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IP Routing on Cisco IOS, IOS XE, and IOS XR: An Essential Guide to Understanding and Implementing IP Routing Protocols

Book Description

An Essential Guide to Understanding and Implementing IP Routing Protocols

Cisco’s authoritative single-source guide to IP routing protocols for enterprise and service provider environments

Service providers and large enterprises are converging on a common IP infrastructure that supports rapid deployment of high-value services. Demand is soaring for highly skilled IP network engineers who can implement and run these infrastructures. Now, one source combines reliable knowledge about contemporary IP routing protocols and expert hands-on guidance for using them with Cisco IOS, IOS XE, and IOS XR operating systems.

After concisely reviewing the basics, three Cisco experts fully explain static routing, EIGRP, OSPF, IS-IS, and BGP routing protocols. Next, they introduce advanced routing with policies and redistribution, sophisticated BGP-based traffic engineering, and multicast. They present comprehensive coverage of IPv6, from its multicast implementation to its completely revamped address structure. Finally, they discuss advanced high availability techniques, including fast routing convergence.

IP Routing on Cisco IOS, IOS XE, and IOS XR presents each protocol conceptually, with intuitive illustrations, realistic configurations, and appropriate output. To help IOS users master IOS XE and IOS XR, differences in operating systems are explicitly
identified, and side-by-side feature command references are presented.

All content fully aligns with Learning@Cisco, providing efficient self-study for multiple Cisco Career Certifications, including CCNA®/CCNP®/CCIE® Service Provider, CCIE Routing & Switching, Cisco IOS XR Specialist Certification, and the routing components of several additional Cisco Certifications.

Brad Edgeworth, CCIE No. 31574 (R&S & SP) has been with Cisco since 2011 as Systems Engineer and Technical Leader. Formerly a network architect and consultant for various Fortune® 500 companies, his 18 years of IT experience includes extensive architectural and operational work in enterprise and service provider environments. He is a Cisco Live distinguished speaker presenting on IOS XR.

Aaron Foss, CCIE No. 18761 (R&S & SP), a High Touch Engineer with the Cisco Focused Technical Support (FTS) organization, works with large service providers to troubleshoot MPLS, QoS, and IP routing issues. He has more than 15 years of experience designing, deploying, and troubleshooting IP networks. 

Ramiro Garza Rios, CCIE No. 15469 (R&S, SP, and Security), Senior Network Consulting Engineer with Cisco Advanced Services, plans, designs, implements, and optimizes next-generation service provider networks. Before joining Cisco in 2005, he was Network Consulting and Presales Engineer for a Cisco Gold Partner in Mexico, where he planned and deployed both enterprise and service provider networks.

Foreword by Norm Dunn, Senior Product Manager, Learning@Cisco Global Product Management, Service Provider Portfolio

  • Understand how IOS®, IOS XE, and IOS XR operating systems compare

  • Master IPv4 concepts, addressing structure, and subnetting

  • Learn how routers and routing protocols work, and how connected networks and static routes behave from the router’s perspective

  • Work with EIGRP and distance vector routing

  • Deploy basic and advanced OSPF, including powerful techniques for organizing routing domains, path selection, and optimization

  • Compare IS-IS with OSPF, and implement advanced IS-IS multilevel routing, optimization, and path selection

  • Make the most of BGP and route manipulation, including IOS/IOS XE route maps and IOS XR’s highly scalable Route Policy Language

  • Use advanced policy-based route manipulation and filtering

  • Implement route redistribution: rules, potential problems, and solutions

  • Leverage BGP communities, summaries, and other router conservation techniques

  • Discover how IPv6 changes IP address and command structure

  • Establish highly efficient multicast routing in IPv4 and IPv6 environments

  • Systematically improve network availability and operational uptime through event driven detection and fast routing convergence

