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Jenkins: The Definitive Guide by John Ferguson Smart

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Continuous Integration Fundamentals

Back in the days of waterfall projects and Gantt charts, before the introduction of CI practices, development team time and energy was regularly drained in the period leading up to a release by what was known as the Integration Phase. During this phase, the code changes made by individual developers or small teams were brought together piecemeal and forged into a working product. This was hard work, sometimes involving the integration of months of conflicting changes. It was very hard to anticipate the types of issues that would crop up, and even harder to fix them, as it could involve reworking code that had been written weeks or months before. This painful process, fraught with risk and danger, often lead to significant delivery delays, unplanned costs and, as a result, unhappy clients. Continuous Integration was born to address these issues.

Continuous Integration, in its simplest form, involves a tool that monitors your version control system for changes. Whenever a change is detected, this tool automatically compiles and tests your application. If something goes wrong, the tool immediately notifies the developers so that they can fix the issue immediately.

But Continuous Integration can do much more than this. Continuous Integration can also help you keep tabs on the health of your code base, automatically monitoring code quality and code coverage metrics, and helping keep technical debt down and maintenance costs low. The publicly-visible code quality metrics can also encourage developers to take pride in the quality of their code and strive to improve it. Combined with automated end-to-end acceptance tests, CI can also act as a communication tool, publishing a clear picture of the current state of development efforts. And it can simplify and accelerate delivery by helping you automate the deployment process, letting you deploy the latest version of your application either automatically or as a one-click process.

In essence, Continuous Integration is about reducing risk by providing faster feedback. First and foremost, it is designed to help identify and fix integration and regression issues faster, resulting in smoother, quicker delivery, and fewer bugs. By providing better visibility for both technical and non-technical team members on the state of the project, Continuous Integration can open and facilitate communication channels between team members and encourage collaborative problem solving and process improvement. And, by automating the deployment process, Continuous Integration helps you get your software into the hands of the testers and the end users faster, more reliably, and with less effort.

This idea of automated deployment is important. Indeed, if you take automating the deployment process to its logical conclusion, you could push every build that passes the necessary automated tests into production. The practice of automatically deploying every successful build directly into production is generally known as Continuous Deployment.

However, a pure Continuous Deployment approach is not always appropriate for everyone. For example, many users would not appreciate new versions falling into their laps several times a week, and prefer a more predictable (and transparent) release cycle. Commercial and marketing considerations might also play a role in when a new release should actually be deployed.

The notion of Continuous Delivery is a slight variation on the idea of Continuous Deployment that takes into account these considerations. With Continuous Delivery, any and every successful build that has passed all the relevant automated tests and quality gates can potentially be deployed into production via a fully automated one-click process, and be in the hands of the end-user within minutes. However, the process is not automatic: it is the business, rather than IT, that decides the best time to deliver the latest changes.

So Continuous Integration techniques, and in particular Continuous Deployment and Continuous Delivery, are very much about providing value to the end user faster. How long does it take your team to get a small code change out to production? How much of this process involves problems that could have been fixed earlier, had you known about the code changes that Joe down the corridor was making? How much is taken up by labor-intensive manual testing by QA teams? How much involves manual deployment steps, the secrets of which are known only to a select few? CI is not a silver bullet by any means, but it can certainly help streamline many of these problems.

But Continuous Integration is a mindset as much as a toolset. To get the most out of CI, a team needs to adopt a CI mentality. For example, your projects must have a reliable, repeatable, and automated build process, involving no human intervention. Fixing broken builds should take an absolute priority, and not be left to stagnate. The deployment process should be automated, with no manual steps involved. And since the trust you place in your CI server depends to a great extent on the quality of your tests, the team needs to place a very strong emphasis on high quality tests and testing practices.

In this book we will be looking at how to implement a robust and comprehensive Continuous Integration solution using Jenkins or Hudson.

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