You are previewing iOS 5 Programming Cookbook.

iOS 5 Programming Cookbook

Cover of iOS 5 Programming Cookbook by Vandad Nahavandipoor Published by O'Reilly Media, Inc.
  1. iOS 5 Programming Cookbook
    1. SPECIAL OFFER: Upgrade this ebook with O’Reilly
    2. A Note Regarding Supplemental Files
    3. Preface
      1. Audience
      2. Organization of This Book
      3. Additional Resources
      4. Conventions Used in This Book
      5. Using Code Examples
      6. We’d Like to Hear from You
      7. Safari® Books Online
      8. Acknowledgments
    4. 1. The Basics
      1. 1.0. Introduction
      2. 1.1. Creating a Simple iOS App in Xcode
      3. 1.2. Understanding Interface Builder
      4. 1.3. Compiling iOS Apps
      5. 1.4. Running iOS Apps on the Simulator
      6. 1.5. Running iOS Apps on iOS Devices
      7. 1.6. Packaging iOS Apps for Distribution
      8. 1.7. Declaring Variables in Objective-C
      9. 1.8. Allocating and Making Use of Strings
      10. 1.9. Comparing Values in Objective-C with an If Statement
      11. 1.10. Implementing Loops with For Statements
      12. 1.11. Implementing While Loops
      13. 1.12. Creating Custom Classes
      14. 1.13. Defining Functionality for Classes
      15. 1.14. Defining Two or More Methods with the Same Name
      16. 1.15. Allocating and Initializing Objects
      17. 1.16. Adding Properties to Classes
      18. 1.17. Moving From Manual Reference Counting to Automatic Reference Counting
      19. 1.18. Typecasting with Automatic Reference Counting
      20. 1.19. Delegating Tasks with Protocols
      21. 1.20. Determining Whether Instance or Class Methods Are Available
      22. 1.21. Determining Whether a Class Is Available at Runtime
      23. 1.22. Allocating and Making Use of Numbers
      24. 1.23. Allocating and Making Use of Arrays
      25. 1.24. Allocating and Making Use of Dictionaries
      26. 1.25. Allocating and Making Use of Sets
      27. 1.26. Creating Bundles
      28. 1.27. Loading Data From the Main Bundle
      29. 1.28. Loading Data From Other Bundles
      30. 1.29. Sending Notifications with NSNotificationCenter
      31. 1.30. Listening for Notifications Sent From NSNotificationCenter
    5. 2. Implementing Controllers and Views
      1. 2.0. Introduction
      2. 2.1. Displaying Alerts with UIAlertView
      3. 2.2. Creating and Using Switches with UISwitch
      4. 2.3. Picking Values with UIPickerView
      5. 2.4. Picking the Date and Time with UIDatePicker
      6. 2.5. Implementing Range Pickers with UISlider
      7. 2.6. Grouping Compact Options with UISegmentedControl
      8. 2.7. Presenting and Managing Views with UIViewController
      9. 2.8. Implementing Navigation with UINavigationController
      10. 2.9. Manipulating a Navigation Controller’s Array of View Controllers
      11. 2.10. Displaying an Image on a Navigation Bar
      12. 2.11. Adding Buttons to Navigation Bars Using UIBarButtonItem
      13. 2.12. Presenting Multiple View Controllers with UITabBarController
      14. 2.13. Displaying Static Text with UILabel
      15. 2.14. Accepting User Text Input with UITextField
      16. 2.15. Displaying Long Lines of Text with UITextView
      17. 2.16. Adding Buttons to the User Interface with UIButton
      18. 2.17. Displaying Images with UIImageView
      19. 2.18. Creating Scrollable Content with UIScrollView
      20. 2.19. Loading Web Pages with UIWebView
      21. 2.20. Presenting Master-Detail Views with UISplitViewController
      22. 2.21. Enabling Paging with UIPageViewController
      23. 2.22. Displaying Popovers with UIPopoverController
      24. 2.23. Displaying Progress with UIProgressView
      25. 2.24. Listening and Reacting to Keyboard Notifications
    6. 3. Constructing and Using Table Views
      1. 3.0. Introduction
      2. 3.1. Instantiating a Table View
      3. 3.2. Assigning a Delegate to a Table View
      4. 3.3. Populating a Table View with Data
      5. 3.4. Receiving and Handling Table View Events
      6. 3.5. Using Different Types of Accessories in a Table View Cell
      7. 3.6. Creating Custom Table View Cell Accessories
      8. 3.7. Displaying Hierarchical Data in Table Views
      9. 3.8. Enabling Swipe Deletion of Table View Cells
      10. 3.9. Constructing Headers and Footers in Table Views
      11. 3.10. Displaying Context Menus on Table Views Cells
      12. 3.11. Moving Cells and Sections in Table Views
      13. 3.12. Deleting Cells and Sections From Table Views
    7. 4. Storyboards
      1. 4.0. Introduction
      2. 4.1. Creating a Project with Storyboards
      3. 4.2. Adding a Navigation Controller to a Storyboard
      4. 4.3. Passing Data From One Screen to Another
      5. 4.4. Adding a Storyboard to an Existing Project
    8. 5. Concurrency
      1. 5.0. Introduction
      2. 5.1. Constructing Block Objects
      3. 5.2. Accessing Variables in Block Objects
      4. 5.3. Invoking Block Objects
      5. 5.4. Dispatching Tasks to Grand Central Dispatch
      6. 5.5. Performing UI-Related Tasks with GCD
      7. 5.6. Performing Non-UI Related Tasks Synchronously with GCD
      8. 5.7. Performing Non-UI Related Tasks Asynchronously with GCD
      9. 5.8. Performing Tasks After a Delay with GCD
      10. 5.9. Performing a Task Only Once with GCD
      11. 5.10. Grouping Tasks Together with GCD
      12. 5.11. Constructing Your Own Dispatch Queues with GCD
      13. 5.12. Running Tasks Synchronously with Operations
      14. 5.13. Running Tasks Asynchronously with Operations
      15. 5.14. Creating Dependency Between Operations
      16. 5.15. Creating Timers
      17. 5.16. Creating Concurrency with Threads
      18. 5.17. Invoking Background Methods
      19. 5.18. Exiting Threads and Timers
    9. 6. Core Location and Maps
      1. 6.0. Introduction
      2. 6.1. Creating a Map View
      3. 6.2. Handling the Events of a Map View
      4. 6.3. Pinpointing the Location of a Device
      5. 6.4. Displaying Pins on a Map View