  • Table of Contents

    1. About This eBook
    2. Title Page
    3. Copyright Page
    4. About the Authors
    5. About the Technical Reviewers
    6. Dedications
    7. Acknowledgments
    8. Contents at a Glance
    9. Contents
    10. Icons Used in This Book
    11. Command Syntax Conventions
    12. Foreword
    13. Introduction
      1. Who Should Read This Book?
      2. How This Book Is Organized
    14. Final Words
    15. Part I: Network Fundamentals
      1. Chapter 1. Introduction to the Operating Systems
        1. IOS, IOS XE, and IOS XR Software Architecture
          1. IOS
            1. Kernel and OS Scheduling
            2. Memory Management
            3. Software Packaging
          2. IOS XE
            1. Kernel and OS Scheduling
            2. Memory Management
          3. IOS XR
            1. Kernel and OS Scheduling
            2. Memory Management
            3. Software Packaging
          4. Debugging
        2. CLI and Configuration
          1. IOS
            1. User Mode
            2. Privileged Mode
            3. Global Configuration Mode
            4. Configuration Archiving
            5. Configuration Replace
          2. IOS XR
            1. Viewing Changes in the SysDB
            2. Commit Label
            3. Commit Replace
            4. Failed Commits
            5. Configuration Rollback
            6. Commit Confirmed
            7. Multiple Commit Options
            8. Loading Files for Changes
            9. Hierarchical Configuration
            10. PWD
            11. Root
        3. Summary
        4. References in This Chapter
      2. Chapter 2. IPv4 Addressing
        1. IP Fundamentals
        2. Understanding Binary
        3. Address Classes
        4. Subnet Masks and Subnetting
          1. Subnet Mask Purpose
          2. Calculating Usable IP Addresses
          3. Network Prefix Notation
          4. Subnetting
            1. Subnet Field
            2. Subnet Math
          5. Subnet Design
        5. Classless Interdomain Routing
          1. Classful Versus Classless Routing
            1. Classful Routing
            2. Classless Routing
          2. Variable-Length Subnet Masks
          3. Summarization
        6. Private IP Addressing
        7. Special IP Addresses
        8. IPv4 Address Configuration
        9. Wildcard Subnet Masks
        10. Summary
        11. References in This Chapter
      3. Chapter 3. How a Router Works
        1. IP Routing
          1. Distance Vector Algorithms
          2. Enhanced Distance Vector Algorithm
          3. Link-State Algorithms
          4. Path Vector Algorithm
          5. Routing Table
            1. Prefix Length
            2. Administrative Distance
            3. Metrics
          6. Virtual Routing and Forwarding
        2. IP Packet Switching
          1. Process Switching
          2. Cisco Express Forwarding
            1. Software CEF
            2. Hardware CEF
        3. Planes of Operation
        4. Summary
        5. References in This Chapter
    16. Part II: Routing Protocols
      1. Chapter 4. Static Routing
        1. Connected Networks
        2. Secondary Connected Networks
        3. Static Routing Fundamentals
          1. Point-to-Point Interfaces
          2. Broadcast Interfaces
          3. Default Route
          4. Floating Static Routing
          5. Recursive Lookup
          6. Multihop Routing
            1. Single Recursive Lookup
            2. Multiple Recursive Lookups
          7. Problems with Static Route Recursion
        4. Null Interface
        5. Static VRF Routes
        6. Summary
        7. References in This Chapter
      2. Chapter 5. EIGRP
        1. EIGRP Fundamentals
        2. EIGRP Neighbors
          1. Inter-Router Communication
          2. Forming EIGRP Neighbors
        3. Classic EIGRP Autonomous System Configuration
          1. IOS network Statement
          2. IOS XR
          3. Passive Interfaces
          4. Sample Topology and Configuration
          5. Confirmation of Interfaces
          6. Verification of EIGRP Neighbor Adjacencies
          7. Display of Installed EIGRP Routes
        4. Router ID
        5. EIGRP Terminology
        6. Topology Table
        7. Path Metric Calculation
          1. Custom K Values
          2. Interface Delay Settings
          3. Load Balancing
