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Juniper MX Series, 2nd Edition

Book Description

Discover why routers in the Juniper MX Series—with their advanced feature sets and record-breaking scale—are so popular among enterprises and network service providers. This revised and expanded edition shows you step-by-step how to implement high-density, high-speed Layer 2 and Layer 3 Ethernet services, using Router Engine DDoS Protection, Multi-chassis LAG, Inline NAT, IPFLOW, and many other Juniper MX features. This second edition was written by a Senior NOC engineer, whose vast experience with the MX Series is well documented.

Table of Contents

  1. Preface
    1. Second Edition Notes
    2. No Apologies
    3. Book Topology
      1. Interface Names
      2. Aggregate Ethernet Assignments
      3. Layer 2
      4. IPv4 Addressing
      5. IPv6 Addressing
    4. What’s in This Book?
    5. Conventions Used in This Book
    6. Safari® Books Online
    7. How to Contact Us
  2. 1. Juniper MX Architecture
    1. Junos OS
      1. One Junos
      2. Software Releases
      3. Junos Continuity—JAM
      4. Software Architecture
      5. Routing Sockets
      6. Junos OS Modernization
    2. Juniper MX Chassis
      1. vMX
      2. MX80
      3. Midrange
      4. MX104
      5. MX240
      6. MX480
      7. MX960
      8. MX2010 and MX2020
    3. Trio
      1. Trio Architecture
      2. Trio Generations
      3. Buffering Block
      4. Lookup Block
      5. Interfaces Block
      6. Dense Queuing Block
    4. Line Cards and Modules
      1. Dense Port Concentrator
      2. Modular Port Concentrator
      3. Packet Walkthrough
      4. Modular Interface Card
      5. Network Services
    5. Switch and Control Board
      1. Ethernet Switch
      2. Switch Fabric
      3. MX Switch Control Board
      4. Enhanced MX Switch Control Board
      5. J-Cell
    6. Summary
    7. Chapter Review Questions
    8. Chapter Review Answers
  3. 2. Bridging, VLAN Mapping, IRB, and Virtual Switches
    1. Isn’t the MX a Router?
    2. Layer 2 Networking
      1. Ethernet II
      2. IEEE 802.1Q
      3. IEEE 802.1QinQ
    3. Junos Interfaces
    4. Interface Bridge Configuration
      1. Basic Comparison of Service Provider Versus Enterprise Style
    5. Service Provider Interface Bridge Configuration
      1. Tagging
      2. Encapsulation
      3. Service Provider Bridge Domain Configuration
    6. Enterprise Interface Bridge Configuration
      1. Interface Mode
      2. VLAN Rewrite
    7. Service Provider VLAN Mapping
      1. Stack Data Structure
      2. Stack Operations
      3. Stack Operations Map
      4. Tag Count
      5. Bridge Domain Requirements
      6. Example: Push and Pop
      7. Example: Swap-Push and Pop-Swap
    8. Bridge Domains
      1. Learning Domain
      2. Bridge Domain Modes
      3. VLAN Normalization and Rewrite Operations
      4. Bridge Domain Options
      5. Show Bridge Domain Commands
      6. Clear MAC Addresses
      7. MAC Accounting
    9. Integrated Routing and Bridging
      1. IRB Attributes
    10. Virtual Switch
      1. Configuration
    11. VXLAN
      1. VXLAN as a Layer 2 Overlay
      2. VXLAN on MX Series
    12. Summary
    13. Chapter Review Questions
    14. Chapter Review Answers
  4. 3. Stateless Filters, Hierarchical Policing, and Tri-Color Marking
    1. Firewall Filter and Policer Overview
      1. Stateless Versus Stateful
      2. Stateless Filter Components
      3. Filters Versus Routing Policy
      4. Filter Scaling
      5. Filtering Differences for MPC Versus DPC
    2. Filter Operation
      1. Stateless Filter Processing
    3. Policing
      1. Rate Limiting: Shaping or Policing?
      2. Junos Policer Operation
      3. Cascaded Policers
      4. Single and Two-Rate Three-Color Policers
      5. Hierarchical Policers
    4. Applying Filters and Policers
      1. Filter Application Points
      2. Applying Policers
      3. Policer Context Summary
      4. Policer Application Restrictions
    5. Advanced Filtering Features
      1. Enhanced Filter Mode
      2. flexible-match Filter
      3. Fast Lookup Filter
      4. Advanced Filtering Summary
    6. Bridge Filtering Case Study