      6. 6.5. Displaying Pins with Different Colors on a Map View
      7. 6.6. Displaying Custom Pins on a Map View
      8. 6.7. Converting Meaningful Addresses to Longitude and Latitude
      9. 6.8. Converting Longitude and Latitude to a Meaningful Address
    10. 7. Implementing Gesture Recognizers
      1. 7.0. Introduction
      2. 7.1. Detecting Swipe Gestures
      3. 7.2. Detecting Rotation Gestures
      4. 7.3. Detecting Panning and Dragging Gestures
      5. 7.4. Detecting Long Press Gestures
      6. 7.5. Detecting Tap Gestures
      7. 7.6. Detecting Pinch Gestures
    11. 8. Networking, JSON, XML, and Twitter
      1. 8.0. Introduction
      2. 8.1. Downloading Asynchronously with NSURLConnection
      3. 8.2. Handling Timeouts in Asynchronous Connections
      4. 8.3. Downloading Synchronously with NSURLConnection
      5. 8.4. Modifying a URL Request with NSMutableURLRequest
      6. 8.5. Sending HTTP GET Requests with NSURLConnection
      7. 8.6. Sending HTTP POST Requests with NSURLConnection
      8. 8.7. Sending HTTP DELETE Requests with NSURLConnection
      9. 8.8. Sending HTTP PUT Requests with NSURLConnection
      10. 8.9. Serializing Arrays and Dictionaries into JSON
      11. 8.10. Deserializing JSON into Arrays and Dictionaries
      12. 8.11. Integrating Twitter Functionality into Your Apps
      13. 8.12. Parsing XML with NSXMLParser
    12. 9. Audio and Video
      1. 9.0. Introduction
      2. 9.1. Playing Audio Files
      3. 9.2. Handling Interruptions While Playing Audio
      4. 9.3. Recording Audio
      5. 9.4. Handling Interruptions While Recording Audio
      6. 9.5. Playing Audio Over Other Active Sounds
      7. 9.6. Playing Video Files
      8. 9.7. Capturing Thumbnails From a Video File
      9. 9.8. Accessing the Music Library
    13. 10. Address Book
      1. 10.0. Introduction
      2. 10.1. Retrieving a Reference to an Address Book
      3. 10.2. Retrieving All the People in the Address Book
      4. 10.3. Retrieving Properties of Address Book Entries
      5. 10.4. Inserting a Person Entry into the Address Book
      6. 10.5. Inserting a Group Entry into the Address Book
      7. 10.6. Adding Persons to Groups
      8. 10.7. Searching the Address Book
      9. 10.8. Retrieving and Setting a Person’s Address Book Image
    14. 11. Camera and the Photo Library
      1. 11.0. Introduction
      2. 11.1. Detecting and Probing the Camera
      3. 11.2. Taking Photos with the Camera
      4. 11.3. Taking Videos with the Camera
      5. 11.4. Storing Photos in the Photo Library
      6. 11.5. Storing Videos in the Photo Library
      7. 11.6. Retrieving Photos and Videos From the Photo Library
      8. 11.7. Retrieving Assets From the Assets Library
      9. 11.8. Editing Videos on an iOS Device
    15. 12. Multitasking
      1. 12.0. Introduction
      2. 12.1. Detecting the Availability of Multitasking
      3. 12.2. Completing a Long-Running Task in the Background
      4. 12.3. Receiving Local Notifications in the Background
      5. 12.4. Playing Audio in the Background
      6. 12.5. Handling Location Changes in the Background
      7. 12.6. Saving and Loading the State of Multitasking iOS Apps
      8. 12.7. Handling Network Connections in the Background
      9. 12.8. Handling Notifications Delivered to a Waking App
      10. 12.9. Responding to Changes in App Settings
      11. 12.10. Opting Out of Multitasking
    16. 13. Core Data
      1. 13.0. Introduction
      2. 13.1. Creating a Core Data Model with Xcode
      3. 13.2. Generating Class Files for Core Data Entities
      4. 13.3. Creating and Saving Data Using Core Data
      5. 13.4. Reading Data From Core Data
      6. 13.5. Deleting Data From Core Data
      7. 13.6. Sorting Data in Core Data
      8. 13.7. Boosting Data Access in Table Views
      9. 13.8. Implementing Relationships in Core Data
    17. 14. Dates, Calendars, and Events
      1. 14.0. Introduction
      2. 14.1. Retrieving the List of Calendars
      3. 14.2. Adding Events to Calendars
      4. 14.3. Accessing the Contents of Calendars
      5. 14.4. Removing Events From Calendars
      6. 14.5. Adding Recurring Events to Calendars
      7. 14.6. Retrieving the Attendees of an Event
      8. 14.7. Adding Alarms to Calendars
      9. 14.8. Handling Event Changed Notifications
      10. 14.9. Presenting Event View Controllers
      11. 14.10. Presenting Event Edit View Controllers
    18. 15. Graphics and Animations
      1. 15.0. Introduction
      2. 15.1. Enumerating and Loading Fonts
      3. 15.2. Drawing Text
      4. 15.3. Constructing, Setting, and Using Colors
      5. 15.4. Drawing Images
      6. 15.5. Drawing Lines
      7. 15.6. Constructing Paths
      8. 15.7. Drawing Rectangles
      9. 15.8. Adding Shadows to Shapes
      10. 15.9. Drawing Gradients
      11. 15.10. Displacing Shapes Drawn on Graphic Contexts
      12. 15.11. Scaling Shapes Drawn on Graphic Contexts
      13. 15.12. Rotating Shapes Drawn on Graphic Contexts
      14. 15.13. Animating and Moving Views
      15. 15.14. Animating and Scaling Views
      16. 15.15. Animating and Rotating Views
    19. 16. Core Motion
      1. 16.0. Introduction
      2. 16.1. Detecting the Availability of an Accelerometer
      3. 16.2. Detecting the Availability of a Gyroscope
      4. 16.3. Retrieving Accelerometer Data
      5. 16.4. Detecting Shakes on an iOS Device
      6. 16.5. Retrieving Gyroscope Data
    20. 17. iCloud
      1. 17.0. Introduction
      2. 17.1. Setting Up Your App for iCloud
      3. 17.2. Storing and Synchronizing Dictionaries in iCloud
      4. 17.3. Creating and Managing Folders for Apps in iCloud
      5. 17.4. Searching for Files and Folders in iCloud
      6. 17.5. Storing User Documents in iCloud
      7. 17.6. Managing the State of Documents in iCloud
      8. 17.7. Handling Conflicts in iCloud Documents
    21. Index
    22. About the Author
    23. Colophon
    24. SPECIAL OFFER: Upgrade this ebook with O’Reilly

