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Introduction to Storage Area Networks

Book Description

The explosion of data created by the businesses of today is making storage a strategic investment priority for companies of all sizes. As storage takes precedence, three major initiatives have emerged:

- Infrastructure simplification: Consolidation, virtualization, and automated management with IBM TotalStorage can help simplify the infrastructure and ensure an organization meets its business goals.
- Information lifecycle management: Managing business data through its life cycle from conception until disposal in a manner that optimizes storage and access at the lowest cost.
- Business continuity: Maintaining access to data at all times, protecting critical business assets, and aligning recovery costs based on business risk and information value.

Storage is no longer an afterthought. Too much is at stake. Companies are searching for more ways to efficiently manage expanding volumes of data, and to make that data accessible throughout the enterprise; this is propelling the move of storage into the network. Also, the increasing complexity of managing large numbers of storage devices and vast amounts of data is driving greater business value into software and services.

With current estimates of data to be managed and made available increasing at 60 percent per annum, this is where a storage area network (SAN) enters the arena. Simply put, SANs are the leading storage infrastructure for the global economy of today. SANs offer simplified storage management, scalability, flexibility, availability, and improved data access, movement, and backup.

This IBM Redbook gives an introduction to the SAN. It illustrates where SANs are today, who are the main industry organizations and standard bodies active in the SAN world, and it positions IBM's comprehensive, best-of-breed approach of enabling SANs with its products and services. It introduces some of the most commonly encountered terminology and features present in a SAN.