      1. Filter Processing in Bridged and Routed Environments
      2. Monitor and Troubleshoot Filters and Policers
      3. Bridge Family Filter and Policing Case Study
      4. Bridge Filtering Summary
    7. Service Provider DDOS Filtering Case Study
    8. Summary
    9. Chapter Review Questions
    10. Chapter Review Answers
  5. 4. Routing Engine Protection and DDoS Prevention
    1. RE Protection Case Study
      1. IPv4 RE Protection Filter
      2. IPv6 RE Protection Filter
    2. DDoS Protection Case Study
      1. The Issue of Control Plane Depletion
      2. DDoS Operational Overview
      3. DDoS Configuration and Operational Verification
    3. DDoS Case Study
      1. The Attack Has Begun!
    4. Suspicious Control Flow Detection
      1. SCFD Vocabulary
      2. Configure Flow Detection
      3. Case Study: Suspicious Flow Detection
      4. Suspicious Control Flow Detection Summary
    5. Mitigate DDoS Attacks
      1. BGP Flow-Specification to the Rescue
      2. What’s New in the World of Flow-Spec?
    6. BGP Flow-Specification Case Study
      1. Let the Attack Begin!
    7. Summary
    8. Chapter Review Questions
    9. Chapter Review Answers
  6. 5. Trio Class of Service
    1. MX CoS Capabilities
      1. Port Versus Hierarchical Queuing MPCs
      2. CoS Capabilities and Scale
    2. Trio CoS Flow
      1. Intelligent Oversubscription
      2. The Remaining CoS Packet Flow
      3. CoS Processing: Port- and Queue-Based MPCs
      4. Key Aspects of the Trio CoS Model
      5. Trio CoS Processing Summary
    3. Hierarchical CoS
      1. The H-CoS Reference Model
      2. Level 4: Queues
      3. Level 3: IFL
      4. Level 2: IFL-Sets
      5. Level 1: IFD
      6. Remaining
      7. Interface Modes and Excess Bandwidth Sharing
      8. Priority-Based Shaping
      9. Fabric CoS
      10. Control CoS on Host-Generated Traffic
      11. H-CoS Summary
    4. Per-VLAN Queuing for Non-Queuing MPCs
      1. Per-Unit Scheduler Case Study on MPC4e
      2. Per-Unit Scheduling for Non-Q MPC Summary
    5. Trio Scheduling and Queuing
      1. Scheduling Discipline
      2. Scheduler Priority Levels
      3. Scheduler Modes
      4. H-CoS and Aggregated Ethernet Interfaces
      5. Schedulers, Scheduler Maps, and TCPs
      6. Trio Scheduling and Priority Summary
    6. MX Trio CoS Defaults
      1. Four Forwarding Classes, but Only Two Queues
      2. Default BA and Rewrite Marker Templates
      3. MX Trio CoS Defaults Summary
    7. Flexible Packet Rewrite
      1. Policy Map Summary
    8. Predicting Queue Throughput
      1. Where to Start?
      2. Trio CoS Proof-of-Concept Test Lab
      3. Predicting Queue Throughput Summary
    9. CoS Lab
      1. Configure Unidirectional CoS
      2. Verify Unidirectional CoS
      3. Confirm Scheduling Behavior
    10. Add H-CoS for Subscriber Access
      1. Configure H-CoS
      2. Verify H-CoS
      3. Trio CoS Summary
    11. Chapter Review Questions
    12. Chapter Review Answers
  7. 6. MX Virtual Chassis
    1. What Is Virtual Chassis?
      1. MX-VC Terminology
      2. MX-VC Use Case
      3. MX-VC Requirements
      4. MX-VC Architecture
      5. MX-VC Interface Numbering
      6. MX-VC Packet Walkthrough
      7. Virtual Chassis Topology
      8. Mastership Election
      9. Preserving VCP Bandwidth
      10. Summary
    2. MX-VC Configuration
      1. Chassis Serial Number
      2. Member ID
      3. R1 VCP Interface
      4. Routing Engine Groups
      5. Virtual Chassis Configuration
      6. R2 VCP Interface
      7. Virtual Chassis Verification
      8. Revert to Standalone
      9. Summary
    3. VCP Interface Class of Service
      1. VCP Traffic Encapsulation
      2. VCP Class of Service Walkthrough
      3. Forwarding Classes
      4. Schedulers
      5. Classifiers
      6. Rewrite Rules
      7. Final Configuration
      8. Verification
    4. Summary
    5. Chapter Review Questions
    6. Chapter Review Answers
  8. 7. Trio Load Balancing
    1. Junos Load Balancing Overview
      1. Per-Prefix Versus Per-Flow Load Balancing
      2. Hashing
      3. Hash Computation
      4. The Next-Hop
      5. Junos Load Balancing Summary
