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Introduction to Nanophotonics

Book Description

Nanophotonics is where photonics merges with nanoscience and nanotechnology, and where spatial confinement considerably modifies light propagation and light-matter interaction. Describing the basic phenomena, principles, experimental advances and potential impact of nanophotonics, this graduate-level textbook is ideal for students in physics, optical and electronic engineering and materials science. The textbook highlights practical issues, material properties and device feasibility, and includes the basic optical properties of metals, semiconductors and dielectrics. Mathematics is kept to a minimum and theoretical issues are reduced to a conceptual level. Each chapter ends in problems so readers can monitor their understanding of the material presented. The introductory quantum theory of solids and size effects in semiconductors are considered to give a parallel discussion of wave optics and wave mechanics of nanostructures. The physical and historical interplay of wave optics and quantum mechanics is traced. Nanoplasmonics, an essential part of modern photonics, is also included.

Table of Contents

  1. Cover
  2. Half Title
  3. Title Page
  4. Copyright
  5. Dedication
  6. Contents
  7. Preface
  8. Notations and acronyms
  9. 1. Introduction
    1. 1.1 Light and matter on a nanometer scale
    2. 1.2 What is nanophotonics?
    3. 1.3 Where are the photons in nanophotonics and in this book?
    4. References
  10. Part I: Electrons and electromagnetic waves in nanostructures
    1. 2. Basic properties of electromagnetic waves and quantum particles
      1. 2.1 Wavelengths and dispersion laws
      2. 2.2 Density of states
      3. 2.3 Maxwell and Helmholtz equations
      4. 2.4 Phase space, density of states and uncertainty relation
      5. 2.5 Wave function and the Schrödinger equation
      6. 2.6 Quantum particle in complex potentials
      7. Problems
      8. References
    2. 3. Wave optics versus wave mechanics I
      1. 3.1 Isomorphism of the Schrödinger and Helmholtz equations
      2. 3.2 Propagation over wells and barriers
      3. 3.3 Dielectric function of free electron gas and optical properties of metals
      4. 3.4 Propagation through a potential barrier: evanescent waves and tunneling
      5. 3.5 Resonant tunneling in quantum mechanics and in optics
      6. 3.6 Multiple wells and barriers: spectral splitting
      7. 3.7 Historical comments
      8. Problems
      9. References
    3. 4. Electrons in periodic structures and quantum confinement effects
      1. 4.1 Bloch waves
      2. 4.2 Reciprocal space and Brillouin zones
      3. 4.3 Electron band structure in solids
      4. 4.4 Quasiparticles: holes, excitons, polaritons
      5. 4.5 Defect states and Anderson localization
      6. 4.6 Quantum confinement effects in solids
      7. 4.7 Density of states for different dimensionalities
      8. 4.8 Quantum wells, quantum wires and quantum dots
      9. Problems
      10. References
    4. 5. Semiconductor nanocrystals (quantum dots)
      1. 5.1 From atom to crystal
      2. 5.2 Particle-in-a-box theory of electron–hole states
      3. 5.3 Quantum chemical theory
      4. 5.4 Synthesis of nanocrystals
      5. 5.5 Absorption spectra, electron–hole pair states and many-body effects
      6. 5.6 Luminescence
      7. 5.7 Probing the zero-dimensional density of states
      8. 5.8 Quantum dot matter
      9. 5.9 Applications: nonlinear optics
      10. 5.10 Applications: quantum dot lasers
      11. 5.11 Applications: novel luminophores and fluorescent labels
      12. 5.12 Applications: electro-optical properties
      13. Problems
      14. References
    5. 6. Nanoplasmonics I: metal nanoparticles
      1. 6.1 Optical response of metals
      2. 6.2 Plasmons
      3. 6.3 Optical properties of metal nanoparticles
      4. 6.4 Size-dependent absorption and scattering
      5. 6.5 Coupled nanoparticles
      6. 6.6 Metal–dielectric core–shell nanoparticles
      7. Problems
      8. References
    6. 7. Light in periodic structures: photonic crystals
      1. 7.1 The photonic crystal concept
      2. 7.2 Bloch waves and band structure in one-dimensionally periodic structures
      3. 7.3 Multilayer slabs in three dimensions: band structure and omnidirectional reflection
      4. 7.4 Band gaps and band structures in two-dimensional lattices
      5. 7.5 Band gaps and band structure in three-dimensional lattices
      6. 7.6 Multiple scattering theory of periodic structures
      7. 7.7 Translation to other electromagnetic waves
