing solutions. Experienced JUNOS engineers will benefit from the tested configuration examples, which they can apply to their own networks. Those new to the JUNOS Internet software will find everything they need to pass the Juniper Networks JNCIS™ certification exam.

Essential topics covered include:

  • An introduction to the core technologies of Juniper Networks, including their role in Carrier Class routing

  • System configuration, from the installation of a Juniper Networks router to the functional inclusion of network management and security

  • Interface and routing protocol configurations, including internal routing protocols such as OSPF and IS-IS, as well as extensive discussions of external routing protocols like BGP

  • Explorations of advanced router operation and configuration, covering routing policies, MPLS, VPNs, and multicast

Juniper Networks® Reference Guide also contains information about the entire range of products and technologies behind key Internet building block technologies, giving readers an inside look not found in other books. Whether you are studying to become a JNCIE, need to maintain a multivendor routing solution, or are simply curious about Cisco System's competitor, this book is your key to the world of Juniper Networks.



0201775921B09262002

Table of Contents

  1. Copyright
  2. Preface
    1. Intended Audience
    2. Organization of This Book
    3. How to Use This Book
  3. Acknowledgments
    1. Thomas M. Thomas II
    2. Doris Pavlichek
    3. Larry Dwyer
    4. Rajah Chowbay
    5. Wayne Downing
    6. James Sonderegger
  4. 1. Juniper Networks from the Internet to the Classroom
    1. 1.1. The Growth of the Internet
      1. 1.1.1. Use of the Internet—Commercial and Noncommercial
      2. 1.1.2. Internet and Router Architectures
        1. 1.1.2.1. Past Architectures
        2. 1.1.2.2. IntServ
        3. 1.1.2.3. Next-Generation Platforms and Architectures
    2. 1.2. Juniper Networks M-Series
      1. 1.2.1. Introducing the M40—September 16, 1998
      2. 1.2.2. Juniper Networks Market Segments
        1. 1.2.2.1. Core
        2. 1.2.2.2. Edge
        3. 1.2.2.3. Mobile
      3. 1.2.3. M-Series Models
        1. 1.2.3.1. M40
        2. 1.2.3.2. M20
        3. 1.2.3.3. M160
        4. 1.2.3.4. M5 and M10
        5. 1.2.3.5. M40e
      4. 1.2.4. Beyond the M-Series
        1. 1.2.4.1. G10
        2. 1.2.4.2. J20/AXB 250 06 GGSN
    3. 1.3. Juniper Networks Education Services
      1. 1.3.1. Course Descriptions
        1. 1.3.1.1. Introduction to Juniper Networks Routers 1
        2. 1.3.1.2. Introduction to Juniper Networks Routers 2
        3. 1.3.1.3. Advanced MPLS
        4. 1.3.1.4. Advanced VPN Workshop
      2. 1.3.2. Juniper Networks Knowledge Centers
      3. 1.3.3. Authorized Education Centers
    4. 1.4. Technical Certification Program
      1. 1.4.1. JNCIS
      2. 1.4.2. JNCIE
      3. 1.4.3. Studying for Juniper Networks Certification
        1. 1.4.3.1. Certification Preparation Guide
        2. 1.4.3.2. Recommended Reading
        3. 1.4.3.3. Solutions and Technology Resource Center
    5. 1.5. Chapter Summary
