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IPv6 Essentials

Book Description

IPv6, the next generation Internet Protocol, has been in the works since the early 90s when the rapid growth of the Internet threatened to exhaust existing IP addresses. Drawing on 20 years--operational experience with the existing protocol (IPv4), the new protocol offers scalability, increased security features, real-time traffic support, and auto-configuration so that even a novice user can connect a machine to the Internet. But what does this mean for IT professionals? Having learned all the strengths and weaknesses of the old protocol, will you need to start from scratch with the new? IPv6 Essentials provides a succinct, in-depth tour of all the new features and functions in IPv6, guiding you through everything you?ll need to know to get started, including how to configure IPv6 on hosts and routers, and which applications currently support IPv6. Aimed at system and network administrators, engineers, network designers, and IT managers, this book will help you plan for, design, and integrate IPv6 into your current IPv4 infrastructure. Beginning with a short history of IPv6, author Silvia Hagen provides an overview of the new functionality and describes some live test and production networks that are using the new protocol. Hagen then shares exhaustive discussions of the new IPv6 header format and Extension Headers, IPv6 address format, and IPv6 message format. IPv6 Essentials also covers:

  • Security in IPv6: concepts, requirements, and solutions. Includes the IPSEC framework and security elements available for authentication and encryption

  • Quality of Service: covers the types of QoS in IPv6 and how they can be implemented

  • Networking: Layer 2 support for IPv6 with sample network designs that show how to integrate IPv6 into your network without interruption of IPv4 services

  • Routing protocols and upper layer protocols

  • Getting started on different operating systems: Sun Solaris, Linux, Windows 2000 and Windows XP

Whether you're ready to start implementing IPv6 today or are planning your strategy for the future, IPv6 Essentials will provide the solid foundation you need to get started.