1.18. Typecasting with Automatic Reference Counting


You want to know how to use new typecasting facilities under Automatic Reference Counting in order to avoid memory leaks when working with Core Foundation objects inside your Objective-C code.


Use the __bridge, __bridge_transfer, and __bridge_retained typecasting specifiers.


Typecasting is the process of pointing one value of type A to another value of type B. For instance, if you have a Core Foundation string object of type CFStringRef and you would like to place it inside an Objective-C string of type NSString, you can easily create an error:

- (BOOL)            application:(UIApplication *)application
  didFinishLaunchingWithOptions:(NSDictionary *)launchOptions{

  CFStringRef coreFoundationString =
                            "C String",

  /* Compile time error!!! */
  NSString *objCString = coreFoundationString;

  self.window = [[UIWindow alloc] initWithFrame:
                 [[UIScreen mainScreen] bounds]];

  self.window.backgroundColor = [UIColor whiteColor];
  [self.window makeKeyAndVisible];
  return YES;

Here we are assigning the value of the Core Foundation string coreFoundationString to the Objective-C string of type NSString named objCString, our compiler will get confused because it doesn’t know what we are intending to do with the memory assigned to each one of these objects. Additionally, we will end up with a memory leak because the compiler doesn’t know how to get rid of the Core Foundation object for us automatically. Remember that Automatic Reference Counting does not work for Core Foundation objects, so we need to assist the compiler. To do this, let’s try to understand what each one of these typecasting specifiers does:


Simply typecasts the object on the right side of the equation to the left side. This will not modify the retain count on any of the objects; neither the one on the left nor the one on the right side of the equation.