    6. Bibliography
  5. 2. Networking Primer
    1. 2.1. Overview of the OSI Model
      1. 2.1.1. OSI Layers and Functions
      2. 2.1.2. IP Suite
      3. 2.1.3. Encapsulation at the Lower Layers
      4. 2.1.4. Network Devices
        1. Bridges and Switches
      5. 2.1.5. Routers
    2. 2.2. Transmission Technologies
      1. 2.2.1. LAN Protocols
        1. 2.2.1.1. The Standard: Ethernet
        2. 2.2.1.2. Fast Ethernet
        3. 2.2.1.3. Gigabit Ethernet
      2. 2.2.2. WAN Protocols
        1. 2.2.2.1. WAN Technologies
        2. 2.2.2.2. DS Hierarchy
        3. 2.2.2.3. Frame Relay
        4. 2.2.2.4. SONET/SDH
        5. 2.2.2.5. Dense Wave Division Multiplexing
        6. 2.2.2.6. HDLC
        7. 2.2.2.7. PPP
        8. 2.2.2.8. ATM
        9. 2.2.2.9. Virtual Paths and Channels
        10. 2.2.2.10. The Cell
        11. 2.2.2.11. CCCs
        12. 2.2.2.12. MPLS
      3. 2.2.3. IP
        1. 2.2.3.1. IP Addressing and Binary Conversion
        2. 2.2.3.2. Network Masks and Subnet Masks
        3. 2.2.3.3. Subnetting
        4. 2.2.3.4. Aggregation
        5. 2.2.3.5. The IP Packet
        6. 2.2.3.6. TCP Versus UDP
        7. 2.2.3.7. Multicast
    3. 2.3. Chapter Summary
    4. Bibliography
  6. 3. Juniper Networks Router Architecture
    1. 3.1. Juniper Networks Router Models
      1. 3.1.1. M5 and M10
      2. 3.1.2. M20
      3. 3.1.3. M40
      4. 3.1.4. M40e
      5. 3.1.5. M160
      6. 3.1.6. G10
    2. 3.2. Architecture Overview
      1. 3.2.1. Routing Engine
        1. 3.2.1.1. Function of the Routing Engine
        2. 3.2.1.2. JUNOS
        3. 3.2.1.3. Routing Engine Specifications
        4. The M160 Miscellaneous Control Subsystem
        5. 3.2.1.4. The Craft Interface
        6. 3.2.1.5. Redundancy and Maintenance Options
      2. 3.2.2. Packet Forwarding Engine (PFE)
        1. 3.2.2.1. Design and Operation
        2. PFE Processes
        3. ASICs
        4. Packet Flow
        5. 3.2.2.2. Model Differences in Control Boards
        6. M5 and M10 FEB
        7. M20 SSB
        8. M40 System Control Board
        9. M160 Switching and Forwarding Module
      3. 3.2.3. PFE Clock Generator
    3. 3.3. Management and Traffic Interfaces
    4. 3.4. Cooling Systems
      1. 3.4.1. M5 and M10
      2. 3.4.2. M20
      3. 3.4.3. M40
      4. 3.4.4. M160
    5. 3.5. Router Power-up and Boot Process
      1. 3.5.1. Configuring the Router
    6. 3.6. JUNOS Software Upgrade Procedure
      1. 3.6.1. Downloading the Software
      2. 3.6.2. Backing Up the System
      3. 3.6.3. Copying the Package(s) to the Router
      4. 3.6.4. Adding the Package(s)
      5. 3.6.5. Finishing the Upgrade
    7. 3.7. JUNOScript
    8. 3.8. Chapter Summary
    9. Bibliography
  7. 4. The Command Line Interface
    1. 4.1. Operational Mode
    2. 4.2. Entering and Exiting Operational Mode
    3. 4.3. Operational-Mode Commands
    4. 4.4. set CLI Command
      1. 4.4.1. set CLI complete-on-space
      2. 4.4.2. set CLI idle-timeout
      3. 4.4.3. set CLI prompt
      4. 4.4.4. set CLI restart-on-upgrade
      5. 4.4.5. set CLI screen-length and screen-width
      6. 4.4.6. set CLI terminal
