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Intuitive Analog Circuit Design

Book Description

Intuitive Analog Circuit Design outlines ways of thinking about analog circuits and systems that let you develop a feel for what a good, working analog circuit design should be. This book reflects author Marc Thompson's 30 years of experience designing analog and power electronics circuits and teaching graduate-level analog circuit design, and is the ideal reference for anyone who needs a straightforward introduction to the subject.

In this book, Dr. Thompson describes intuitive and "back-of-the-envelope" techniques for designing and analyzing analog circuits, including transistor amplifiers (CMOS, JFET, and bipolar), transistor switching, noise in analog circuits, thermal circuit design, magnetic circuit design, and control systems. The application of some simple rules of thumb and design techniques is the first step in developing an intuitive understanding of the behavior of complex electrical systems.

Introducing analog circuit design with a minimum of mathematics, this book uses numerous real-world examples to help you make the transition to analog design. The second edition is an ideal introductory text for anyone new to the area of analog circuit design.

  • LTSPICE files and PowerPoint files available online to assist readers and instructors in simulating circuits found in the text
  • Design examples are used throughout the text, along with end-of-chapter examples
  • Covers real-world parasitic elements in circuit design and their effects

Table of Contents

  1. Cover image
  2. Title page
  3. Table of Contents
  4. Copyright
  5. Dedication
    1. In memoriam
  6. Preface to the Second Edition
    1. Changes in the second edition
    2. Software used by the author
    3. Thanks
    4. From a Next Generation Analog Designer (?)
  7. Chapter 1. Introduction and Motivation
    1. Abstract
    2. The need for analog designers
    3. Some early history of technological advances in analog integrated circuits
    4. Digital vs. analog implementation: designer's choice
    5. So, why do we become analog designers?
    6. Note on nomenclature in this text
    7. Note on coverage in this book
    8. Further reading
  8. Chapter 2. Review of Signal Processing Basics
    1. Abstract
    2. Review of Laplace transforms, transfer functions, and pole-zero plots
    3. First-order system response
    4. Second-order systems
    5. Free vibration of damped, second-order system
    6. Logarithmic decrement
    7. Higher order systems
    8. Review of resonant electrical circuits
    9. Use of energy methods to analyze undamped resonant circuits
    10. Risetime for cascaded systems
    11. Chapter 2 problems
    12. Further reading
  9. Chapter 3. Review of Diode Physics and the Ideal (and Later, Nonideal) Diode
    1. Abstract
    2. Current flow in insulators, good conductors, and semiconductors
    3. Electrons and holes
    4. Drift, diffusion, recombination, and generation
    5. Effects of semiconductor doping
    6. PN junction under thermal equilibrium
    7. PN junction under applied forward bias
    8. Reverse-biased diode
    9. The ideal diode equation
    10. Charge storage in diodes
    11. Charge storage in the diode under forward bias
    12. Reverse recovery in bipolar diodes
    13. Reverse breakdown
    14. Taking a look at a diode datasheet
    15. Some quick comments on Schottky diodes
    16. Chapter 3 problems
    17. Further reading
  10. Chapter 4. Bipolar Transistor Models
    1. Abstract
    2. A little bit of history
    3. Basic NPN transistor
    4. Transistor models in different operating regions
    5. Low-frequency incremental bipolar transistor model
    6. High-frequency incremental model
    7. Reading a transistor datasheet
    8. Limitations of the hybrid-pi model
    9. 2N3904 datasheet excerpts
    10. Chapter 4 problems
    11. Further reading
  11. Chapter 5. Basic Bipolar Transistor Amplifiers and Biasing
    1. Abstract
    2. The issue of transistor biasing
    3. Some transistor amplifiers
    4. Chapter 5 problems
    5. Further reading
  12. Chapter 6. Amplifier Bandwidth Estimation Techniques
    1. Abstract
    2. Introduction to open-circuit time constants
    3. Transistor amplifier examples
    4. Short-circuit time constants
    5. Chapter 6 problems
    6. Further reading
  13. Chapter 7. Advanced Amplifier Topics and Design Examples
    1. Abstract
    2. Note on cascaded gain stages and the effects of loading
    3. Worst-case open-circuit time constants calculations
    4. High-frequency output and input impedance of emitter follower buffers
    5. Bootstrapping
    6. Pole splitting
    7. Chapter 7 problems
    8. Further reading
  14. Chapter 8. BJT High-Gain Amplifiers and Current Mirrors
    1. Abstract
    2. The need to augment the hybrid-pi model
    3. Base-width modulation and the extended hybrid-pi model
    4. Calculating small-signal parameters using a transistor datasheet
    5. Building blocks
    6. Chapter 8 problems