          4. EIGRP Wide Metrics
        8. Failure Detection and Timers
          1. Convergence
          2. Stuck in Active
        9. Stub
          1. Design Considerations with EIGRP Stubs
        10. Summarization
          1. Interface-Specific Summarization
          2. Summarization Metrics
          3. Advertising a Default Route
          4. Automatic Summarization
        11. Authentication
          1. Enabling Authentication on the interface
          2. Key Chain Configuration
          3. WAN Considerations
            1. IP Bandwidth Percent
          4. Split Horizon
          5. Next-Hop Self
        12. EIGRP Named Configuration
          1. Address Family Instance Configuration
          2. Address Family Interface Configuration
          3. Address Family Topology Configuration
        13. Summary
        14. References in This Chapter
      3. Chapter 6. OSPF
        1. OSPF Fundamentals
          1. Inter-Router Communication
          2. OSPF Hello Packets
          3. Router ID
          4. Neighbors
          5. Forming OSPF Neighbor Adjacencies
          6. Basic OSPF Configuration
            1. IOS network Statement
            2. IOS Interface Specific
            3. IOS XR
          7. Passive Interfaces
          8. Sample Topology and Configuration
          9. Confirmation of Interfaces
          10. Verification of OSPF Neighbor Adjacencies
          11. Verification of OSPF Routes
        2. Designated Router and Backup Designated Router
          1. Designated Router Elections
          2. DR and BDR Placement
        3. Failure Detection
          1. Hello Timer
          2. Dead Interval Timer
          3. Verifying OSPF Timers
          4. OSPF Fast Packet Hellos
        4. OSPF Network Types
          1. Broadcast
          2. Non-Broadcast
          3. Point-to-Point Networks
          4. Point-to-Multipoint Networks
          5. Loopback Networks
          6. Review of OSPF Network Types
          7. OSPF Adjacency with Different OSPF Network Types
        5. Link Costs
        6. Authentication
          1. IOS Support for OSPF Authentication
          2. IOS XR Support for OSPF Authentication
        7. Summary
        8. References in This Chapter
      4. Chapter 7. Advanced OSPF
        1. Areas
          1. Area ID
          2. OSPF Route Types
            1. External OSPF Routes
        2. Link-State Announcements
          1. LSA Age and Flooding
          2. LSA Types
            1. LSA Type 1: Router Link
            2. LSA Type 2: Network Link
            3. LSA Type 3: Summary Link
            4. LSA Type 5: External Routes
            5. LSA Type 4: ASBR Summary
            6. LSA Type 7: NSSA External Summary
            7. LSA Type Summary
        3. OSPF Path Selection
          1. Intra-Area Routes
          2. Interarea Routes
          3. External Route Selection
          4. E1 and N1 External Routes
          5. E2 and N2 External Routes
          6. Equal Cost Multi-Path
        4. Summarization of Routes
          1. Interarea Summarization
          2. External Summarization
          3. Default Route
        5. OSPF Stubby Areas
          1. Stub Areas
          2. Totally Stubby Areas
          3. Not-So-Stubby Areas
          4. Totally NSSA Areas
        6. Virtual Links
        7. Discontiguous Network
        8. Multi-Area Adjacency
        9. Prefix Suppression
        10. Summary
        11. References in This Chapter
      5. Chapter 8. IS-IS
        1. IS-IS Fundamentals
          1. Areas
          2. OSI Addressing
            1. Inter-Domain Part
            2. Domain Specific Part
            3. NET Addressing
        2. Inter-Router Communication
          1. IS Protocol Header
          2. TLVs
          3. IS PDU Addressing
          4. Hello Packets
          5. Link-State Packets
            1. LSP Lifetime
            2. LSP ID
            3. LSP Sequence
            4. Attribute Fields
            5. LSP Packet and TLVs
          6. IS-IS Neighbor
            1. Ethernet
            2. Point-to-Point
        3. Basic IS-IS Configuration
          1. IOS
          2. IOS XR
          3. Sample Topology and Configuration
          4. Confirmation of IS-IS Interfaces
          5. Verification of IS-IS Neighbor Adjacencies
          6. Verification of IS-IS Routes
        4. Designated Intermediate System