Table of Contents

  1. Front cover
  2. Notices
    1. Trademarks
  3. Summary of changes
    1. January 2016, Seventh Edition
  4. IBM Redbooks promotions
  5. Preface
    1. Authors
    2. Now you can become a published author, too!
    3. Comments welcome
    4. Stay connected to IBM Redbooks
  6. Chapter 1. Introduction
    1. 1.1 Networks
      1. 1.1.1 The importance of communication
    2. 1.2 Interconnection models
      1. 1.2.1 The open systems interconnection model
      2. 1.2.2 Translating the OSI model to the physical world
    3. 1.3 Storage
      1. 1.3.1 Storing data
      2. 1.3.2 Redundant Array of Independent Disks
    4. 1.4 Storage area networks
    5. 1.5 Storage area network components
      1. 1.5.1 Storage area network connectivity
      2. 1.5.2 Storage area network storage
      3. 1.5.3 Storage area network servers
    6. 1.6 The importance of standards or models
  7. Chapter 2. Storage area networks
    1. 2.1 Storage area networks
      1. 2.1.1 The problem
      2. 2.1.2 Requirements
    2. 2.2 Using a storage area network
      1. 2.2.1 Infrastructure simplification
      2. 2.2.2 Information lifecycle management
      3. 2.2.3 Business continuity
    3. 2.3 Using the storage area network components
      1. 2.3.1 Storage
      2. 2.3.2 Storage area network connectivity
      3. 2.3.3 Servers
      4. 2.3.4 Putting the components together
  8. Chapter 3. Fibre Channel internals
    1. 3.1 Fibre Channel architecture
      1. 3.1.1 Small Computer Systems Interface
      2. 3.1.2 Limitations of the Small Computer System Interface
      3. 3.1.3 Fibre Channel advantages
    2. 3.2 Layers
    3. 3.3 Optical cables
      1. 3.3.1 Attenuation
      2. 3.3.2 Maximum power
      3. 3.3.3 Fiber in the storage area network
      4. 3.3.4 Dark fiber
    4. 3.4 Classes of service
      1. 3.4.1 Class 1
      2. 3.4.2 Class 2
      3. 3.4.3 Class 3
      4. 3.4.4 Class 4
      5. 3.4.5 Class 5
      6. 3.4.6 Class 6
      7. 3.4.7 Class F
    5. 3.5 Fibre Channel data movement
      1. 3.5.1 Byte-encoding schemes
    6. 3.6 Data transport
      1. 3.6.1 Ordered set
      2. 3.6.2 Frames
      3. 3.6.3 Sequences
      4. 3.6.4 Exchanges
      5. 3.6.5 In order and out of order
      6. 3.6.6 Latency
      7. 3.6.7 Open fiber control
    7. 3.7 Flow control
      1. 3.7.1 Buffer to buffer
      2. 3.7.2 End to end
      3. 3.7.3 Controlling the flow
      4. 3.7.4 Performance
  9. Chapter 4. Ethernet and system networking concepts
    1. 4.1 Ethernet
      1. 4.1.1 Shared media
      2. 4.1.2 Ethernet frame
      3. 4.1.3 How Ethernet works
      4. 4.1.4 Speed and bandwidth
      5. 4.1.5 10 GbE
      6. 4.1.6 10 GbE copper versus fiber
      7. 4.1.7 Virtual local area network
      8. 4.1.8 Interface virtual local area network operation modes
      9. 4.1.9 Link aggregation
      10. 4.1.10 Spanning Tree Protocol
      11. 4.1.11 Link Layer Discovery Protocol
      12. 4.1.12 Link Layer Discovery Protocol Type Length Values (LLDP TLVs)
    2. 4.2 Storage area network IP networking
      1. 4.2.1 The multiprotocol environment
      2. 4.2.2 Fibre Channel switching
      3. 4.2.3 Fibre Channel routing
      4. 4.2.4 Tunneling
      5. 4.2.5 Routers and gateways
      6. 4.2.6 Internet Storage Name Service
    3. 4.3 Delving deeper into the protocols
      1. 4.3.1 Fibre Channel over Internet Protocol (FCIP)
      2. 4.3.2 Internet Fibre Channel Protocol
      3. 4.3.3 Internet Small Computer System Interface
      4. 4.3.4 Routing considerations
      5. 4.3.5 Packet size
      6. 4.3.6 TCP congestion control
      7. 4.3.7 Round-trip delay
    4. 4.4 Multiprotocol solution briefs
      1. 4.4.1 Dividing a fabric into subfabrics
      2. 4.4.2 Connecting a remote site over IP
      3. 4.4.3 Connecting hosts by using Internet Small Computer System Interface
  10. Chapter 5. Topologies and other fabric services
    1. 5.1 Fibre Channel topologies
      1. 5.1.1 Point-to-point topology
      2. 5.1.2 Arbitrated loop topology
      3. 5.1.3 Switched fabric topology
      4. 5.1.4 Single switch topology
      5. 5.1.5 Cascaded and ring topology
      6. 5.1.6 Mesh topology
      7. 5.1.7 Core-edge topology
      8. 5.1.8 Edge-core-edge topology
    2. 5.2 Port types
      1. 5.2.1 Common port types
      2. 5.2.2 Expansion port types
      3. 5.2.3 Diagnostic port types
    3. 5.3 Addressing
      1. 5.3.1 Worldwide name
      2. 5.3.2 Tape device worldwide node name and worldwide port name
      3. 5.3.3 Port address
      4. 5.3.4 The 24-bit port address
      5. 5.3.5 Loop address
      6. 5.3.6 The b-type addressing modes
      7. 5.3.7 FICON address
    4. 5.4 Fibre Channel Arbitrated Loop protocols
      1. 5.4.1 Fairness algorithm
      2. 5.4.2 Loop addressing
    5. 5.5 Fibre Channel port initialization and fabric services
      1. 5.5.1 Fabric login (FLOGI)
      2. 5.5.2 Port login (PLOGI)
      3. 5.5.3 Process login (PRLI)
    6. 5.6 Fabric services
      1. 5.6.1 Management server
      2. 5.6.2 Time server
      3. 5.6.3 Simple name server
      4. 5.6.4 Fabric login server
      5. 5.6.5 Registered state change notification service
    7. 5.7 Routing mechanisms
      1. 5.7.1 Spanning tree
      2. 5.7.2 Fabric shortest path first
    8. 5.8 Zoning
      1. 5.8.1 Hardware zoning
      2. 5.8.2 Software zoning
      3. 5.8.3 Logical unit number masking
  11. Chapter 6. Storage area network as a service for cloud computing
    1. 6.1 The cloud
      1. 6.1.1 Private and public cloud
      2. 6.1.2 Cloud computing components
      3. 6.1.3 Cloud computing models
    2. 6.2 Virtualization and the cloud
      1. 6.2.1 Cloud infrastructure virtualization
      2. 6.2.2 Cloud platforms
      3. 6.2.3 Storage virtualization