      7. 4.4.7. set date
    5. 4.5. Navigating in Operational Mode
    6. 4.6. Interpreting CLI Messages
    7. 4.7. Controlling CLI Output on the Screen
      1. 4.7.1. Displaying Output
      2. 4.7.2. Filtering Output
        1. 4.7.2.1. count
        2. 4.7.2.2. display
        3. 4.7.2.3. except
        4. 4.7.2.4. find and match
        5. 4.7.2.5. hold
        6. 4.7.2.6. save
        7. 4.7.2.7. trim
      3. 4.7.3. Searching the Output
    8. 4.8. Viewing the CLI Command History
    9. 4.9. Monitoring Users
    10. 4.10. Getting Help in the CLI
    11. 4.11. Configuration Mode
    12. 4.12. Entering and Exiting Configuration Mode
    13. 4.13. Configuration-Mode Hierarchy
    14. 4.14. Understanding the Configuration-Mode Banner
    15. 4.15. Navigating in Configuration Mode
    16. 4.16. Understanding How and Where the Configuration Files Are Stored
    17. 4.17. Returning to a Previous Configuration
    18. 4.18. Executing Operational-Mode Commands in Configuration Mode
    19. 4.19. Displaying Your Configuration
    20. 4.20. Saving, Modifying, and Loading Configuration Files
      1. 4.20.1. Saving Configuration Files
        1. 4.20.1.1. save
      2. 4.20.2. Modifying Configuration Files
        1. 4.20.2.1. annotate
        2. 4.20.2.2. copy
        3. 4.20.2.3. delete
        4. 4.20.2.4. rename
        5. 4.20.2.5. insert
        6. 4.20.2.6. deactivate and activate
      3. 4.20.3. Loading Configuration Files from the CLI
        1. 4.20.3.1. load merge
        2. 4.20.3.2. load replace
        3. 4.20.3.3. load override
        4. 4.20.3.4. Loading Configurations from the Terminal
    21. 4.21. Creating Configuration Groups
    22. 4.22. Getting Help in Configuration Mode
    23. 4.23. Chapter Summary
    24. Bibliography
    25. Case Study: User and Access Configuration
      1. Sample Basic Configuration for Router Chicago
  8. 5. Router Access and System Administration
    1. 5.1. Communicating with the Router
      1. 5.1.1. Changing the Settings for the Console Port
      2. 5.1.2. Configuring the Auxiliary Port
      3. 5.1.3. Configuring the Management Ethernet
        1. 5.1.3.1. Physical Characteristics
        2. 5.1.3.2. Logical Characteristics
    2. 5.2. System Administration
      1. 5.2.1. User Account Setup
        1. 5.2.1.1. Defining a Login Class
        2. 5.2.1.2. Assigning an idle-timeout Interval
        3. 5.2.1.3. Assigning Access-Privilege Levels
        4. 5.2.1.4. Setting allow-commands and deny-commands
      2. 5.2.2. Defining User Accounts
        1. 5.2.2.1. Specifying a Login Class
        2. 5.2.2.2. Setting the User Identifier
        3. 5.2.2.3. Setting Local Authentication
      3. 5.2.3. Password Recovery
      4. 5.2.4. Authentication Methods
        1. 5.2.4.1. RADIUS
        2. 5.2.4.2. Juniper Networks–Specific RADIUS
      5. 5.2.5. TACACS+
        1. 5.2.5.1. Shared User Accounts
      6. 5.2.6. Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol Relay
      7. 5.2.7. System Services
        1. 5.2.7.1. Telnet
        2. 5.2.7.2. SSH
        3. 5.2.7.3. FTP
        4. 5.2.7.4. SCP
      8. 5.2.8. System Logging