          1. DIS Elections
          2. DIS Placement
        5. Point-to-Point Adjacency on Broadcast Media
        6. Link State Packet Database
          1. Viewing the LSPDB
            1. Non-Pseudonode LSPs
            2. Pseudonode LSPs
          2. Building the Topology
          3. Viewing the Topology
          4. SPF Calculations
        7. Passive Interfaces
        8. Removal of Hello Padding
        9. Failure Detection
          1. Hello Timer
          2. Hello Multiplier and Holding Timer
        10. Authentication
          1. IS-IS Hello Authentication
          2. IS-IS LSP Authentication
        11. Summary
        12. References in This Chapter
      6. Chapter 9. Advanced IS-IS
        1. Advanced IS-IS Routing
          1. Route Leaking
          2. Backbone Continuity
          3. Loop Prevention
          4. Router-Specific IS-IS Levels
          5. Interface Specific IS-IS Levels
        2. Path Selection
          1. Equal Cost Multi-Path
          2. Interface Metrics
          3. Overload Bit
        3. Summarization
        4. Default Routes
        5. Prefix Suppression
        6. Summary
        7. References in This Chapter
      7. Chapter 10. Border Gateway Protocol (BGP)
        1. BGP Fundamentals
          1. Autonomous System Numbers
          2. Path Attributes
          3. Loop Prevention
          4. Address Families
        2. Inter-Router Communication
          1. Open Messages
            1. Hold Time
            2. BGP Identifier
          2. Keepalive Messages
          3. Update Messages
          4. Notification Messages
          5. BGP Sessions
        3. BGP Neighbor States
          1. Idle State
          2. Connect State
          3. Active State
          4. OpenSent State
          5. OpenConfirm State
          6. Established State
        4. Basic BGP Configuration
          1. IOS
          2. IOS XR
          3. Verification of BGP Sessions
          4. Prefix Advertisement
          5. Receiving and Viewing Routes
        5. iBGP
          1. iBGP Full-Mesh Requirement
          2. Peering via Loopback Addresses
        6. eBGP
          1. eBGP and iBGP Topologies
          2. Next-Hop Manipulation
        7. iBGP Scalability
          1. Route Reflectors
            1. Loop Prevention in Route Reflectors
            2. Out-of-Band Route Reflectors
          2. Confederations
        8. Failure Detection
        9. Security
          1. eBGP Multihop
          2. TTL Security
        10. Summary
        11. References in This Chapter
    17. Part III: Advanced Routing Techniques
      1. Chapter 11. Route Maps and Route Policy
        1. Access Control Lists
          1. Standard ACLs
          2. Extended ACLs
            1. IGP Network Selection
            2. BGP Network Selection
        2. Prefix Matching
          1. Prefix Lists
          2. Prefix Sets
          3. Regular Expressions
            1. _ (Underscore)
          4. ^ (Caret)
          5. $ (Dollar Sign)
          6. [ ] (Brackets)
          7. - (Hyphen)
          8. [^] (Caret in Brackets)
          9. ( ) (Parentheses and | Pipe)
          10. . (Period)
          11. + (Plus Sign)
          12. ? (Question Mark)
          13. * (Asterisk)
          14. Looking Glass and Route Servers
        3. AS_Path Access List
        4. IOS XR AS_Path Selection Options
          1. is-local
          2. length
          3. unique-length
          4. passes-through
          5. neighbor-is
          6. originates-from
          7. AS Path Set
        5. Route Maps
          1. Conditional Matching
            1. Multiple Conditional Match Conditions
            2. Complex Matching
          2. Optional Actions
          3. Continue
          4. Route Map Examples
        6. Routing Policy Language
          1. Route Policy Structure
          2. Match Statements
          3. Attribute Modification
          4. Common Route Policy Structure
          5. Boolean Operators
            1. Negation
            2. Conjunction
            3. Disjunction
            4. Order of Processing
          6. Comparing Prefix Sets to Prefix Lists
          7. Parameterization
          8. Route Policy Nesting
          9. Original Value
          10. Editors
          11. RPL Examples
          12. RPL Verification
            1. Redistribution RPL Verification
