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IP, Ethernet and MPLS Networks: Resource and Fault Management

Book Description

This book summarizes the key Quality of Service technologies deployed in telecommunications networks: Ethernet, IP, and MPLS. The QoS of the network is made up of two parts: fault and resource management.

Network operation quality is among the functions to be fulfilled in order to offer QoS to the end user. It is characterized by four parameters: packet loss, delay, jitter or the variation of delay over time, and availability. Resource management employs mechanisms that enable the first three parameters to be guaranteed or optimized. Fault management aims to ensure continuity of service.

Table of Contents

  1. Cover
  2. Title Page
  3. Copyright
  4. Preface
  5. Chapter 1: Why Use UML to Model Network Protocols?
    1. 1.1. Basic concepts
      1. 1.1.1. Layered structure
      2. 1.1.2. LANs
      3. 1.1.3. WANs networks
      4. 1.1.4. Protocol architecture
      5. 1.1.5. Addressing principles
    2. 1.2. IP technology
      1. 1.2.1. Routing
      2. 1.2.2. The IPv4 protocol
      3. 1.2.3. The IPv6 protocol
    3. 1.3. The MPLS technology
      1. 1.3.1. Label switching
      2. 1.3.2. Tables in the LSR
      3. 1.3.3. The PHP function
      4. 1.3.4. The format of the MPLS header
      5. 1.3.5. Encapsulation of a labeled packet
    4. 1.4. The ICMP
    5. 1.5. Ethernet technology
      1. 1.5.1. The physical layer
      2. 1.5.2. The data link layer
  6. Chapter 2: Characterizing Quality of Service
    1. 2.1. Quality of service functions
    2. 2.2. Quality of network operation
      1. 2.2.1. Availability
      2. 2.2.2. Admissibility
      3. 2.2.3. Loss ratio
      4. 2.2.4. Delay
      5. 2.2.5. Jitter
      6. 2.2.6. Classes of service
      7. 2.2.7. Bandwidth
    3. 2.3. Requirements of applications
      1. 2.3.1. Voice
      2. 2.3.2. Video
      3. 2.3.3. Application and control data
    4. 2.4. The service contract
      1. 2.4.1. The “Enterprise” section
      2. 2.4.2. The “Service” section
      3. 2.4.3. The “Technology” section
      4. 2.4.4. The Quality of Service report
  7. Chapter 3: Transport Protocols
    1. 3.1. Introduction
    2. 3.2. The TCP
      1. 3.2.1. Format of the TCP header
      2. 3.2.2. Initiating and closing a connection
      3. 3.2.3. Data transfer
      4. 3.2.4. The slow start and congestion avoidance mechanisms
      5. 3.2.5. The fast retransmit and fast recovery mechanisms
      6. 3.2.6. The ECN mechanism
    3. 3.3. The UDP
      1. 3.3.1. Format of the UDP header
    4. 3.4. The RTP
      1. 3.4.1. Format of the RTP header
    5. 3.5. The RTCP
      1. 3.5.1. Format of the SR message
      2. 3.5.2. Format of the RR message
    6. 3.6. The DCCP
      1. 3.6.1. DCCP procedure
      2. 3.6.2. Congestion control
      3. 3.6.3. Format of the DCCP header
      4. 3.6.4. Options
    7. 3.7. The SCTP
      1. 3.7.1. Format of the SCTP header
      2. 3.7.2. Association
      3. 3.7.3. Data transfer
  8. Chapter 4: Implementing Operation Quality
    1. 4.1. The architectural framework
    2. 4.2. Implementation of resource management
      1. 4.2.1. Relative QoS
      2. 4.2.2. Guaranteed QoS
      3. 4.2.3. Resource reservation scenarios
      4. 4.2.4. Mechanisms associated with the user plane
        1. 4.2.4.1. Classification and marking
        2. 4.2.4.2. Policing and shaping
        3. 4.2.4.3. Congestion avoidance
        4. 4.2.4.4. Queue scheduling
      5. 4.2.5. Load balancing
      6. 4.2.6. Link optimization mechanisms
        1. 4.2.6.1. Header compression
        2. 4.2.6.2. The compression protocol
    3. 4.3. Implementing fault management
      1. 4.3.1. Network reconfiguration
      2. 4.3.2. Fault detection
      3. 4.3.3. Equipment reconfiguration
  9. Chapter 5: IP Technology – Resource Management
    1. 5.1. Introduction
    2. 5.2. The DiffServ model