    3. 6.3 SAN virtualization
      1. 6.3.1 IBM b-type Virtual Fabrics
      2. 6.3.2 Cisco virtual storage area network
      3. 6.3.3 N_Port ID Virtualization
    4. 6.4 Building a smarter cloud
      1. 6.4.1 Automated tiering
      2. 6.4.2 Thin provisioning
      3. 6.4.3 Data deduplication
      4. 6.4.4 New generation management tools
      5. 6.4.5 Business continuity and disaster recovery
      6. 6.4.6 Storage on demand
  12. Chapter 7. Fibre Channel products and technology
    1. 7.1 The environment
    2. 7.2 Storage area network devices
      1. 7.2.1 Fibre Channel bridges
      2. 7.2.2 Arbitrated loop hubs and switched hubs
      3. 7.2.3 Switches and directors
      4. 7.2.4 Multiprotocol routing
      5. 7.2.5 Service modules
      6. 7.2.6 Multiplexers
    3. 7.3 Components
      1. 7.3.1 Application-specific integrated circuit
      2. 7.3.2 Fibre Channel transmission rates
      3. 7.3.3 SerDes
      4. 7.3.4 Backplane and blades
    4. 7.4 Gigabit transport technology
      1. 7.4.1 Fibre Channel cabling
      2. 7.4.2 Transceivers
      3. 7.4.3 Host bus adapters
    5. 7.5 Inter-switch links
      1. 7.5.1 Cascading
      2. 7.5.2 Hops
      3. 7.5.3 Fabric shortest path first
      4. 7.5.4 Non-blocking architecture
      5. 7.5.5 Latency
      6. 7.5.6 Oversubscription
      7. 7.5.7 Congestion
      8. 7.5.8 Trunking or port-channeling
  13. Chapter 8. Management
    1. 8.1 Management principles
      1. 8.1.1 Management types
      2. 8.1.2 Connecting to storage area network management tools
      3. 8.1.3 Storage area network fault isolation and troubleshooting
    2. 8.2 Management interfaces and protocols
      1. 8.2.1 Storage Networking Industry Association initiative
      2. 8.2.2 Simple Network Management Protocol
      3. 8.2.3 Service Location Protocol
      4. 8.2.4 Vendor-specific mechanisms
    3. 8.3 Management features
      1. 8.3.1 Operations
    4. 8.4 Vendor management applications
      1. 8.4.1 b-type
      2. 8.4.2 Cisco
    5. 8.5 SAN multipathing software
  14. Chapter 9. Security
    1. 9.1 Security in the storage area network
    2. 9.2 Security principles
      1. 9.2.1 Access control
      2. 9.2.2 Auditing and accounting
      3. 9.2.3 Data security
      4. 9.2.4 Securing a fabric
      5. 9.2.5 Zoning, masking, and binding
    3. 9.3 Data security
    4. 9.4 Storage area network encryption
      1. 9.4.1 Basic encryption definition
      2. 9.4.2 Data-in-flight
      3. 9.4.3 Data-at-rest
      4. 9.4.4 Digital certificates
      5. 9.4.5 Encryption algorithm
      6. 9.4.6 Key management considerations and security standards
      7. 9.4.7 b-type encryption methods
      8. 9.4.8 Cisco encryption methods
    5. 9.5 Encryption standards and algorithms
    6. 9.6 Security common practices
  15. Chapter 10. Solutions
    1. 10.1 Introduction
    2. 10.2 Basic solution principles
      1. 10.2.1 Connectivity
      2. 10.2.2 Adding capacity
      3. 10.2.3 Data movement and copy
      4. 10.2.4 Upgrading to faster speeds
    3. 10.3 Infrastructure simplification
      1. 10.3.1 The origin of the complexity
      2. 10.3.2 Storage pooling
      3. 10.3.3 Consolidation
      4. 10.3.4 Migration to a converged network
    4. 10.4 Business continuity and disaster recovery
      1. 10.4.1 Clustering and high availability
      2. 10.4.2 LAN-free data movement
      3. 10.4.3 Disaster backup and recovery
    5. 10.5 Information lifecycle management
      1. 10.5.1 Information lifecycle management
      2. 10.5.2 Tiered storage management
      3. 10.5.3 Long-term data retention
      4. 10.5.4 Data lifecycle management
      5. 10.5.5 Policy-based archive management
  16. Chapter 11. Storage area networks and green data centers
    1. 11.1 Data center constraints
      1. 11.1.1 Energy flow in the data center
    2. 11.2 Data center optimization
      1. 11.2.1 Strategic considerations
    3. 11.3 Green storage
      1. 11.3.1 Information lifecycle management
      2. 11.3.2 Storage consolidation and virtualization
      3. 11.3.3 On-demand storage provisioning
      4. 11.3.4 Hierarchical storage and tiering
      5. 11.3.5 Data compression and data deduplication
  17. Chapter 12. IBM Fibre Channel storage area network product portfolio
    1. 12.1 Classification of IBM SAN products
    2. 12.2 SAN Fibre Channel networking
    3. 12.3 Entry SAN switches
      1. 12.3.1 IBM System Storage SAN24B-5
      2. 12.3.2 IBM System Storage SAN24B-4 Express
    4. 12.4 Midrange SAN switches
      1. 12.4.1 Cisco MDS 9396S 16G Multilayer Fabric Switch
      2. 12.4.2 IBM System Networking SAN96B-5
      3. 12.4.3 IBM System Storage SAN48B-5
      4. 12.4.4 Cisco MDS 9148S 16G Multilayer Fabric Switch for IBM System Storage
    5. 12.5 Enterprise SAN directors
      1. 12.5.1 Cisco MDS 9710 Multilayer Director
      2. 12.5.2 IBM System Storage SAN384B-2 and SAN768B-2
      3. 12.5.3 Cisco MDS 9706 Multilayer Director for IBM System Storage
      4. 12.5.4 Cisco MDS 9500 Series Multilayer Directors
    6. 12.6 Specialty switches
      1. 12.6.1 IBM System Storage SAN42B-R
      2. 12.6.2 Cisco MDS 9250i Multiservice Fabric Switch
      3. 12.6.3 IBM System Storage SAN06B-R
  18. Chapter 13. Certification
    1. 13.1 The importance of certification
    2. 13.2 IBM Professional Certification Program
      1. 13.2.1 About the program
      2. 13.2.2 Certifications by product
      3. 13.2.3 Mastery tests
    3. 13.3 Storage Networking Industry Association certifications
    4. 13.4 Brocade certification
    5. 13.5 Cisco certification
    6. 13.6 Open Group certification
  19. Related publications
    1. IBM Redbooks
    2. Online resources
    3. Help from IBM
  20. Back cover