            2. BGP RPL Verification
        7. Summary
        8. References in This Chapter
      2. Chapter 12. Advanced Route Manipulation
        1. Conditional Routing of Packets
          1. Policy-Based Routing Configuration
          2. Access-List-Based Forwarding Configuration
          3. Local PBR
        2. Administrative Distance
          1. Modifying EIGRP AD
          2. Modifying OSPF AD
          3. Modifying IS-IS AD
          4. Modifying BGP AD
        3. Route Filtering and Manipulation
          1. EIGRP Filtering by Prefix
          2. EIGRP Filtering by Hop Count
          3. EIGRP Offset Lists
          4. OSPF Filtering (Local)
          5. OSPF Filtering (Area)
          6. IS-IS Filtering (Local)
          7. BGP Filtering
          8. Clearing BGP Connections
        4. Summary
        5. References in This Chapter
      3. Chapter 13. Route Redistribution
        1. Redistribution Basics
          1. Redistribution Is Not Transitive
          2. Sequential Protocol Redistribution
          3. Routes Must Exist in the RIB
          4. Metrics
        2. Protocol-Specific Configuration
          1. Source-Specific Behaviors
            1. Connected Networks
            2. IS-IS
            3. BGP
          2. Destination-Specific Behaviors
            1. EIGRP
            2. OSPF
            3. IS-IS
            4. BGP
        3. Challenges with Redistribution
          1. Route Feedback
          2. Suboptimal Routing
          3. Invalid Routing Tables
          4. Routing Loops
          5. Methods to Avoid Routing Loops
            1. Prefix Filtering
            2. Tagging
            3. Increase Seed Metrics
            4. Administrative Distance
            5. Summarization on Redistributing Router
          6. Solutions to Redistribution Challenges
        4. Summary
        5. References in This Chapter
    18. Part IV: Advanced BGP
      1. Chapter 14. Advanced BGP
        1. BGP Communities
          1. Enabling BGP Community Support
          2. Well-Known Communities
            1. Internet
            2. No_Export
            3. No_Advertise
            4. No_Export_SubConfed
          3. Conditionally Matching BGP Communities
            1. Community Set
            2. Inline
            3. Setting Private BGP Communities
        2. Route Summarization
          1. Aggregate Address
          2. Flexible Route Suppression
            1. Selective Prefix Suppression
            2. Leaking Suppressed Routes
          3. Atomic Aggregate
          4. Route Aggregation with AS_SET
          5. Route Aggregation with Selective Advertisement of AS_Set
        3. Default Route Advertisement
        4. Default Route Advertisement Per Neighbor
        5. Conditional Route Advertisement
        6. Outbound Route Filtering
        7. Backdoor Networks
        8. Maximum Autonomous System
        9. Maximum Prefix
        10. Remove Private Autonomous System
        11. Allow Autonomous System
        12. Local Autonomous System
        13. Configuration Scalability
          1. IOS Peer Groups
          2. IOS Peer Templates
          3. IOS XR Configuration Templates
        14. Summary
        15. References in This Chapter
      2. Chapter 15. BGP Best Path Selection
        1. BGP Best Path Overview
          1. Weight
          2. Local Preference
          3. Locally Originated via Network or Aggregate Advertisement
          4. Accumulated Interior Gateway Protocol
          5. Shortest AS_Path
          6. Origin Type
          7. Multi-Exit Discriminator
            1. Missing MED behavior
            2. Always Compare Med
            3. BGP Deterministic MED
          8. eBGP over iBGP
          9. Lowest IGP Metric
          10. Prefer the Oldest EBGP Path
          11. Router ID
          12. Minimum Cluster List Length
          13. Lowest Neighbor Address
        2. BGP ECMP
          1. eBGP and iBGP Multipath
          2. eiBGP Multipath
            1. R1
            2. R2
            3. XR3
            4. XR4
            5. XR5
          3. AS_Path Relax
        3. Suboptimal Routing with Route Reflectors
          1. Additional Route Reflector
          2. Shadow Route Reflector
          3. Shadow Session Route Reflector
          4. BGP Add-Path
        4. Summary
        5. Further Reading
        6. References in This Chapter
    19. Part V: Multicast