      1. 5.2.1. The DSCP field
      2. 5.2.2. The DiffServ architecture
    3. 5.3. The IntServ model
      1. 5.3.1. Principles of resource reservation
      2. 5.3.2. The RSVP
        1. 5.3.2.1. Format of the RSVP message
        2. 5.3.2.2. Styles of reservation
        3. 5.3.2.3. Procedure of the RSVP protocol
        4. 5.3.2.4. IntServ/DiffServ interoperability
        5. 5.3.2.5. Request refresh
    4. 5.4. The ARSVP protocol
      1. 5.4.1. Principles of aggregation
      2. 5.4.2. The ARSVP procedure
  10. Chapter 6: IP Technology – Fault Management
    1. 6.1. Introduction
    2. 6.2. Hot Standby Router Protocol
      1. 6.2.1. Operating principles
      2. 6.2.2. Format of the HSRP message
      3. 6.2.3. Load balancing
    3. 6.3. Virtual Router Redundancy Protocol
      1. 6.3.1. Operating principles
      2. 6.3.2. Format of the VRRP message
    4. 6.4. OSPF protocol
      1. 6.4.1. Operating principles
      2. 6.4.2. Format of the OSPF message
      3. 6.4.3. Restarting the OSPF protocol
        1. 6.4.3.1. The Restart Signaling mechanism
        2. 6.4.3.2. Graceful Restart mechanism
    5. 6.5. Border Gateway Protocol
      1. 6.5.1. Operating principles
      2. 6.5.2. Format of the BGP message
      3. 6.5.3. Path attributes
      4. 6.5.4. Route selection
      5. 6.5.5. BGP restart
  11. Chapter 7: MPLS Technology – Resource Management
    1. 7.1. Introduction
    2. 7.2. Support for DiffServ
      1. 7.2.1. Types of virtual circuits
      2. 7.2.2. Interaction between markings
    3. 7.3. Traffic engineering
      1. 7.3.1. Operating principles
      2. 7.3.2. The RSVP-TE protocol
        1. 7.3.2.1. Characteristics of the RSVP-TE protocol
        2. 7.3.2.2. Procedure of the RSVP-TE protocol
        3. 7.3.2.3. Make-before-Break mechanism
        4. 7.3.2.4. Traffic transfer
        5. 7.3.2.5. The DS-TE function
      3. 7.3.3. OSPF-TE protocol
  12. Chapter 8: MPLS Technology – Fault Management
    1. 8.1. Introduction
    2. 8.2. The LDP
      1. 8.2.1. Operating principles
      2. 8.2.2. Format of the LDP PDU
      3. 8.2.3. The LDP messages
      4. 8.2.4. Restarting the LDP
        1. 8.2.4.1. The Graceful Restart mechanism
        2. 8.2.4.2. The Fault Tolerant mechanism
    3. 8.3. The RSVP-TE protocol
      1. 8.3.1. Failure detection
      2. 8.3.2. Restarting the RSVP-TE protocol
    4. 8.4. The FRR mechanism
      1. 8.4.1. Operating principles
      2. 8.4.2. Extensions of the RSVP-TE protocol
      3. 8.4.3. Procedure of the FRR mechanism
  13. Chapter 9: Ethernet Technology – Resource Management
    1. 9.1. Introduction
    2. 9.2. Priority management
    3. 9.3. Resource reservation
      1. 9.3.1. The bandwidth manager
      2. 9.3.2. The SBM protocol
        1. 9.3.2.1. Extensions to the RSVP
        2. 9.3.2.2. The election and detection procedure
        3. 9.3.2.3. The resource reservation procedure
    4. 9.4. Flow control
    5. 9.5. The access network
      1. 9.5.1. Architecture of the PON
      2. 9.5.2. Priority management in EPON
      3. 9.5.3. Priority management in GPON
    6. 9.6. The aggregation network
  14. Chapter 10: Ethernet Technology – Fault Management
    1. 10.1. Introduction
    2. 10.2. The STP
      1. 10.2.1. Operating principles
      2. 10.2.2. Format of the BPDU message
      3. 10.2.3. Procedure of the STP
    3. 10.3. The RSTP
      1. 10.3.1. Operating principles
      2. 10.3.2. Format of the BPDU message
      3. 10.3.3. Procedure of the RSTP
    4. 10.4. The MSTP
      1. 10.4.1. Operating principles
      2. 10.4.2. Format of the BPDU message
      3. 10.4.3. Procedure of the MSTP
    5. 10.5. Link aggregation
      1. 10.5.1. Operating principles
      2. 10.5.2. The LACP message
      3. 10.5.3. The Marker protocol
    6. 10.6. The aggregation network
      1. 10.6.1. Operating principles
      2. 10.6.2. The APS protocol
  15. Conclusion
  16. Bibliography
  17. Abbreviations
  18. Index