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Java Pocket Guide by Patricia Liguori, Robert Liguori

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Chapter 8. Java Modifiers

Modifiers, which are Java keywords, may be applied to classes, interfaces, constructors, methods, and data members.

Table 8-1 lists the Java modifiers and their applicability.

Table 8-1. Java modifiers

Modifier

Class

Interface

Constructor

Method

Data member

Access modifiers

     

package-private

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

private

No

No

Yes

Yes

Yes

protected

No

No

Yes

Yes

Yes

public

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Other modifiers

     

abstract

Yes

Yes

No

Yes

No

final

Yes

No

No

Yes

Yes

native

No

No

No

Yes

No

strictfp

Yes

Yes

No

Yes

No

static

No

No

No

Yes

Yes

synchronized

No

No

No

Yes

No

transient

No

No

No

No

Yes

volatile

No

No

No

No

Yes

Access Modifiers

Access modifiers define the access privileges of classes, interfaces, constructors, methods, and data members. Access modifiers consist of public, private, and protected. If no modifier is present, the default access of package-private is used.

Figure 8-1 illustrates the visibility of the access modifiers, including the differences between classes that are public and package-private. Note that in the figure, the modifiers refer to both data members and methods.

Visibility of access modifiers

Figure 8-1. Visibility of access modifiers

Table 8-2 provides details on the visibility when these access modifiers ...

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