O'Reilly logo

Introduction to Strings and Branes by Peter West

Stay ahead with the world's most comprehensive technology and business learning platform.

With Safari, you learn the way you learn best. Get unlimited access to videos, live online training, learning paths, books, tutorials, and more.

Start Free Trial

No credit card required

11 The physical states and the no-ghost theorem

 

 

 

 

I spent a week in Portadown one Sunday

Irish saying

Upon quantisation, the vibrational modes of the classical open string become an infinite number of quantum point particles, each of which corresponds to a state carrying an irreducible representation of the Poincaré group. At the free level these physical states are described in the old covariant approach of chapter 3 by the Virasoro conditions

images

(11.0.1)

The norm of a quantum state can be interpreted as a probability density and so for a string theory to be consistent the norms of all the solutions to equation (11.0.1) must be positive. ...

With Safari, you learn the way you learn best. Get unlimited access to videos, live online training, learning paths, books, interactive tutorials, and more.

Start Free Trial

No credit card required