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IP Routing Protocols

Book Description


1424H-9

The complete guide to IP routing for all network professionals

Four routing protocols-RIP, OSPF, BGP, and the Cisco protocols-are at the heart of IP-based internetworking and the Internet itself. In this comprehensive guide, respected telecommunications consultant Uyless Black teaches network professionals the basics of how to build and manage networks with these protocols. Beginning with an exceptionally helpful tutorial on the fundamentals of route discovery, architecture, and operations, Black presents in-depth coverage of these topics and more:

  • The RIP and OSPF interior gateway protocols: implementation, troubleshooting, and variations

  • Connecting internal networks to the Internet with BGP

  • Enterprise networking with Cisco's Inter-Gateway Routing Protocol (IGRP) and Enhanced Inter-Gateway Routing Protocol (EIGRP)

  • The Private Network-to-Network Interface (PNNI): route advertising, network topology analysis, and connection management for ATM-based networks

From start to finish, IP Routing Protocols focuses on the techniques needed to build large, scalable IP networks with maximum performance and robustness. Whether you're a service provider or an enterprise networking professional, here's the lucid, succinct guide to IP routing protocols you've been searching for.

Table of Contents

  1. Copyright
  2. Colophon
  3. Preface
  4. Introduction
    1. INTRODUCTION
    2. WHY INTERNETWORKING?
    3. WHY ROUTE DISCOVERY?
    4. INTERNETWORKING DEFINITIONS
    5. INTERNETWORKING AND THE INTERNET
    6. FORWARDING AND ROUTING
    7. YET ANOTHER TERM: GATEWAY
    8. PLACEMENT OF ROUTING PROTOCOLS IN THE PROTOCOL STACK
    9. ROUTING DOMAINS
    10. MULTIPLE ROUTING PROTOCOLS
    11. DESIGN GOALS OF ROUTING PROTOCOLS
    12. PREVIEW OF THE ROUTING PROTOCOLS
    13. SUMMARY
  5. Internet Basics
    1. INTRODUCTION
    2. LAN LAYERED ARCHITECTURE
    3. INTERWORKING THE LAN AND WAN PROTOCOL STACKS
    4. MAC OPERATIONS
    5. LOGICAL LINK CONTROL (LLC)
    6. PROCESSING THE IP DATAGRAM AND THE ROUTING TABLE
    7. THE IP HEADER
    8. SUMMARY
    9. FOLLOW-UP READING
  6. Route Discovery Principles
    1. INTRODUCTION
    2. AUTONOMOUS SYSTEMS (AS)
    3. INTERNAL AND EXTERNAL GATEWAY PROTOCOLS
    4. TYPES OF ROUTE ADVERTISING
    5. STATIC ROUTES, DEFAULT ROUTES, AND STUBS
    6. DISTANCE-VECTOR (MINIMUM HOP) PROTOCOLS
    7. LINK STATE PROTOCOLS
    8. LINK STATE PROTOCOLS AND SHORTEST PATH OPERATIONS
    9. ROUTING BETWEEN DOMAINS
    10. RELATIONSHIPS OF ROUTE DISCOVERY TO BRIDGES AND ROUTERS
    11. OPERATING WITH MULTIPLE ROUTING PROTOCOLS
    12. KEY INTERNET ROUTING PROTOCOLS
    13. SUMMARY
    14. FOLLOW-UP READING
  7. Bridges
    1. INTRODUCTION
    2. WHY USE BRIDGES?
    3. THE MAC BRIDGE
    4. THE OTHER BRIDGE LAYERS
    5. TYPES OF BRIDGES
    6. POTENTIAL LOOPING AND BLOCKING PROBLEMS
    7. THE SPANNING TREE OPERATIONS
    8. INTERNETWORKING DIFFERENT LANS
    9. REMOTE BRIDGES
    10. DATA LINK SWITCHING
    11. SUMMARY
    12. Follow-Up Reading
  8. RIP
    1. INTRODUCTION
    2. DEVELOPMENT OF RIP
    3. SCHEME FOR ROUTING UPDATES
    4. PROPAGATING THE UPDATES
    5. UNICAST UPDATES AND DISABLING UPDATES
    6. RIP MESSAGES
    7. CONVERGENCE PROBLEMS