      9. 5.2.9. Other Administrative Responsibilities
        1. 5.2.9.1. Setting a Host Name and Domain
        2. 5.2.9.2. Setting Location
        3. 5.2.9.3. Setting Time and Date
        4. 5.2.9.4. Using the NTP
        5. 5.2.9.5. Designating a DNS Server
    3. 5.3. Chapter Summary
    4. Bibliography
    5. Case Study: A Typical Base Configuration
  9. 6. Router Management, Firewall Filters, and Accounting
    1. 6.1. SNMP Overview
      1. 6.1.1. Evolution of SNMP
      2. 6.1.2. Agents
      3. 6.1.3. Network-Management Systems
      4. 6.1.4. MIB
        1. 6.1.4.1. SNMP OID Example
        2. 6.1.4.2. Juniper Networks–Specific MIBs
    2. 6.2. Configuring SNMP on a Juniper Networks Router
      1. 6.2.1. Basic SNMP Configuration
      2. 6.2.2. Configuring SNMP Trap Groups
      3. 6.2.3. Controlling SNMP Access
      4. 6.2.4. Configuring the Interfaces on Which SNMP Requests Can Be Accepted
      5. 6.2.5. Verifying Operation and Troubleshooting SNMP
        1. 6.2.5.1. Trace Options
        2. 6.2.5.2. SNMP Statistics
    3. 6.3. Introduction to Firewall Filters
      1. 6.3.1. Firewall-Filter Terms and Processing
        1. 6.3.1.1. How Firewall Filters Are Evaluated
      2. 6.3.2. Configuration Guidelines
        1. 6.3.2.1. Naming the Filter
        2. 6.3.2.2. Naming Each Term in the Filter
        3. 6.3.2.3. Determining Match Conditions
        4. 6.3.2.4. Assigning the Action Statement
        5. 6.3.2.5. Applying Firewall Filters to Interfaces
      3. 6.3.3. IP-Packet Bit Matching
        1. 6.3.3.1. Protocol Configuration Guidelines
        2. 6.3.3.2. Configuration Example: Blocking Telnet and SSH
        3. 6.3.3.3. Configuration Example: Blocking TFTP and Logging Occurrences
      4. 6.3.4. Additional Applications of Firewall Filters
        1. 6.3.4.1. Policing and Rate Limiting
        2. 6.3.4.2. Selectively Forward Packets
      5. 6.3.5. Verifying Filter Operation
        1. 6.3.5.1. Configuring Interface-Specific Counters
    4. 6.4. Accounting
    5. 6.5. Chapter Summary
    6. References
    7. Bibliography
    8. Case Study: Securing a Juniper Networks Router
  10. 7. Interface Configuration
    1. 7.1. Introduction to Interfaces
      1. 7.1.1. Logical Units
      2. 7.1.2. Interface Naming and Numbering
      3. 7.1.3. Position Numbering
        1. 7.1.3.1. FPC and PIC Numbering for the M40 and M160
        2. 7.1.3.2. FPC and PIC Numbering for the M5, M10, and M20
      4. 7.1.4. Interface Configuration Basics
        1. 7.1.4.1. Logical Units Configuration
        2. 7.1.4.2. Network Addressing
    2. 7.2. Ethernet, Fast Ethernet, and GigE Interfaces
      1. 7.2.1. Physical Interface Configuration
      2. 7.2.2. VLAN and Logical Interface Configuration
      3. 7.2.3. MAC Address Filtering
      4. 7.2.4. VRRP
        1. 7.2.4.1. Balancing Bandwidth
        2. 7.2.4.2. VRRP Configuration
    3. 7.3. SONET/SDH Interfaces
      1. 7.3.1. Configuring Framing on Optical Interfaces
      2. 7.3.2. PPP Configuration
      3. 7.3.3. Frame Relay Configuration
      4. 7.3.4. APS
    4. 7.4. ATM Interfaces
      1. 7.4.1. Physical Interface Configuration
