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Introductory Chemical Engineering Thermodynamics by Carl T. Lira, J. Richard Elliott

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Chapter 4. Entropy

S = k ln W

L. Boltzmann

We have discussed energy balances and the fact that friction and velocity gradients cause the loss of useful work. It would be desirable to determine maximum work output (or minimum work input) for a given process. Our concern for accomplishing useful work inevitably leads to a search for what might cause degradation of our capacity to convert any form of energy into useful work. As an example, isothermally expanding an ideal gas from Vi to 2Vi can produce a significant amount of useful work if carried out reversibly, or possibly zero work if carried out irreversibly. If we could understand the difference between these two operations, we would be well on our way to understanding how to minimize wasted ...

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