Table of Contents

  1. IPv6 Essentials
    1. Preface
      1. Audience
      2. About This Book
      3. Organization
      4. Conventions Used in This Book
      5. Comments and Questions
      6. Acknowledgments
    2. 1. IPv6 Versus IPv4
      1. The History of IPv6
      2. Overview of Functionality
      3. Transition Aspects
      4. IPv6 Alive
        1. The 6Bone
          1. Structure of the 6Bone
          2. Addressing
          3. Growth
          4. Joining the 6Bone
        2. IPv6 Commercial Networks
          1. vBNS+
          2. Telia Sweden
          3. Internet Initiative Japan
          4. NTT Communications Corporation
        3. Links to Other IPv6 Networks
    3. 2. The Structure of the IPv6 Protocol
      1. General Header Structure
      2. The Fields in the IPv6 Header
        1. Version (4 Bits)
        2. Traffic Class (1 Byte)
        3. Flow Label (20 Bits)
        4. Payload Length (2 Bytes)
        5. Next Header (1 Byte)
        6. Hop Limit (1 Byte)
        7. Source Address (16 Bytes)
        8. Destination Address (16 Bytes)
      3. Extension Headers
        1. Hop-by-Hop Options Header
        2. Routing Header
        3. Fragment Header
        4. Destination Options Header
    4. 3. IPv6 Addressing
      1. Address Types
        1. Unicast, Multicast, and Anycast Addresses
        2. Some General Rules
      2. Address Notation
      3. Prefix Notation
      4. Format Prefixes
      5. Address Privacy
        1. Link- and Site-Local Addresses
      6. Aggregatable Global Unicast Address
        1. International Registry Services and Current Address Allocations
        2. Special Addresses
          1. IPv6 addresses with embedded IPv4 addresses
          2. 6to4 addresses
          3. ISATAP addresses
      7. Anycast Address
      8. Multicast Address
        1. Well-Known Multicast Addresses
        2. Solicited-Node Multicast Address
      9. Required Addresses
    5. 4. ICMPv6
      1. General Message Format
        1. Type (1 Byte)
        2. Code (1 Byte)
        3. Checksum (2 Bytes)
        4. Message Body (Variable Size)
      2. ICMP Error Messages
        1. Destination Unreachable
        2. Packet Too Big
        3. Time Exceeded
        4. Parameter Problem
      3. ICMP Informational Messages
        1. Echo Request Message
        2. Echo Reply
      4. Processing Rules
      5. The ICMPv6 Header in a Trace File
      6. Neighbor Discovery
        1. Router Solicitation and Router Advertisement
        2. Neighbor Solicitation and Neighbor Advertisement
        3. The ICMP Redirect Message
        4. Neighbor Discovery Options
        5. Neighbor Cache and Destination Cache
      7. Autoconfiguration
      8. Path MTU Discovery
      9. Multicast Group Management
    6. 5. Security in IPv6
      1. Types of Threats
      2. Basic Security Requirements and Techniques
      3. Security in the Current Internet Environment
      4. Current Solutions
        1. Packet Filters and Firewalls
        2. Transport Layer Protection
        3. Application Security
      5. Open Security Issues in the Current Internet
      6. The IPSEC Framework
      7. IPv6 Security Elements
        1. Security Associations
        2. Authentication in IPv6
          1. Payload authentication
          2. Header and payload authentication
        3. Encryption in IPv6
          1. Payload encryption
          2. Header and payload encryption
        4. Combining Authentication and Encryption
      8. Security Association Negotiation and Key Management
      9. Interworking of IPv6 Security with Other Services
      10. Open Issues in IPv6 Security
    7. 6. Quality of Service in IPv6
      1. QoS Paradigms
        1. End System-Based QoS
        2. Service-Based QoS
        3. Class/Priority-Based QoS
        4. Resource Reservation-Based QoS
      2. Quality of Service in IPv6 Protocols
        1. IPv6 Base Header
          1. Flows
          2. Flow Labels
        2. Priority/Class
        3. IPv6 Extension Headers
        4. RSVP
      3. QoS Architectures
        1. Traffic Policing
        2. Integrated Services Architecture
        3. Differentiated Services Architecture
      4. Mapping IP QoS to Underlying Transmission Networks
      5. Further Issues in IP QoS
    8. 7. Networking Aspects
      1. Layer 2 Support for IPv6
        1. Ethernet (RFC 2464)
        2. FDDI (RFC 2467)
        3. Token Ring (RFC 2470)
        4. Point-to-Point Protocol (RFC 2472)
        5. ATM (RFC 2492)
        6. Frame Relay (RFC 2590)
      2. Multicasting
      3. Mobile IP
      4. Network Designs
    9. 8. Routing Protocols
      1. RIPng
        1. Distance-Vector Algorithm for RIPng
        2. Limitations of the Protocol
        3. Changes in Topology and Preventing Instability
          1. Route poisoning and the hold-down timer
          2. Split horizon, with or without poison reverse
          3. Triggered updates
        4. Message Format
        5. Next Hop
        6. Addressing Considerations and the Default Route
        7. Timers
