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iOS 5 Programming Cookbook

Cover of iOS 5 Programming Cookbook by Vandad Nahavandipoor Published by O'Reilly Media, Inc.
  1. iOS 5 Programming Cookbook
    1. SPECIAL OFFER: Upgrade this ebook with O’Reilly
    2. A Note Regarding Supplemental Files
    3. Preface
      1. Audience
      2. Organization of This Book
      3. Additional Resources
      4. Conventions Used in This Book
      5. Using Code Examples
      6. We’d Like to Hear from You
      7. Safari® Books Online
      8. Acknowledgments
    4. 1. The Basics
      1. 1.0. Introduction
      2. 1.1. Creating a Simple iOS App in Xcode
      3. 1.2. Understanding Interface Builder
      4. 1.3. Compiling iOS Apps
      5. 1.4. Running iOS Apps on the Simulator
      6. 1.5. Running iOS Apps on iOS Devices
      7. 1.6. Packaging iOS Apps for Distribution
      8. 1.7. Declaring Variables in Objective-C
      9. 1.8. Allocating and Making Use of Strings
      10. 1.9. Comparing Values in Objective-C with an If Statement
      11. 1.10. Implementing Loops with For Statements
      12. 1.11. Implementing While Loops
      13. 1.12. Creating Custom Classes
      14. 1.13. Defining Functionality for Classes
      15. 1.14. Defining Two or More Methods with the Same Name
      16. 1.15. Allocating and Initializing Objects
      17. 1.16. Adding Properties to Classes
      18. 1.17. Moving From Manual Reference Counting to Automatic Reference Counting
      19. 1.18. Typecasting with Automatic Reference Counting
      20. 1.19. Delegating Tasks with Protocols
      21. 1.20. Determining Whether Instance or Class Methods Are Available
      22. 1.21. Determining Whether a Class Is Available at Runtime
      23. 1.22. Allocating and Making Use of Numbers
      24. 1.23. Allocating and Making Use of Arrays
      25. 1.24. Allocating and Making Use of Dictionaries
      26. 1.25. Allocating and Making Use of Sets
      27. 1.26. Creating Bundles
      28. 1.27. Loading Data From the Main Bundle
      29. 1.28. Loading Data From Other Bundles
      30. 1.29. Sending Notifications with NSNotificationCenter
      31. 1.30. Listening for Notifications Sent From NSNotificationCenter
    5. 2. Implementing Controllers and Views
      1. 2.0. Introduction
      2. 2.1. Displaying Alerts with UIAlertView
      3. 2.2. Creating and Using Switches with UISwitch
      4. 2.3. Picking Values with UIPickerView
      5. 2.4. Picking the Date and Time with UIDatePicker
      6. 2.5. Implementing Range Pickers with UISlider
      7. 2.6. Grouping Compact Options with UISegmentedControl
      8. 2.7. Presenting and Managing Views with UIViewController
      9. 2.8. Implementing Navigation with UINavigationController
      10. 2.9. Manipulating a Navigation Controller’s Array of View Controllers
      11. 2.10. Displaying an Image on a Navigation Bar
      12. 2.11. Adding Buttons to Navigation Bars Using UIBarButtonItem
      13. 2.12. Presenting Multiple View Controllers with UITabBarController
      14. 2.13. Displaying Static Text with UILabel
      15. 2.14. Accepting User Text Input with UITextField
      16. 2.15. Displaying Long Lines of Text with UITextView
      17. 2.16. Adding Buttons to the User Interface with UIButton
      18. 2.17. Displaying Images with UIImageView
      19. 2.18. Creating Scrollable Content with UIScrollView
      20. 2.19. Loading Web Pages with UIWebView
      21. 2.20. Presenting Master-Detail Views with UISplitViewController
      22. 2.21. Enabling Paging with UIPageViewController
      23. 2.22. Displaying Popovers with UIPopoverController
      24. 2.23. Displaying Progress with UIProgressView
      25. 2.24. Listening and Reacting to Keyboard Notifications
    6. 3. Constructing and Using Table Views
      1. 3.0. Introduction
      2. 3.1. Instantiating a Table View
      3. 3.2. Assigning a Delegate to a Table View
      4. 3.3. Populating a Table View with Data
      5. 3.4. Receiving and Handling Table View Events