    2. Trio Load Balancing and Backward Compatibility
      1. Host Outbound Load Balancing
      2. Configure Per-Family Load Balancing
      3. Family and Enhanced Hash Field Summary
      4. What About Multicast?
    3. Advanced Load Balancing
      1. The Problem of Polarization
      2. Symmetric Load Balancing
      3. Consistent Hashing
      4. Adaptive Load Balancing
    4. Summary
    5. Chapter Review Questions
    6. Chapter Review Answers
  9. 8. Trio Inline Services
    1. What Are Trio Inline Services?
    2. J-Flow
      1. J-Flow Evolution
      2. Inline IPFIX Performance
      3. Inline IPFIX Software Architecture
      4. Inline IPFIX Configuration
      5. Inline IPFIX Verification
      6. IPFIX Summary
    3. Network Address Translation
      1. Types of NAT
      2. Services Inline Interface
      3. Service Sets
      4. Destination NAT Configuration
      5. Network Address Translation Summary
    4. Tunnel Services
      1. Enabling Tunnel Services
      2. A Tunneled Packet Walkthrough
      3. Tunnel Services Redundancy
      4. Inline GRE with Filter-Based Tunnel
      5. Case Study: Traffic Mitigation Based on GRE Filter-Based Tunnel
      6. Case Study: Interconnect Logical and Physical Routers
      7. Tunnel Services Summary
    5. Port Mirroring
      1. Port Mirror Supported Families
      2. Port Mirroring Case Study
      3. Port Mirroring Summary
    6. Layer 2 Analyzer
      1. Layer 2 Analyzer Configuration
      2. Layer 2 Analyzer Case Study
      3. Layer 2 Analyzer Summary
    7. Summary
    8. Chapter Review Questions
    9. Chapter Review Answers
  10. 9. Multi-Chassis Link Aggregation
    1. Multi-Chassis Link Aggregation
      1. MC-LAG State Overview
      2. MC-LAG Family Support
      3. Multi-Chassis Link Aggregation Versus MX Virtual Chassis
      4. MC-LAG Summary
    2. Inter-Chassis Control Protocol
      1. ICCP Hierarchy
      2. ICCP Topology Guidelines
      3. How to Configure ICCP
      4. ICCP Configuration Guidelines
      5. ICCP Split Brain
      6. ICCP Summary
    3. MC-LAG Modes
      1. Active-Standby
      2. Active-Active
      3. MC-LAG Modes Summary
    4. Case Study
      1. Logical Interfaces and Loopback Addressing
      2. Layer 2
      3. Layer 3
      4. MC-LAG Configuration
      5. Connectivity Verification
      6. Case Study Summary
    5. Summary
    6. Chapter Review Questions
    7. Chapter Review Answers
  11. 10. Junos High Availability on MX Routers
    1. Junos High-Availability Feature Overview
    2. Graceful Routing Engine Switchover
      1. The GRES Process
      2. Configure GRES
      3. GRES Summary
    3. Graceful Restart
      1. GR Shortcomings
      2. Graceful Restart Operation: OSPF
      3. Graceful Restart and Other Routing Protocols
      4. Configure and Verify OSPF GR
      5. Graceful Restart Summary
    4. Nonstop Routing and Bridging
      1. Replication, the Magic That Keeps Protocols Running
      2. Nonstop Bridging
      3. Current NSR/NSB Support
      4. This NSR Thing Sounds Cool: So What Can Go Wrong?
      5. Configure NSR and NSB
      6. Verify NSR and NSB
      7. NSR Summary
    5. In-Service Software Upgrades
      1. ISSU Operation
      2. ISSU Layer 3 Protocol Support
      3. ISSU Layer 2 Support
      4. ISSU: A Double-Edged Knife
      5. ISSU Summary
    6. ISSU Lab
      1. Verify ISSU Readiness
      2. Perform an ISSU
    7. Summary
    8. Chapter Review Questions
    9. Chapter Review Answers
  12. 11. The Virtual MX
    1. Why Use vMX and for What Purpose?
      1. Physical or Virtual
      2. Benefits of Using vMX
      3. Deployments to Use with vMX
    2. A Technical Overview of vMX
      1. Several vMX Instances per Server
      2. Network Virtualization Techniques for vMX
      3. vMX Licensing
      4. Summary
    3. vMX and the Virtual World
      1. Virtualization Concepts
      2. Summary
    4. Resources for Installing vMX for Lab Simulation
      1. vMX Initial Configuration
    5. Technical Details of the vMX
      1. VCP/VFP Architecture
      2. vMX Packet Walkthrough
      3. The vMX QoS Model
    6. Summary
    7. Chapter Review Questions
    8. Chapter Review Answers
  13. Index