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Introduction to Wireless Systems

Book Description

A Coherent Systems View of Wireless and Cellular Network Design and Implementation

Written for senior-level undergraduates, first-year graduate students, and junior technical professionals, Introduction to Wireless Systems offers a coherent systems view of the crucial lower layers of today’s cellular systems. The authors introduce today’s most important propagation issues, modulation techniques, and access schemes, illuminating theory with real-world examples from modern cellular systems. They demonstrate how elements within today’s wireless systems interrelate, clarify the trade-offs associated with delivering high-quality service at acceptable cost, and demonstrate how systems are designed and implemented by teams of complementary specialists.

Coverage includes

  • Understanding the challenge of moving information wirelessly between two points

  • Explaining how system and subsystem designers work together to analyze, plan, and implement optimized wireless systems

  • Designing for quality reception: using the free-space range equation, and accounting for thermal noise

  • Understanding terrestrial channels and their impairments, including shadowing and multipath reception

  • Reusing frequencies to provide service over wide areas to large subscriber bases

  • Using modulation: frequency efficiency, power efficiency, BER, bandwidth, adjacent-channel interference, and spread-spectrum modulation

  • Implementing multiple access methods, including FDMA, TDMA, and CDMA

  • Designing systems for today’s most common forms of traffic—both “bursty” and “streaming”

  • Maximizing capacity via linear predictive coding and other speech compression techniques

  • Setting up connections that support reliable communication among users


  • Introduction to Wireless Systems
    brings together the theoretical and practical knowledge readers need to participate effectively in the planning, design, or implementation of virtually any wireless system.