      6. 3.5. Using Different Types of Accessories in a Table View Cell
      7. 3.6. Creating Custom Table View Cell Accessories
      8. 3.7. Displaying Hierarchical Data in Table Views
      9. 3.8. Enabling Swipe Deletion of Table View Cells
      10. 3.9. Constructing Headers and Footers in Table Views
      11. 3.10. Displaying Context Menus on Table Views Cells
      12. 3.11. Moving Cells and Sections in Table Views
      13. 3.12. Deleting Cells and Sections From Table Views
    7. 4. Storyboards
      1. 4.0. Introduction
      2. 4.1. Creating a Project with Storyboards
      3. 4.2. Adding a Navigation Controller to a Storyboard
      4. 4.3. Passing Data From One Screen to Another
      5. 4.4. Adding a Storyboard to an Existing Project
    8. 5. Concurrency
      1. 5.0. Introduction
      2. 5.1. Constructing Block Objects
      3. 5.2. Accessing Variables in Block Objects
      4. 5.3. Invoking Block Objects
      5. 5.4. Dispatching Tasks to Grand Central Dispatch
      6. 5.5. Performing UI-Related Tasks with GCD
      7. 5.6. Performing Non-UI Related Tasks Synchronously with GCD
      8. 5.7. Performing Non-UI Related Tasks Asynchronously with GCD
      9. 5.8. Performing Tasks After a Delay with GCD
      10. 5.9. Performing a Task Only Once with GCD
      11. 5.10. Grouping Tasks Together with GCD
      12. 5.11. Constructing Your Own Dispatch Queues with GCD
      13. 5.12. Running Tasks Synchronously with Operations
      14. 5.13. Running Tasks Asynchronously with Operations
      15. 5.14. Creating Dependency Between Operations
      16. 5.15. Creating Timers
      17. 5.16. Creating Concurrency with Threads
      18. 5.17. Invoking Background Methods
      19. 5.18. Exiting Threads and Timers
    9. 6. Core Location and Maps
      1. 6.0. Introduction
      2. 6.1. Creating a Map View
      3. 6.2. Handling the Events of a Map View
      4. 6.3. Pinpointing the Location of a Device
      5. 6.4. Displaying Pins on a Map View
      6. 6.5. Displaying Pins with Different Colors on a Map View
      7. 6.6. Displaying Custom Pins on a Map View
      8. 6.7. Converting Meaningful Addresses to Longitude and Latitude
      9. 6.8. Converting Longitude and Latitude to a Meaningful Address
    10. 7. Implementing Gesture Recognizers
      1. 7.0. Introduction
      2. 7.1. Detecting Swipe Gestures
      3. 7.2. Detecting Rotation Gestures
      4. 7.3. Detecting Panning and Dragging Gestures
      5. 7.4. Detecting Long Press Gestures
      6. 7.5. Detecting Tap Gestures
      7. 7.6. Detecting Pinch Gestures
    11. 8. Networking, JSON, XML, and Twitter
      1. 8.0. Introduction
      2. 8.1. Downloading Asynchronously with NSURLConnection
      3. 8.2. Handling Timeouts in Asynchronous Connections
      4. 8.3. Downloading Synchronously with NSURLConnection
      5. 8.4. Modifying a URL Request with NSMutableURLRequest
      6. 8.5. Sending HTTP GET Requests with NSURLConnection
      7. 8.6. Sending HTTP POST Requests with NSURLConnection
      8. 8.7. Sending HTTP DELETE Requests with NSURLConnection
      9. 8.8. Sending HTTP PUT Requests with NSURLConnection
      10. 8.9. Serializing Arrays and Dictionaries into JSON
      11. 8.10. Deserializing JSON into Arrays and Dictionaries
      12. 8.11. Integrating Twitter Functionality into Your Apps
      13. 8.12. Parsing XML with NSXMLParser
    12. 9. Audio and Video
      1. 9.0. Introduction
      2. 9.1. Playing Audio Files
      3. 9.2. Handling Interruptions While Playing Audio
      4. 9.3. Recording Audio
      5. 9.4. Handling Interruptions While Recording Audio
      6. 9.5. Playing Audio Over Other Active Sounds
      7. 9.6. Playing Video Files
      8. 9.7. Capturing Thumbnails From a Video File
      9. 9.8. Accessing the Music Library
    13. 10. Address Book
      1. 10.0. Introduction
      2. 10.1. Retrieving a Reference to an Address Book
      3. 10.2. Retrieving All the People in the Address Book
      4. 10.3. Retrieving Properties of Address Book Entries