      1. Chapter 16. IPv4 Multicast Routing
        1. Multicast Fundamentals
        2. Multicast Addressing
          1. Layer 2 Multicast Addresses
        3. Internet Group Management Protocol
          1. IGMP Snooping
          2. IGMPv2
          3. IGMPv3
        4. Multicast Distribution Trees
          1. Source Trees
          2. Shared Trees
        5. Protocol Independent Multicast
          1. PIM Dense Mode
          2. PIM Sparse Mode
            1. PIM Shared and Source Path Trees
            2. Shared Tree Join
            3. Source Registration
            4. PIM SPT Switchover
            5. Designated Routers
        6. Rendezvous Points
          1. Static RP
          2. Auto-RP
            1. Candidate RPs
            2. RP Mapping Agents
          3. PIM Bootstrap Router
            1. Candidate RPs
        7. Reverse Path Forwarding
        8. PIM Forwarder
        9. Basic Multicast Configuration
          1. Configure Rendezvous Points
            1. Static RP
            2. Auto-RP
            3. BSR
        10. Multicast Verification
        11. Bidirectional PIM
          1. Bidir-PIM Designated Forwarder
        12. Summary
        13. References in This Chapter
      2. Chapter 17. Advanced IPv4 Multicast Routing
        1. Interdomain Multicast Routing
          1. Multiprotocol BGP
          2. Multicast Source Discovery Protocol
            1. MSDP Source Active Message Types
            2. SA Messages
            3. Keepalive Messages
            4. MSDP Peers
            5. MSDP Verification
            6. MSDP Stub Networks
        2. Rendezvous Point Redundancy
          1. Auto-RP with Multiple RPs
            1. Auto-RP Group Filtering
          2. BSR with Multiple RPs
            1. BSR Group Filtering
            2. BSR RP Hash Algorithm
          3. Static RP with Multiple RPs
          4. Anycast RP
        3. Source Specific Multicast
          1. SSM Mapping
            1. DNS SSM Mapping
            2. Static SSM Mapping
        4. Multicast Security
          1. Auto-RP Scoping
          2. Multicast Boundaries
            1. Administratively Scoped Boundaries
            2. Auto-RP Multicast Boundaries
            3. BSR Multicast Boundaries
          3. Auto-RP Cisco-RP-Announce Message Filtering
          4. PIM-SM Source Registration Filtering
          5. PIM-SM Accept RP
          6. PIM Neighbor Control
          7. PIM Register Rate Limit
        5. Multicast Traffic Engineering
          1. RPF Rules
          2. Static Mroutes
          3. MBGP
          4. Static IGMP Joins
        6. Multicast Troubleshooting
          1. Mtrace
        7. Summary
        8. References in This Chapter
    20. Part VI: IPv6
      1. Chapter 18. IPv6 Addressing
        1. IPv6 Address Structure
          1. Text Representation Address Abbreviation
          2. IPv6 Hexadecimal to Binary Conversion
        2. IPv6 Address Types
          1. Unicast
          2. Global Unicast
          3. Unique Local Unicast
          4. Link-Local Unicast
          5. Anycast
          6. Multicast
          7. Special IPv6 Addresses
        3. Neighbor Discovery Protocol
          1. Router, Prefix, and Parameter Discovery.
          2. Redirect
          3. IPv6 Stateless Address Autoconfiguration
            1. Extended Unique Identifier
            2. SLAAC Router Configuration
            3. RA Options for DNS
          4. Stateless DHCPv6
            1. IOS Stateless DHCPv6 Configuration
            2. IOS XR Stateless DHCPv6 Configuration
            3. Stateless DHCPv6 Verification
          5. Stateful DHCPv6, Relay Agent, and Relay Proxy
            1. IOS Relay Agent Configuration
            2. IOS Relay Agent Verification
            3. IOS XR Proxy Agent Configuration
            4. IOS XR Proxy Agent Verification
            5. IOS Stateful DHCPv6 Server Configuration
            6. IOS XR Stateful DHCPv6 Server Configuration
            7. Stateful DHCPv6 Server Verification
          6. IPv6 Address Resolution and Neighbor Unreachability Detection
          7. Duplicate Address Detection
        4. Summary
        5. References in This Chapter
      2. Chapter 19. IPv6 Routing
        1. Static Routing
          1. Static Route Configuration
          2. Static Route Reference Chart for IPv6
        2. EIGRPv6