      8. 7.8 Periodic structures in Nature
      9. 7.9 Experimental methods of fabrication
      10. 7.10 Properties of photonic crystal slabs
      11. 7.11 The speed of light in photonic crystals
      12. 7.12 Nonlinear optics of photonic crystals
      13. Problems
      14. References
    7. 8. Light in non-periodic structures
      1. 8.1 The 1/L transmission law: an optical analog to Ohm’s law
      2. 8.2 Coherent backscattering
      3. 8.3 Towards the Anderson localization of light
      4. 8.4 Light in fractal structures
      5. 8.5 Light in quasiperiodic structures: Fibonacci and Penrose structures
      6. 8.6 Surface states in optics: analog to quantum Tamm states
      7. 8.7 General constraints on wave propagation in multilayer structures: transmission bands, phase time, density of modes and energy localization
      8. 8.8 Applications of turbid structures: Christiansen’s filters and Letokhov’s lasers
      9. Problems
      10. References
    8. 9. Photonic circuitry
      1. 9.1 Microcavities and microlasers
      2. 9.2 Guiding light through photonic crystals
      3. 9.3 Holey fibers
      4. 9.4 Whispering gallery modes: photonic dots, photonic molecules and chains
      5. 9.5 Propagation of waves and number coding/recognition
      6. 9.6 Outlook: current and future trends
      7. Problems
      8. References
    9. 10. Tunneling of light
      1. 10.1 Tunneling of light: getting through the looking glass
      2. 10.2 Light at the end of a tunnel: problem of superluminal propagation
      3. 10.3 Scanning near-field optical microscopy
      4. Problems
      5. References
    10. 11. Nanoplasmonics II: metal–dielectric nanostructures
      1. 11.1 Local electromagnetic fields near metal nanoparticles
      2. 11.2 Optical response of a metal–dielectric composite beyond Maxwell-Garnett theory
      3. 11.3 Extraordinary transparency of perforated metal films
      4. 11.4 Metal–dielectric photonic crystals
      5. 11.5 Nonlinear optics with surface plasmons
      6. 11.6 Metal nanoparticles in a medium with optical gain
      7. 11.7 Metamaterials with negative refractive index
      8. 11.8 Plasmonic sensors
      9. 11.9 The outlook
      10. Problems
      11. References
    11. 12. Wave optics versus wave mechanics II
      1. 12.1 Transfer of concepts and ideas from quantum theory of solids to nanophotonics
      2. 12.2 Why quantum physics is ahead
      3. 12.3 Optical lessons of quantum intuition
      4. Problems
      5. References
  11. Part II: Light–matter interaction in nanostructures
    1. 13. Light – matter interaction: introductory quantum electrodynamics
      1. 13.1 Photons
      2. 13.2 Wave–particle duality in optics
      3. 13.3 Electromagnetic vacuum
      4. 13.4 The Casimir effect
      5. 13.5 Probability of emission of photons by a quantum system
      6. 13.6 Does “Fermi’s golden rule” help to understand spontaneous emission?
      7. 13.7 Spontaneous scattering of photons
      8. Problems
      9. References
    2. 14. Density of states effects on optical processes in mesoscopic structures
      1. 14.1 The Purcell effect
      2. 14.2 An emitter near a planar mirror
      3. 14.3 Spontaneous emission in a photonic crystal
      4. 14.4 Thin layers, interfaces and stratified dielectrics
      5. 14.5 Possible subnatural atomic linewidths in plasma
      6. 14.6 Barnett–Loudon sum rule
      7. 14.7 Local density of states: operational definition and conservation law
      8. 14.8 A few hints towards understanding local density of states
      9. 14.9 Thermal radiation in mesoscopic structures
      10. 14.10 Density of states effects on the Raman scattering of light
      11. 14.11 Directional emission and scattering of light defined by partial density of states
      12. Problems
      13. References
    3. 15. Light–matter states beyond perturbational approach
      1. 15.1 Cavity quantum electrodynamics in the strong coupling regime
      2. 15.2 Single-atom maser and laser
      3. 15.3 Light–matter states in a photonic band gap medium
      4. 15.4 Single photon sources
      5. Problems
      6. References
    4. 16. Plasmonic enhancement of secondary radiation
      1. 16.1 Classification of secondary radiation
      2. 16.2 How emission and scattering of light can be enhanced
      3. 16.3 Local density of states in plasmonic nanostructures
      4. 16.4 “Hot spots” in plasmonic nanostructures
      5. 16.5 Raman scattering enhancement in metal–dielectric nanostructures
      6. 16.6 Luminescence enhancement in metal–dielectric nanostructures
      7. Problems
      8. References
  12. Author index
  13. Subject index