      5. 10.4. Inserting a Person Entry into the Address Book
      6. 10.5. Inserting a Group Entry into the Address Book
      7. 10.6. Adding Persons to Groups
      8. 10.7. Searching the Address Book
      9. 10.8. Retrieving and Setting a Person’s Address Book Image
    14. 11. Camera and the Photo Library
      1. 11.0. Introduction
      2. 11.1. Detecting and Probing the Camera
      3. 11.2. Taking Photos with the Camera
      4. 11.3. Taking Videos with the Camera
      5. 11.4. Storing Photos in the Photo Library
      6. 11.5. Storing Videos in the Photo Library
      7. 11.6. Retrieving Photos and Videos From the Photo Library
      8. 11.7. Retrieving Assets From the Assets Library
      9. 11.8. Editing Videos on an iOS Device
    15. 12. Multitasking
      1. 12.0. Introduction
      2. 12.1. Detecting the Availability of Multitasking
      3. 12.2. Completing a Long-Running Task in the Background
      4. 12.3. Receiving Local Notifications in the Background
      5. 12.4. Playing Audio in the Background
      6. 12.5. Handling Location Changes in the Background
      7. 12.6. Saving and Loading the State of Multitasking iOS Apps
      8. 12.7. Handling Network Connections in the Background
      9. 12.8. Handling Notifications Delivered to a Waking App
      10. 12.9. Responding to Changes in App Settings
      11. 12.10. Opting Out of Multitasking
    16. 13. Core Data
      1. 13.0. Introduction
      2. 13.1. Creating a Core Data Model with Xcode
      3. 13.2. Generating Class Files for Core Data Entities
      4. 13.3. Creating and Saving Data Using Core Data
      5. 13.4. Reading Data From Core Data
      6. 13.5. Deleting Data From Core Data
      7. 13.6. Sorting Data in Core Data
      8. 13.7. Boosting Data Access in Table Views
      9. 13.8. Implementing Relationships in Core Data
    17. 14. Dates, Calendars, and Events
      1. 14.0. Introduction
      2. 14.1. Retrieving the List of Calendars
      3. 14.2. Adding Events to Calendars
      4. 14.3. Accessing the Contents of Calendars
      5. 14.4. Removing Events From Calendars
      6. 14.5. Adding Recurring Events to Calendars
      7. 14.6. Retrieving the Attendees of an Event
      8. 14.7. Adding Alarms to Calendars
      9. 14.8. Handling Event Changed Notifications
      10. 14.9. Presenting Event View Controllers
      11. 14.10. Presenting Event Edit View Controllers
    18. 15. Graphics and Animations
      1. 15.0. Introduction
      2. 15.1. Enumerating and Loading Fonts
      3. 15.2. Drawing Text
      4. 15.3. Constructing, Setting, and Using Colors
      5. 15.4. Drawing Images
      6. 15.5. Drawing Lines
      7. 15.6. Constructing Paths
      8. 15.7. Drawing Rectangles
      9. 15.8. Adding Shadows to Shapes
      10. 15.9. Drawing Gradients
      11. 15.10. Displacing Shapes Drawn on Graphic Contexts
      12. 15.11. Scaling Shapes Drawn on Graphic Contexts
      13. 15.12. Rotating Shapes Drawn on Graphic Contexts
      14. 15.13. Animating and Moving Views
      15. 15.14. Animating and Scaling Views
      16. 15.15. Animating and Rotating Views
    19. 16. Core Motion
      1. 16.0. Introduction
      2. 16.1. Detecting the Availability of an Accelerometer
      3. 16.2. Detecting the Availability of a Gyroscope
      4. 16.3. Retrieving Accelerometer Data
      5. 16.4. Detecting Shakes on an iOS Device
      6. 16.5. Retrieving Gyroscope Data
    20. 17. iCloud
      1. 17.0. Introduction
      2. 17.1. Setting Up Your App for iCloud
      3. 17.2. Storing and Synchronizing Dictionaries in iCloud
      4. 17.3. Creating and Managing Folders for Apps in iCloud
      5. 17.4. Searching for Files and Folders in iCloud
      6. 17.5. Storing User Documents in iCloud
      7. 17.6. Managing the State of Documents in iCloud
      8. 17.7. Handling Conflicts in iCloud Documents
    21. Index
    22. About the Author
    23. Colophon
    24. SPECIAL OFFER: Upgrade this ebook with O’Reilly
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1.8. Allocating and Making Use of Strings