      2. 7.4.2. Logical Interface Configuration
      3. 7.4.3. ATM QoS Configuration
    5. 7.5. Serial Interfaces
      1. 7.5.1. Physical T3 Configuration
      2. 7.5.2. T3 Logical Configuration
      3. 7.5.3. T3 Channelized Configuration
      4. 7.5.4. BERT Configuration
    6. 7.6. Aggregated Interfaces
    7. 7.7. Tunnel Interfaces
    8. 7.8. Loopback
    9. 7.9. Chapter Summary
    10. Bibliography
  11. 8. IGP Routing Protocol Configuration
    1. 8.1. Routing Protocol Primer
      1. 8.1.1. Router Metrics
      2. 8.1.2. Distance Vector Versus Link State
      3. 8.1.3. Juniper Networks Router Configuration
    2. 8.2. RIP
      1. 8.2.1. Theory of Operation
      2. 8.2.2. RIP Metrics
      3. 8.2.3. Loop Avoidance
      4. 8.2.4. RIPv1 Versus RIPv2
      5. 8.2.5. RIP Design Principles
      6. 8.2.6. Basic RIP Configuration
      7. 8.2.7. RIP Authentication
      8. 8.2.8. RIP Parameters
        1. 8.2.8.1. Manipulating RIP Metrics
    3. 8.3. Checking RIP Operation
    4. 8.4. OSPF
      1. 8.4.1. Theory of Operation
      2. 8.4.2. OSPF Metrics
      3. 8.4.3. OSPF Areas
      4. 8.4.4. Router Types
      5. 8.4.5. OSPF Database
      6. 8.4.6. Adjacency
      7. 8.4.7. LSAs
      8. 8.4.8. OSPF Network Types
      9. 8.4.9. Router Elections
      10. 8.4.10. Stub Areas
        1. 8.4.10.1. Stub and Totally Stubby Areas
        2. 8.4.10.2. Not-So-Stubby Areas
      11. 8.4.11. Equal Cost Paths
      12. 8.4.12. Virtual Links
      13. 8.4.13. OSPF Single-Area Configuration
      14. 8.4.14. OSPF Multiple-Area Configuration
      15. 8.4.15. OSPF Stub Configuration
      16. 8.4.16. OSPF NSSA Configuration
      17. 8.4.17. OSPF Virtual-Link Configuration
      18. 8.4.18. OSPF Authentication and Configuration
      19. 8.4.19. Configuring OSPF Options
        1. 8.4.19.1. area-range
        2. 8.4.19.2. Changing Cost
        3. 8.4.19.3. Changing OSPF Priority
      20. 8.4.20. Checking OSPF Operation
      21. 8.4.21. Design Principles
    5. 8.5. IS-IS
      1. 8.5.1. IS-IS Overview
      2. 8.5.2. ISO CLNP and Addressing
      3. 8.5.3. DRs
      4. 8.5.4. IS-IS PDUs
      5. 8.5.5. Default Stub Areas
      6. 8.5.6. IS-IS Route Leaking
      7. 8.5.7. IS-IS Single-Area Configuration
      8. 8.5.8. IS-IS Multiple-Area Configuration
      9. 8.5.9. IS-IS Authentication Configuration
      10. 8.5.10. Checking IS-IS Operation
    6. 8.6. Chapter Summary
    7. Bibliography
  12. 9. BGP Routing Configuration
    1. 9.1. BGP Overview
      1. 9.1.1. External BGP and Internal BGP Conceptual Model
      2. 9.1.2. Autonomous System Numbers
      3. 9.1.3. Topologies: Transit and Homing
        1. 9.1.3.1. Transit and Nontransit AS
        2. 9.1.3.2. Homing
      4. 9.1.4. Routing
        1. 9.1.4.1. RIB
        2. 9.1.4.2. Routing Tables
        3. 9.1.4.3. Route Preference
        4. 9.1.4.4. BGP Route Selection
        5. 9.1.4.5. Default Routes
    2. 9.2. The Finite State Machine
      1. 9.2.1. Transport
      2. 9.2.2. Events
      3. 9.2.3. Connection States
        1. 9.2.3.1. Idle
        2. 9.2.3.2. Connect
        3. 9.2.3.3. Active
        4. 9.2.3.4. OpenSent