    7. Further reading
  15. Chapter 9. Introduction to Field-Effect Transistors (FETs) and Amplifiers
    1. Abstract
    2. Early history of field-effect transistors
    3. Qualitative discussion of the basic signal MOSFET
    4. Figuring out the V-I curve of a MOS device
    5. MOS small-signal model (low frequency)
    6. MOS small-signal model (high frequency)
    7. Basic MOS amplifiers
    8. Basic JFETs
    9. Chapter 9 problems
    10. Further reading
  16. Chapter 10. Large-Signal Switching of Bipolar Transistors and MOSFETs
    1. Abstract
    2. Introduction
    3. Development of the large-signal switching model for BJTs
    4. BJT reverse-active region
    5. BJT saturation
    6. BJT base–emitter and base–collector depletion capacitances
    7. Relationship between the charge control and the hybrid–pi parameters in bipolar transistors
    8. Finding depletion capacitances from the datasheet
    9. Manufacturers' testing of BJTs
    10. Charge control model examples
    11. Large-signal switching of MOSFETs
    12. Chapter 10 problems
    13. Further reading
    14. 2N2222 NPN transistor datasheet excerpts
    15. Si4410DY N-channel MOSFET datasheet excerpts
  17. Chapter 11. Review of Feedback Systems
    1. Abstract
    2. Introduction and some early history of feedback control
    3. Invention of the negative feedback amplifier
    4. Control system basics
    5. Loop transmission and disturbance rejection
    6. Approximate closed-loop gain of a feedback loop
    7. Pole locations, damping and relative stability
    8. The effects of feedback on relative stability
    9. Routh stability criterion (a.k.a. the “Routh test”)
    10. The phase margin and gain margin tests
    11. Relationship between damping ratio and phase margin
    12. Phase margin, step response, and frequency response
    13. Loop compensation techniques—lead and lag networks
    14. Parenthetical comment on some interesting feedback loops
    15. Chapter 11 problems
    16. Further reading
  18. Chapter 12. Basic Operational Amplifier Topologies and a Case Study
    1. Abstract
    2. Basic operational amplifier operation
    3. A brief review of LM741 op-amp schematic
    4. Some real-world limitations of op-amps
    5. Noise
    6. Chapter 12 Problems
    7. Further reading
  19. Chapter 13. Review of Current Feedback Operational Amplifiers
    1. Abstract
    2. Conventional voltage-feedback op-amp and the constant “gain–bandwidth product” paradigm
    3. Slew-rate limitations in a conventional voltage-feedback op-amp
    4. The current-feedback op-amp
    5. Absence of slew-rate limit in current-feedback op-amps
    6. Manufacturer's datasheet information for a current-feedback amplifier
    7. A more detailed model and some comments on current-feedback op-amp limitations
    8. Chapter 13 problems
    9. Further reading
    10. Appendix: LM6181 current-feedback op-amp
  20. Chapter 14. Analog Low-Pass Filters
    1. Abstract
    2. Introduction
    3. Review of LPF basics
    4. Butterworth filter
    5. Comparison of Butterworth, Chebyshev, and Bessel filters
    6. Filter implementation
    7. Active LPF implementations
    8. Some comments on high-pass and band-pass filters
    9. Chapter 14 problems
    10. Further reading
  21. Chapter 15. Passive Components, Prototyping Issues, and a Case Study in PC Board Layout
    1. Abstract
    2. Resistors
    3. Comments on surface-mount resistors
    4. Comments on resistor types
    5. Capacitors
    6. Inductors
    7. Discussion of some PC board layout issues
    8. Some personal thoughts on prototyping tools
    9. Chapter 15 problems
    10. Further reading
  22. Chapter 16. Noise
    1. Abstract
    2. Thermal (a.k.a. “Johnson” or “White”) noise in resistors
    3. Schottky (“shot”) noise
    4. 1/f (“pink” or “flicker”) noise
    5. Excess noise in resistors
    6. “Popcorn” noise (a.k.a. “burst” noise)
    7. Bipolar transistor noise
    8. Field-effect transistor noise
    9. Op-amp noise model
    10. Selecting a noise-optimized op-amp
    11. Signal-to-noise ratio
    12. Things that are not noise
    13. Chapter 16 problems
    14. Further reading
  23. Chapter 17. Other Useful Design Techniques and Loose Ends
    1. Abstract
    2. Thermal circuits
    3. Steady-state model of conductive heat transfer
    4. Thermal energy storage
    5. Using thermal circuit analogies to determine the static semiconductor junction temperature
    6. Mechanical circuit analogies
    7. The translinear principle
    8. Input impedance of an infinitely long resistive ladder
    9. Transmission lines 101
    10. Node equations and Cramer's rule
    11. Finding natural frequencies of LRC circuits
    12. Some comments on scaling laws in nature
    13. Geometric scaling
    14. Some personal comments on the use and abuse of SPICE modeling
    15. Chapter 17 problems
    16. Further reading
  24. Appendices
    1. Appendix 1: Some useful approximations and identities
    2. Appendix 2: p, μ, m, k and M
    3. Appendix 3: MATLAB scripts for control system examples
  25. Index