        8. Packet Processing
          1. Request message
          2. Response message
        9. Control Functions and Security
      2. OSPF for IPv6 (OSPFv3)
        1. Overview of OSPF for IPv6
          1. Differences between OSPF for IPv4 and OSPF for IPv6
          2. Link state-based protocol
          3. OSPF areas and external routes
          4. Authentication and security
        2. OSPF Areas and External Routes
          1. The backbone area
          2. Non-backbone areas
          3. Virtual links
          4. External routes
          5. Stub areas
          6. Not-so-stubby areas
        3. Message Format of OSPF for IPv6
          1. Encapsulation in IP datagrams
          2. OSPF header
          3. Processing OSPF packets
        4. Forming Adjacencies
          1. The Hello packet
          2. Election of DR/BDR
          3. Processing of Hello packets
          4. Database description exchange
          5. The loading phase
        5. The Link State Database
          1. Contents of the LSDB
          2. LSAs
          3. LSA header
          4. Router-LSA (Type 0x2001)
          5. Network-LSA (Type 0x2002)
          6. Inter-Area-Prefix-LSA (Type 0x2003)
          7. Inter-Area-Router-LSA (Type 0x2004)
          8. AS-External-LSA (Type 0x4005)
          9. Link-LSA (0x0008)
          10. Intra-Area-Prefix-LSA (Type 0x2009)
        6. Calculation of the OSPF Routing Table (Dijkstra Algorithm)
          1. Step 1: Intra-area routes
          2. Step 2: Inter-area routes
          3. Step 3: External routes
        7. LSA Flooding
          1. Aging an LSA
          2. Self-originating LSAs
          3. Handling of unknown LSAs
      3. BGP Extensions for IPv6
        1. BGP-4 Overview
          1. Establishing a BGP connection
          2. Route storage and policies
        2. BGP Message Header
        3. OPEN Message
        4. UPDATE Message
        5. BGP Attributes
        6. NOTIFICATION and KEEPALIVE Messages
        7. BGP Extension for IPv6
          1. MP_REACH_NLRI path attribute
          2. MP_UNREACH_NLRI path attribute
      4. Other Routing Protocols for IPv6
        1. Routing IPv6 with IS-IS
          1. Integrated IS-IS
          2. Routing IPv6 with IS-IS
        2. EIGRPv6
    10. 9. Upper-Layer Protocols
      1. UDP/TCP
      2. DHCP
        1. Draft of DHCPv6
        2. Dynamic Updates to DNS
      3. DNS
        1. AAAA Records (RFC 1886)
        2. DNAME and A6 Records (RFC 2672, RFC 2874)
        3. DNS Servers
        4. Resolvers
        5. DNS Lookup
      4. SLP
      5. FTP
      6. Telnet
      7. Web Servers
        1. Browser Support
    11. 10. Interoperability
      1. Dual-Stack Techniques
      2. Tunneling Techniques
        1. How Tunneling Works
        2. Automatic Tunneling (RFC 2893)
        3. Configured Tunneling (RFC 2893)
        4. Combination of Automatic and Configured Tunneling
        5. Encapsulation with IPv6 (RFC 2473)
        6. 6to4 (RFC 3056)
        7. ISATAP
        8. Teredo
        9. A Sample Network Design
      3. Network Address and Protocol Translation
        1. NAT
        2. How Packets Translate
        3. Limitations
        4. Stateless IP/ICMP Translation
          1. Translating IPv4 to IPv6
          2. Translating ICMPv4 to ICMPv6
          3. Translating IPv6 to IPv4
          4. Translating ICMPv6 to ICMPv4
      4. Comparison
        1. Dual Stack
        2. Tunneling
        3. NAT
        4. When to Choose IPv6
      5. Vendor Support
    12. 11. Get Your Hands Dirty
      1. Sun Solaris
        1. Enable IPv6 and Get Started
        2. Utilities
      2. Linux
        1. Where to Get Linux
        2. Installation
        3. Utilities
      3. Microsoft
        1. Windows NT 4.0 and Windows 2000
          1. Installation
          2. Utilities
        2. Windows XP
          1. Installation and configuration
          2. Utilities
          3. 6to4
          4. ISATAP
      4. Applications
      5. Cisco Router
      6. Description of the Tests
        1. Pinging with IPv6
        2. Pinging the 6Bone over the IPv4 Infrastructure
        3. Traceroute with IPv6
        4. Browsing with IPv6
      7. Vendor Support
    13. A. RFCs
      1. Standards
        1. General RFC Information
        2. RFC Index for IPv6
          1. General IPv6 RFCs
          2. RFCs referring to topologies
    14. B. IPv6 Resources
      1. Ethertype Field
      2. Next Header Field Values (ChapterĀ 2)
      3. Reserved Anycast IDs (Chapter 3,RFC 2526)
      4. Values for the Multicast Scope Field (Chapter 3, RFC 2373)
      5. Well-Known Multicast Group Addresses (Chapter 3, RFC 2375)
      6. ICMPv6 Message Types and Code Values (Chapter 4, RFC 2463)
      7. Multicast Group Addresses and Token Ring Functional Addresses (Chapter 7)
      8. Multicast Addresses for SLP over IPv6 (Chapter 9)
      9. Protocol Translation (Chapter 10, RFC 2765)
      10. Current Prefix Allocations
      11. Vendor Support
    15. C. Recommended Reading
    16. Index
    17. Colophon