          1. EIGRPv6 Inter-Router Communication
          2. EIGRPv6 Configuration
            1. IOS EIGRPv6 Autonomous System Configuration (Classic)
            2. IOS EIGRPv6 Hierarchical Configuration (Named Mode)
            3. IOS XR EIGRPv6 Configuration
            4. EIGRPv6 Verification
          3. Summarization
          4. Default Route
          5. Route Filtering
          6. EIGRP Configuration Command Reference Chart for IPv6
        3. OSPFv3
          1. OSPFv3 Inter-Router Communication
          2. OSPFv3 Link-State Advertisement
          3. OSPFv3 LSA Flooding Scope
          4. OSPFv3 Configuration
            1. IOS OSPFv3 Configuration
            2. IOS XR OSPFv3 Configuration
            3. OSPFv3 Verification
          5. OSPFv3 Authentication
          6. OSPFv3 Multiple Instances
          7. OSPFv3 Configuration Command Reference Chart for IPv6
        4. Integrated IS-IS for IPv6
          1. IS-IS Inter-Router Communication
          2. IS-IS Type-Length-Value
          3. IS-IS Topology Modes
          4. IS-IS Configuration
            1. IOS Base Configuration
            2. IOS XR Base Configuration
            3. IOS Topology Mode Configuration
            4. IOS XR Topology Mode Configuration
            5. Verification
          5. IS-IS Configuration Reference Chart for IPv6
        5. Multiprotocol BGP for IPv6
          1. Inter-Router Communication
          2. BGP Configuration
            1. IOS Base Configuration
            2. IOS XR Base Configuration
          3. BGP Verification
          4. IPv6 over IPv4 BGP Sessions
          5. BGP Configuration Command Reference Chart for IPv6
        6. IPv6 Route Redistribution
        7. Summary
        8. References in This Chapter
      3. Chapter 20. IPv6 Multicast Routing
        1. IPv6 Multicast Routing Overview
          1. IPv6 Multicast Address Mapping into MAC Address
          2. Enabling Multicast Routing
          3. Multicast Listener Discovery
          4. Protocol Independent Multicast
          5. PIM Sparse Mode
            1. Static RP
            2. Bootstrap Router
            3. Embedded RP
          6. IPv6 Multicast Verification Commands
          7. Reverse Path Forwarding
          8. Multicast Boundary Scope
          9. PIM Source Specific Multicast
        2. Summary
        3. References in This Chapter
    21. Index
    22. Part VII: High Availability
      1. Chapter 21. High Availability
        1. Network Convergence Overview
        2. Continuous Forwarding
          1. Stateful Switchover
          2. Nonstop Forwarding and Graceful Restart
            1. OSPF
            2. IS-IS
            3. EIGRP
            4. BGP
          3. Nonstop Routing
            1. NSR for OSPF
            2. NSR for IS-IS
            3. NSR for BGP
          4. Nonstop Forwarding and Nonstop Routing Together
        3. Failure Avoidance
          1. Route Flap Dampening
            1. IP Event Dampening
            2. BGP Dampening
        4. Event-Driven Failure Detection
          1. Carrier Delay
          2. BFD
            1. Asynchronous Mode Without Echo
            2. Asynchronous Mode with Echo
            3. BFD Configuration for OSPF, IS-IS, and EIGRP
            4. BFD Configuration for BGP
            5. BFD Configuration for BGP Multihop
            6. BFD Configuration for Static Routes
        5. Fast Routing Convergence
          1. IS-IS Convergence Tuning
          2. OSPF Convergence Tuning
          3. SPF Prefix Prioritization
          4. BGP Convergence Tuning
            1. Next-Hop Tracking
            2. Minimum Route Advertisement Interval
            3. TCP Performance
        6. Fast Reroute
          1. Loop-Free Alternate Fast Reroute
            1. Loop-Free Condition Rules
            2. LFA Protection Modes
            3. OSPF LFA FRR
            4. IS-IS LFA FRR
            5. Shared Risk Link Group
          2. BGP Prefix-Independent Convergence
            1. BGP PIC Core
            2. BGP PIC Edge
            3. BGP PIC Edge Link and Node Protection
            4. BGP PIC Edge with Next-Hop-Self
            5. BGP Advertise Best External
            6. BGP Additional Path
        7. Summary
        8. References in This Chapter
    23. Appendixes
      1. Appendix A. Decimal to Hex to Binary Tables
      2. Appendix B. BGP Attributes
    24. Code Snippets