        5. 9.2.3.5. OpenConfirm
        6. 9.2.3.6. Established
      4. 9.2.4. Message Types and Formats
        1. 9.2.4.1. OPEN Message
        2. 9.2.4.2. UPDATE Message
        3. 9.2.4.3. NOTIFICATION Message
        4. 9.2.4.4. KEEPALIVE Message
      5. 9.2.5. Attributes
        1. 9.2.5.1. ORIGIN
        2. 9.2.5.2. AS_PATH
        3. 9.2.5.3. NEXT_HOP
        4. 9.2.5.4. MED
        5. 9.2.5.5. LOCAL_PREF
        6. 9.2.5.6. ATOMIC_AGGREGATE
        7. 9.2.5.7. AGGREGATOR
        8. 9.2.5.8. COMMUNITY
        9. 9.2.5.9. ORIGINATOR_ID
        10. 9.2.5.10. CLUSTER_LIST
    3. 9.3. JUNOS BGP Minimum Configuration
      1. 9.3.1. Minimum Configuration Parameters
      2. 9.3.2. IBGP Minimum Configuration
        1. 9.3.2.1. IBGP Between Physical Interfaces
        2. 9.3.2.2. IBGP Between Loopback Interfaces
      3. 9.3.3. EBGP Minimum Configuration
        1. 9.3.3.1. EBGP Between Physical Interfaces
        2. 9.3.3.2. RID
    4. 9.4. Configuration Parameters
      1. 9.4.1. Configuration Hierarchy
      2. 9.4.2. Configuration Statements
        1. 9.4.2.1. advertise-inactive
        2. 9.4.2.2. allow
        3. 9.4.2.3. as-override
        4. 9.4.2.4. authentication-key
        5. 9.4.2.5. bgp
        6. 9.4.2.6. cluster
        7. 9.4.2.7. damping
        8. 9.4.2.8. description
        9. 9.4.2.9. disable
        10. 9.4.2.10. export
        11. 9.4.2.11. family
        12. 9.4.2.12. group
        13. 9.4.2.13. hold-time
        14. 9.4.2.14. import
        15. 9.4.2.15. keep
        16. 9.4.2.16. local-address
        17. 9.4.2.17. local-as
        18. 9.4.2.18. local-preference
        19. 9.4.2.19. log-updown
        20. 9.4.2.20. metric-out
        21. 9.4.2.21. multihop
        22. 9.4.2.22. multipath
        23. 9.4.2.23. neighbor
        24. 9.4.2.24. no-aggregator-id
        25. 9.4.2.25. no-client-reflect
        26. 9.4.2.26. out-delay
        27. 9.4.2.27. passive
        28. 9.4.2.28. path-selection
        29. 9.4.2.29. peer-as
        30. 9.4.2.30. preference
        31. 9.4.2.31. prefix-limit
        32. 9.4.2.32. protocol
        33. 9.4.2.33. remove-private
        34. 9.4.2.34. trace-options
        35. 9.4.2.35. type
    5. 9.5. Scaling BGP
      1. 9.5.1. Route Reflectors
      2. 9.5.2. Confederations
    6. 9.6. Chapter Summary
    7. Bibliography
  13. 10. BGP Routing Case Studies
    1. 10.1. Case Study 1: Path Selection
      1. 10.1.1. Path Selection with RID
      2. 10.1.2. Path Selection with AS_PATH
      3. 10.1.3. Path Selection EBGP over IBGP
      4. 10.1.4. AS_PATH Prepend
    2. 10.2. Case Study 2: Advanced Path Selection
      1. 10.2.1. LOCAL_PREF and IGP Metric
      2. 10.2.2. NEXT_HOP
      3. 10.2.3. Nexthop-Self
      4. 10.2.4. MED
    3. 10.3. Case Study 3: Load Balancing—Multipath and Multihop
      1. 10.3.1. EBGP Multipath
      2. 10.3.2. IBGP Multipath
      3. 10.3.3. EBGP Multihop
    4. 10.4. Case Study 4: Scaling BGP
      1. 10.4.1. Route Reflector
      2. 10.4.2. Confederation
      3. 10.4.3. Aggregation
    5. 10.5. Chapter Summary
  14. 11. Defining and Implementing Routing Policies
    1. 11.1. Routing Policy Overview