This typecast will assign the object on the right side to the object on the left and will release the object on the right side. So if you have a Core Foundation string, like the one we saw before, that you have just created and want to place it inside a local variable of type NSString (local variables are by default strong, see Recipe 1.17), then you should use this typecasting option because then you wouldn’t have to release the Core Foundation string after the assignment. We will see an example of this soon.


This is similar to the __bridge_transfer typecast, but will retain the object on the right side of the equation as well.

Let’s try to fix the example code we saw before. Our goal is to place the Core Foundation string into an instance of NSString (strong, by default) and then automatically release the Core Foundation string. To do this, we must use the __bridge_transfer typecasting option:

- (BOOL)            application:(UIApplication *)application
  didFinishLaunchingWithOptions:(NSDictionary *)launchOptions{

  CFStringRef coreFoundationString =
                            "C String",

  /* Compile time error!!! */
  NSString *objCString = (__bridge_transfer NSString *)coreFoundationString;

  NSLog(@"String = %@", objCString);

  self.window = [[UIWindow alloc] initWithFrame:
                 [[UIScreen mainScreen] bounds]];

  self.window.backgroundColor = [UIColor whiteColor];
  [self.window makeKeyAndVisible];
  return YES;

What happened here was that we created a new Core Foundation object. The retain count on this object is 1 at this time. Then we typecasted and assigned it, using the __bridge_transfer typecast option, to a strong local variable of type NSString. But this time, because the compiler sees the typecasting, it will retain the Core Foundation string and place it inside the local variable (since the local variable is strong by default) and after the assignment, will release the Core Foundation string. Perfect! Exactly what we wanted.

Now let’s have a look at when we would use __bridge_retained. This typecasting option is used whenever we would like the object on the right side of the equation to still exist after the assignment. Here is an example:

- (BOOL)            application:(UIApplication *)application
  didFinishLaunchingWithOptions:(NSDictionary *)launchOptions{

  CFStringRef coreFoundationString =
                            "C String",

  id unknownObjectType = (__bridge id)coreFoundationString;

  CFStringRef anotherString = (__bridge_retained CFStringRef)unknownObjectType;

  NSString *objCString = (__bridge_transfer NSString *)coreFoundationString;
  NSLog(@"String = %@", objCString);
  objCString = nil;


  self.window = [[UIWindow alloc] initWithFrame:
                 [[UIScreen mainScreen] bounds]];

  self.window.backgroundColor = [UIColor whiteColor];
  [self.window makeKeyAndVisible];
  return YES;

Here is what is happening in this code:

  1. We allocated a Core Foundation string and placed it inside the coreFoundationString local variable. Since this is a Core Foundation object, ARC will not apply storage attributes to it, so we need to handle its memory manually. Its retain count is 1, as with any newly created variable.

  2. Then we typecast this Core Foundation string to a generic object of type id. Note that we didn’t retain or release this object, so the retain count on both unknownObjectType and coreFoundationString stays 1. We simply typecasted it to an object of type id.

  3. Now we are retaining the generic object of type id and placing the resulting object into another Core Foundation string. At this time, the retain count on the coreFoundationString, unknownObjectType, and anotherString variables is 2 and all three of these variables point to the same location in the memory.

  4. What we are doing after that is to assign the value inside coreFoundationString to a strong local NSString using the __bridge_transfer typecasting option. This will make sure that the coreFoundationString object will get released after this assignment (the retain count will go from 2 to 1) and it will again be retained (because of the strong NSString variable, shooting the retain count from 1 to 2 again) So now coreFoundationString, unknownObjectType, anotherString and the objCString variables all point to the same string with the retain count of 2.

  5. The next stop is setting our strong local variable objCString to nil. This will release this variable and our string’s retain count will go back to 1. All these local variables are still valid and you can read from them because the retain count of the string that all of them point to is still 1.

  6. Then we are explicitly releasing the value in the anotherString variable. This will set the release count of our object from 1 to 0 and our string object will get deallocated. At this point, you should not use any of these local variables because they are pointing to a deallocated object—except for the objCString strong local variable, whose value was set to nil by us.

See Also

Recipe 1.17

The best content for your career. Discover unlimited learning on demand for around $1/day.