Problem

You want work with strings in Objective-C

Solution

Use NSString and NSMutableString classes.

Discussion

The NSString and NSMutableString classes allow you to store a string of characters in memory. The NSString class is immutable, meaning that once it is created, its contents cannot be modified. Mutable strings represented with the NSMutableString can be modified once they are created. We will see an example of both of these classes very soon.

Objective-C strings should be placed inside double quotes. The starting double-quote should be prefixed with an at sign (@). For instance, the sentence Hello, World, represented as a string in Objective-C, is written like so:

@"Hello, World"

There are various ways of placing a string inside an instance of NSString or NSMutableString classes. Here is how:

NSString *simpleString = @"This is a simple string";

NSString *anotherString =
  [NSString stringWithString:@"This is another simple string"];

NSString *oneMorestring =
  [[NSString alloc] initWithString:@"One more!"];

NSMutableString *mutableOne =
  [NSMutableString stringWithString:@"Mutable String"];

NSMutableString *anotherMutableOne =
  [[NSMutableString alloc] initWithString:@"A retained one"];

NSMutableString *thirdMutableOne =
  [NSMutableString stringWithString:simpleString];

If you are working with strings, you are probably going to need the length of your string objects from time to time to make specific decisions at runtime. Imagine this scenario: you have asked your user to enter her name in a text field. When she presses the button to confirm her name, you would need to check whether she has in fact entered her name. You can do this by calling the length method on an instance of NSString or any of its subclasses, including NSMutableString, as shown here:

NSString *userName = ...;

if ([userName length] == 0){
  /* The user didn't enter her name */
} else {
  /* The user did in fact enter her name */
}

Another thing that you might want to know about strings is how you can convert a string to its equivalent integral value, i.e., converting a string to an integer, float, or double. You can use the integerValue, floatValue, and doubleValue methods of NSString (or any of its subclasses) to retrieve the integer, float and double values of a string, like so:

NSString *simpleString = @"123.456";

NSInteger integerOfString = [simpleString integerValue];
NSLog(@"integerOfString = %ld", (long)integerOfString);

CGFloat floatOfString = [simpleString floatValue];
NSLog(@"floatOfString = %f", floatOfString);

double doubleOfString = [simpleString doubleValue];
NSLog(@"doubleOfString = %f", doubleOfString);

The output of this code is:

integerOfString = 123
floatOfString = 123.456001
doubleOfString = 123.456000

If you would like to work with C Strings, you can! You will use them like NSString without the leading at sign, like so:

char *cString = "This is a C String";

If you want to convert an NSString to a C String, you must use the UTF8String method of NSString, like so:

const char *cString = [@"Objective-C String" UTF8String];
NSLog(@"cString = %s", cString);

Note

You can use the %s format specifier to print a C String out to the console,. In comparison, use the %@ format specifier to print out NSString objects.