    Table of Contents

    1. Copyright
      1. Dedication
    2. Preface
    3. Acknowledgments
    4. About the Authors
    5. 1. Introduction
      1. Overview
      2. System Description
        1. What Is a Wireless System?
        2. General Architecture, Basic Concepts, and Terminology
      3. Historical Perspective
      4. Systems Engineering and the Role of the Systems Engineer
        1. Problem Statement
    6. 2. The Radio Link
      1. Introduction
      2. Transmitting and Receiving Electromagnetic Waves
      3. Isotropic Radiation
      4. Antenna Radiation Patterns
      5. The Range Equation
      6. Thermal Noise and Receiver Analysis
        1. Characterizing Noise Sources
        2. Characterizing Two-Ports
          1. Available Gain
          2. Noise Bandwidth
          3. Noise Figure
          4. Cascade of Two-Ports
          5. Lossy Transmission Lines
          6. A Final Example
        3. Typical Values
      7. Optimizing the Energy Transmission System
        1. System-Level Design
        2. Receiver Sensitivity
        3. Top-Level Design
        4. An Example Link Budget
      8. Conclusions
      9. Problems
    7. 3. Channel Characteristics
      1. Introduction
      2. Macroscopic Models 1: Reflection from the Earth’s Surface
      3. Macroscopic Models 2: Empirical Models
        1. The Hata Model
        2. The Lee Model
      4. Macroscopic Models 3: Log-Normal Shadowing
      5. Microscopic Models 1: Multipath Propagation and Fading
        1. Introduction
        2. A Two-Ray Model for Multipath Propagation: Stationary Receiver
      6. Microscopic Models 2: Statistical Models for Multipath Propagation
        1. Rayleigh Fading
        2. Coherence Bandwidth
      7. Microscopic Models 3: A Two-Ray Model with a Moving Receiver
      8. Microscopic Models 4: A Statistical Model with a Moving Receiver
      9. Area Coverage
      10. The Link Budget
      11. Conclusions
      12. Problems
    8. 4. Radio Frequency Coverage: Systems Engineering and Design
      1. Motivation
      2. Requirements Assessment and System Architecture
      3. Cellular Concepts
      4. Estimation of Interference Levels
        1. Cochannel Interference
        2. Adjacent-Channel Interference
      5. Cellular System Planning and Engineering
        1. The Key Trade-offs
        2. Sectoring
        3. Cell Splitting
      6. Operational Considerations
        1. The Mobile Switching Center
        2. Dynamic Channel Assignment
        3. Handoff Concepts and Considerations
      7. Traffic Engineering, Trunking, and Grade of Service
      8. Conclusions
      9. Problems
    9. 5. Digital Signaling Principles
      1. Introduction
      2. Baseband Digital Signaling
        1. Baseband Digital Communication Architecture
        2. Baseband Pulse Detection
        3. The Matched Filter
        4. Correlation
        5. Correlation Receiver
        6. Receiver Performance
      3. Carrier-Based Signaling
        1. Modulation Overview
        2. Modulated Carrier Communication Architecture
        3. Digital Modulation Principles
          1. Bandwidth
        4. Binary Phase-Shift Keying (BPSK)
        5. Differential Binary Phase-Shift Keying (DPSK)
        6. Quadrature Phase-Shift Keying (QPSK)
        7. Offset QPSK (OQPSK)
        8. Frequency-Shift Keying (FSK)
        9. Gaussian Frequency-Shift Keying (GFSK)
        10. Minimum-Shift Keying (MSK)
      4. Spread-Spectrum Signaling
        1. Overview
        2. Frequency-Hopping Spread Spectrum
        3. Direct-Sequence Spread Spectrum
      5. Conclusions
      6. Problems
    10. 6. Access Methods
      1. Introduction
      2. Channel Access in Cellular Systems
      3. Frequency-Division Multiple Access
        1. The AM Broadcasting Band
          1. Frequency-Division Multiplexing in the Telephone Network
        2. The AMPS Cellular Telephone System
        3. Effect of Transmitted Signal Design
        4. Frequency-Division Duplexing
      4. Time-Division Multiple Access
        1. The U.S. Digital Cellular (USDC) System
        2. The GSM System
        3. Time-Division Duplexing
      5. Code-Division Multiple Access
        1. Frequency-Hopping CDMA Systems
        2. Direct-Sequence CDMA Systems
          1. Multiple Users
          2. Orthogonal Spreading Codes
          3. Pseudonoise Spreading Codes
      6. Contention-Based Multiple Access
        1. The Aloha Multiple-Access Protocol
        2. The Slotted Aloha Protocol
        3. Carrier-Sense Multiple Access
      7. Conclusions
      8. Problems
    11. 7. Information Sources
      1. Introduction
      2. Information Sources and Their Characterization
        1. Speech
          1. Source Characteristics
          2. User Requirements
        2. Music
          1. Source Characteristics
          2. User Requirements
        3. Images
          1. Source Characteristics
          2. User Requirements
        4. Video
          1. Source Characteristics
          2. User Requirements
        5. Data
          1. Source Characteristics
          2. User Requirements
        6. Quality of Service (QoS)
          1. Speech
          2. Music
          3. Images
          4. Video
          5. Data
        7. Smooth versus Chunky
      3. Digitization of Speech Signals
        1. Pulse Code Modulation
          1. Sampling
          2. Quantization
          3. Coding
          4. PCM Performance
          5. Nonlinear Quantization
        2. Differential PCM
          1. Delta Modulation
          2. Differential PCM
        3. Vocoders
          1. Linear Predictive Coding
      4. Coding for Error Correction
        1. Convolutional Codes
          1. Encoding
          2. The Trellis Diagram
          3. Decoding
          4. The Viterbi Algorithm
          5. Performance
      5. Conclusions
      6. Problems
    12. 8. Putting It All Together
      1. Introduction
      2. Looking Backward
        1. The First Generation
        2. The Second Generation
        3. Toward a Third Generation
        4. Generation 2.5
          1. High-Speed Circuit-Switched Data (HSCSD)
          2. General Packet Radio Service (GPRS)
          3. Enhanced Data for Global Evolution (EDGE)
      3. Contemporary Systems and 3G Evolution
        1. Wideband CDMA (W-CDMA)
          1. High-Speed Packet Access (HSPA)
        2. cdma2000 Radio Transmission Technology (RTT)
          1. cdma2000 1 × RTT
          2. cdma2000 1 × EV-DO
      4. OFDM: An Architecture for the Fourth Generation
      5. Conclusions
    13. A. Statistical Functions and Tables
      1. The Normal Distribution
      2. Function Tables
    14. B. Traffic Engineering
      1. Grade of Service and the State of the Switch
      2. A Model for Call Arrivals
      3. A Model for Holding Time
      4. The Switch State Probabilities
      5. Blocking Probability, Offered Load, and Erlang B
      6. Computational Techniques for the Erlang B Formula
      7. Erlang B Table
    15. Acronyms