    2. 11.2. RPSL
    3. 11.3. Structure of JUNOS Routing Policy Language
      1. 11.3.1. Default Routing Policy Actions
      2. 11.3.2. Policy-Chain Terms
      3. 11.3.3. Match Conditions
      4. 11.3.4. Match Actions
    4. 11.4. DIET Policies
      1. 11.4.1. Designing Policies
      2. 11.4.2. Implementing Policies
      3. 11.4.3. Executing Policies
      4. 11.4.4. Testing Policies
    5. 11.5. Route Redistribution and Filtering
      1. 11.5.1. Route Redistribution
      2. 11.5.2. Route Filtering
    6. 11.6. Route Flap Damping
      1. 11.6.1. Half-life Decay
      2. 11.6.2. Damping Policies
    7. 11.7. Regular Expressions and Communities
      1. 11.7.1. Regular Expressions for AS Paths
      2. 11.7.2. Community Regular Expressions
    8. 11.8. Chapter Summary
    9. Bibliography
  15. 12. MPLS and Traffic Engineering
    1. 12.1. Traffic-Engineering Problems
    2. 12.2. Traffic-Engineering Solutions
      1. 12.2.1. Routed IP
      2. 12.2.2. Switched Transport
      3. 12.2.3. MPLS
    3. 12.3. MPLS Operation and Design Principles
      1. 12.3.1. Functional Overview
        1. 12.3.1.1. Labels
        2. 12.3.1.2. LSPs
        3. 12.3.1.3. LSRs
      2. 12.3.2. Establishing an LSP
        1. 12.3.2.1. LDP
        2. 12.3.2.2. RSVP
        3. 12.3.2.3. CSPF
      3. 12.3.3. Prefix Mapping and Routing Table Integration
      4. 12.3.4. Traffic Protection
    4. 12.4. MPLS Configuration
    5. 12.5. Static LSP Configuration
    6. 12.6. RSVP-Based Dynamic-LSP Configuration
    7. 12.7. LDP-Based Dynamic-LSP Configuration
    8. 12.8. CCCs
    9. 12.9. Chapter Summary
    10. Bibliography
    11. Case Study 1: Prefix Mapping and BGP
    12. Case Study 2: Using Constraints in RSVP LSPs
    13. Case Study 3: CCC Configuration
  16. 13. Virtual Private Networks
    1. 13.1. Overview of VPNs
    2. 13.2. VPN Implementation and Topologies
    3. 13.3. VPN Physical Topologies
    4. 13.4. Dedicated Extranet VPN
    5. 13.5. Centralized Extranet VPN
    6. 13.6. Layer 3 VPNs
    7. 13.7. Route Distinguishers
    8. 13.8. Forwarding Tables
    9. 13.9. Configuring BGP MPLS VPNs
    10. 13.10. Activating RSVP Signaling Options
    11. 13.11. Activating LDP Signaling Options
    12. 13.12. Configuring an IGP
      1. 13.12.1. IS-IS
      2. 13.12.2. OSPF
      3. 13.12.3. Static Routes
    13. 13.13. Configuring M-BGP on the PE Routers
    14. 13.14. Configuring the VRF for the VPN
      1. 13.14.1. VPN Policy
    15. 13.15. PE-CE Configuration
      1. 13.15.1. OSPF
      2. 13.15.2. BGP
      3. 13.15.3. Static Routes
    16. 13.16. Chapter Summary
    17. Bibliography
    18. Case Study 1: Full-Mesh VPN Configuration
      1. PE Router Chicago
      2. PE Router New York
      3. P Router Seattle
      4. CE Router Rome
      5. CE Router Berlin
    19. Case Study 2: Hub-and-Spoke VPN Configuration
      1. PE Hub Router Chicago
      2. PE Spoke Router Rome
      3. PE Spoke Router New York
      4. CE Hub Router Seattle
      5. CE Spoke Router Singapore
      6. CE Spoke Router Berlin
  17. 14. Multicast Protocols
    1. 14.1. Multicast Backbone