To convert a C String to NSString, you must use the stringWithUTF8String: method of the NSString class, as demonstrated here:

NSString *objectString = [NSString stringWithUTF8String:"C String"];
NSLog(@"objectString = %@", objectString);

In order to find a string inside another string, you can use the rangeOfString: method of NSString. The return value of this method is of type NSRange:

typedef struct _NSRange {
  NSUInteger location;
  NSUInteger length;
} NSRange;

If the string that you are looking for (needle) is found inside the target string (haystack), the location member of the NSRange structure will be set to the zero-based index of the first character of needle in haystack. If needle cannot be found in haystack, the location member gets set to NSNotFound. Let’s have a look at an example:

NSString *haystack = @"My Simple String";
NSString *needle = @"Simple";
NSRange  range = [haystack rangeOfString:needle];

if (range.location == NSNotFound){
  /* Could NOT find needle in haystack */
} else {
  /* Found the needle in the haystack */
  NSLog(@"Found %@ in %@ at location %lu",
        needle,
        haystack,
        (unsigned long)range.location);
}

Note

The search done by the rangeOfString: method of NSString class is case-sensitive.

Note

In Platform Dependencies section of the String Programming Guide published by Apple, it’s been explained why we need to typecast integral values with specifiers such as unsigned long. I highly recommend that you visit the aforementioned guide online.

If you want to have more control over how your search is done on a string, you can use the rangeOfString:options: method, where the optionsparameter is of type NSStringCompareOptions.

enum {
    NSCaseInsensitiveSearch = 1,
    NSLiteralSearch = 2,
    NSBackwardsSearch = 4,
    NSAnchoredSearch = 8,
    NSNumericSearch = 64,
    NSDiacriticInsensitiveSearch = 128,
    NSWidthInsensitiveSearch = 256,
    NSForcedOrderingSearch = 512,
    NSRegularExpressionSearch = 1024
  };
  typedef NSUInteger NSStringCompareOptions;

As you can see, the values in this enumeration are multiples of 2. That indicates that you can mix them with the logical OR operator (the | pipe character). Let’s say we want to search for a string inside another string but we are not concerned about the case-sensitivity of the search. All we want is to find a string inside another string, whether the case matches or not. Here is how we can do it:

NSString *haystack = @"My Simple String";
NSString *needle = @"simple";
NSRange  range = [haystack rangeOfString:needle
                                 options:NSCaseInsensitiveSearch];

if (range.location == NSNotFound){
  /* Could NOT find needle in haystack */
} else {
  /* Found the needle in the haystack */
  NSLog(@"Found %@ in %@ at location %lu",
        needle,
        haystack,
        (unsigned long)range.location);
}

You can see that we are using the rangeOfString:options: method of NSString with the NSCaseInsensitiveSearch value, which tells the runtime that we want the search to be performed without any regard to case-sensitivity.

Mutable strings are similar to immutable strings. However, they can be modified during runtime. Let’s see an example:

NSMutableString *mutableString =
  [[NSMutableString alloc] initWithString:@"My MacBook"];

/* Add string to the end of this string */
[mutableString appendString:@" Pro"];

/* Remove the "My " string from the string */
[mutableString
 replaceOccurrencesOfString:@"My "
 withString:[NSString string] /* Empty string */
 options:NSCaseInsensitiveSearch /* Case-insensitive */
 range:NSMakeRange(0, [mutableString length])]; /* All to the end */

NSLog(@"mutableString = %@", mutableString);

When the mutableString string gets printed to the console, you will see this:

mutableString = MacBook Pro

You can see that we started with the string "My MacBook" and then removed the "My " string from that original string. So now we have "MacBook". After this, we appended the string " Pro" to the end of this string to get the final value, which is "MacBook Pro".

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