    8. COUNTERACTING MEASURES
    9. TIMER ADJUSTMENTS
    10. CONFIGURING A RIP ROUTING DOMAIN
    11. SUMMARY
    12. FOLLOW-UP READING
  9. OSPF
    1. INTRODUCTION
    2. ATTRIBUTES OF OSPF
    3. ROLE OF THE ROUTER IN OSPF
    4. DESIGN INTENT OF OSPF
    5. DIRECTED GRAPHS
    6. ROUTING DECISIONS
    7. OPERATING OSPF OVER DIFFERENT TYPES OF NETWORKS (MEDIA)
    8. BASIC OPERATIONS OF OSPF
    9. FLOODING ADVERTISEMENTS
    10. OSPF AREAS
    11. VIRTUAL LINKS AND BACKBONES
    12. EXTERNAL LINKS
    13. NOT SO STUBBY AREAS (NSSAS)
    14. DESIGNATED ROUTER FOR A NETWORK
    15. ESTABLISHING LINK COSTS AND PRUNING THE TREE
    16. The OSPF Packets
    17. OTHER RFC-BASED ASPECTS OF OSPF
    18. INTERNETWORKING WITH OTHER ROUTING PROTOCOLS
    19. SECURITY CONSIDERATIONS
    20. CONFIGURING AN OSPF ROUTING DOMAIN
    21. SUMMARY
    22. FOLLOW-UP READING
  10. BGP
    1. INTRODUCTION
    2. ATTRIBUTES OF BGP
    3. BGP NEIGHBORS
    4. BGP “SPEAKERS”
    5. COMMUNITIES
    6. BGP ADVERTISING
    7. CONFIGURATIONS WITH CUSTOMER
    8. BGP POLICY-BASED ARCHITECTURE
    9. PATH SELECTION WITH BGP
    10. SELECTING A PATH
    11. BGP ROUTING MODEL
    12. NONTRANSIT AND TRANSIT ASs
    13. ROUTING DOMAIN CONFEDERATIONS
    14. ROUTE REFLECTORS
    15. BGP MESSAGES
    16. PATH ATTRIBUTES
    17. CONTROLLED DISTRIBUTION OF ROUTING TO ENFORCE TRANSIT POLICIES
    18. CONFIGURING A BGP ROUTING DOMAIN
    19. SUMMARY
    20. FOLLOW-UP READING
  11. Cisco Routing Protocols
    1. INTRODUCTION
    2. IGRP AND EIGRP
    3. IGRP
    4. EIGRP
    5. CONFIGURING THE IGRP ROUTING DOMAIN
    6. CONFIGURING THE EIGRP ROUTING DOMAIN
    7. SUMMARY
    8. FOLLOW-UP READING
  12. PNNI
    1. INTRODUCTION
    2. RATIONALE FOR PNNI
    3. THE PNNI REFERENCE MODEL
    4. THE SIGNALING ATM ADAPTATION LAYER (SAAL)
    5. ATM ADDRESS
    6. THE PHYSICAL NETWORK
    7. PNNI HIERARCHY AND THE LOWEST HIERARCHICAL LEVEL
    8. THE HIERARCHY IN MORE DETAIL
    9. METRIC AGGREGATION
    10. PNNI TOPOLOGY STATE ELEMENTS (PTSEs)
    11. HORIZONTAL AND OUTSIDE LINKS
    12. THE PNNI HIERARCHY IN MORE DETAIL
    13. THE ESSENCE OF PNNI
    14. EXAMPLES OF PNNI ROUTE AND ADDRESS SUMMARIZATION OPERATIONS
    15. PNNI SIGNALING OPERATIONS
    16. EXAMPLES OF PNNI SIGNALING
    17. DESIGNATED TRANSIT LISTS (DTLs)
    18. CRANKBACK AND ALTERNATE ROUTING
    19. SUMMARY
    20. FOLLOW-UP READING
  13. Layered Protocols
    1. THE OSI LAYERED MODEL
    2. END-TO-END COMMUNICATIONS
    3. A CLOSER LOOK AT THE LAYER OPERATIONS
    4. SERVICE ACCESS POINTS (SAPs)
    5. PROTOCOL DATA UNITS (PDUs): FRAMES, PACKETS, AND SUCH
    6. THE OSI AND INTERNET PROTOCOL STACKS
  14. Names, Addresses, Subnetting, Address Masks, and Prefixes
    1. PRINCIPAL ADDRESSES USED IN INTERNET AND INTRANETS
    2. ADDRESS AGGREGATION AND SUBNET MASKS AND PREFIXES
    3. VARIABLE LENGTH SUBMASKS
  15. Address Resolution, Translation, and Configuration
    1. ADDRESS RESOLUTION
    2. THE ADDRESS RESOLUTION PROTOCOL (ARP)
    3. PROXY ARP
    4. REVERSE ARP (RARP)
    5. BOOTP
    6. THE DYNAMIC HOST CONFIGURATION PROTOCOL (DHCP)
    7. THE NETWORK ADDRESS TRANSLATION PROTOCOL
    8. INTERNET CONTROL MANAGEMENT PROTOCOL (ICMP)
  16. The Next HOP Resolution Protocol (NHRP)
    1. PURPOSE OF NHRP
    2. EXAMPLES OF NHRP OPERATIONS
    3. CONFIGURING NHRP ROUTING
  17. Abbreviations