      1. 14.1.1. Benefits of Multicasting
      2. 14.1.2. JUNOS Multicast Implementations
    2. 14.2. Multicast Characteristics
      1. 14.2.1. Multicast Addresses
      2. 14.2.2. Multicast Functional Overview
        1. 14.2.2.1. Hosts and Groups
        2. 14.2.2.2. Receiving IP Datagrams
        3. 14.2.2.3. Distribution Trees
        4. 14.2.2.4. TTL
    3. 14.3. IGMP
      1. 14.3.1. IGMP Operational Overview
      2. 14.3.2. Configuring IGMP
      3. 14.3.3. Verifying an IGMP Configuration
    4. 14.4. Multicast Routing
      1. 14.4.1. Shared and Source Trees
      2. 14.4.2. Dense- and Sparse-Mode Routing Techniques
        1. 14.4.2.1. Routing with JUNOS and Multicast
    5. 14.5. Dense-Mode Multicast Routing Protocols
      1. 14.5.1. DVMRP
        1. 14.5.1.1. DVMRP Operational Overview
        2. 14.5.1.2. Configuring DVMRP
        3. 14.5.1.3. Verifying a DVMRP Configuration
      2. 14.5.2. PIM Routing Protocol
        1. 14.5.2.1. PIM-DM
        2. PIM-DM Operational Overview
        3. Configuring PIM-DM
        4. Verifying a PIM-DM Configuration
        5. 14.5.2.2. PIM-SM
        6. Bootstrap Router
        7. Configuring PIM-SM
        8. Verifying a PIM-SM Configuration
      3. 14.5.3. Interdomain Multicast Routing
        1. 14.5.3.1. MSDP
        2. Configuring MSDP
        3. 14.5.3.2. MBGP
        4. Configuring MBGP
    6. 14.6. Chapter Summary
    7. Bibliography
  18. 15. Troubleshooting Juniper Networks Routers
    1. 15.1. Introduction to Troubleshooting
    2. 15.2. Juniper Networks Troubleshooting Model
      1. 15.2.1. Identify the Symptoms
      2. 15.2.2. Isolate Possible Causes
      3. 15.2.3. Take Action to Diagnose the Problem Correctly
      4. 15.2.4. Evaluate the Solution
    3. 15.3. Trouble Indicators
      1. 15.3.1. LEDs
      2. 15.3.2. SNMP Traps
    4. 15.4. Troubleshooting the Chassis
      1. 15.4.1. Environmental Monitoring
        1. 15.4.1.1. Remote Craft Interface Monitoring on the M40, M40e, and M160 Routers
        2. 15.4.1.2. Chassis Alarms
      2. 15.4.2. Power-Supply Monitoring
      3. 15.4.3. Control Board Monitoring
        1. 15.4.3.1. M5 and M10 Control Board
        2. 15.4.3.2. M20 Control Board
        3. 15.4.3.3. M40 Control Board
        4. 15.4.3.4. M160 Control Board
    5. 15.5. Monitoring Interfaces
      1. 15.5.1. Static Monitoring
      2. 15.5.2. Real-time Monitoring
    6. 15.6. Troubleshooting Routing Protocols with the traceoptions Command
      1. 15.6.1. Viewing traceoptions Output
      2. 15.6.2. Enabling Global traceoptions
      3. 15.6.3. Using traceoptions with RIP
      4. 15.6.4. Using traceoptions with OSPF
      5. 15.6.5. Using traceoptions with IS-IS
      6. 15.6.6. Using traceoptions with BGP
      7. 15.6.7. Troubleshooting Commands for MPLS and VPNs
      8. 15.6.8. Troubleshooting Commands for Multicast Protocols
        1. 15.6.8.1. DVMRP
        2. 15.6.8.2. MSDP
        3. 15.6.8.3. SAP/SDP
        4. 15.6.8.4. IGMP
        5. 15.6.8.5. PIM
    7. 15.7. Working with JTAC
    8. 15.8. Chapter Summary
    9. Bibliography
  19. Acronyms
  20. About the Authors
  21. A. Practice JNCIS Questions