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Introduction to Media Production, 4th Edition

Book Description

Introduction to Media Production began years ago as an alternative text that would cover ALL aspects of media production, not just film or just tv or just radio. Kindem and Musburger needed a book that would show students how every form of media intersects with one another, and about how one needs to know the background history of how film affects video, and how video affects working in a studio, and ultimately, how one needs to know how to put it all together. Introduction to Media Production is the book that shows this intersection among the many forms of media, and how students can use this intersection to begin to develop their own high quality work.

Introduction to Media Production is a primary source for students of media. Its readers learn about various forms of media, how to make the best use of them, why one would choose one form of media over another, and finally, about all of the techniques used to create a media project. The digital revolution has exploded all the former techniques used in digital media production, and this book covers the now restructured and formalized digital workflows that make all production processes by necessity, digital.

This text will concentrate on offering students and newcomers to the field the means to become aware of the critical importance of understanding the end destination of their production as a part of pre-production, not the last portion of post production.

Covering film, tv, video, audio, and graphics, the fourth edition of Introduction to Digital Media promises to be yet another comprehensive guide for both students of media and newcomers to the media industry.

Table of Contents

  1. Cover
  2. Halftitle
  3. Title
  4. Copyright
  5. Contents
  6. Preface to the Fourth Edition
  7. Introduction for IMP IV
  8. 1. Producing: Exploiting New Opportunities and Markets in the Digital Arena
    1. Introduction
    2. The Audience
      1. Audience Analysis
    3. The Technology of Distribution
    4. New Production Considerations
    5. The Big Ten of Distribution
    6. AM-FM Terrestrial Radio
    7. HD-Radio (IBOC)
    8. Mobile
    9. Satellite
    10. Terrestrial Television
    11. Cable/Telcos
    12. Disk/Disc
    13. The Internet
    14. Games
      1. Motion Pictures
    15. Solid-State Storage
    16. The Economics of Distribution
    17. Broadcasting, Cable, and Satellite
    18. Theatrical and Nontheatrical
    19. Home Video, audio, and Multimedia
      1. Corporate and In-House
    20. Internet Distribution
    21. The Future of Distribution and Exhibition
    22. Summary
    23. Exercises
    24. Additional Readings
  9. 2. The Production Process: Analog and Digital Technologies
    1. Introduction
    2. Stages of Production
      1. Preproduction
      2. Production
      3. Postproduction
    3. Digital Versus Analog Technology
      1. Digital Technologies Used in Preproduction
      2. Digital Technologies Used in Production
      3. Digital Technologies Used in Postproduction
    4. Production Terminology
    5. Single-Camera Versus Multiple-Camera Production, and Studio Versus Location Production
      1. Planning for Positive Production Experiences
      2. Avoiding Negative Production Experiences
    6. The Production Team in Audio, Video, Film, and Multimedia Production
    7. Creative Staff in Media Production
      1. The Production Crew in Media Production
      2. The Production Team in the Recording Industry
      3. The Production Team on an Interactive Multimedia Production
    8. Visualization: Images, Sounds, and the Creative Process
      1. Conveying Information
      2. Rhetorical Persuasion
      3. Artistic Expression
    9. Production Aesthetics
      1. Realism
      2. Modernism
      3. Postmodernism
      4. Combining Aesthetic Approaches
    10. A Short History of Audio, Film, and Video Production Technology
    11. Summary
    12. Exercises
    13. Additional Readings
  10. 3. Producing and Production Management
    1. Introduction
    2. Producing
      1. Role of the Producer
      2. Production Strategies
      3. Legal Rights and Concerns
      4. Unions, Guilds, and Nonunion Working Conditions
    3. Production Management
    4. Script Breakdown
    5. Shooting Schedule
    6. Production Budget
    7. Summary
    8. Exercises
    9. Additional Readings
  11. 4. Scriptwriting
    1. Introduction
    2. Visual Thinking
    3. Preparation for Scriptwriting
      1. Research
      2. Premise, Synopsis, and Outline
    4. Treatments
    5. Scriptwriting Formats
      1. Full-Page Master Scene Script Format
      2. Split-Page Script Format
      3. Semiscripted Formats
    6. Fiction Scriptwriting
      1. Dramatic Structure
      2. Characterization and Theme
      3. Adaptation
      4. Short Fiction Forms and Formats
      5. Interactive Stories and Games
    7. Nonfiction Scriptwriting
      1. Rhetorical and Expository Structure
      2. Voice and Point of View
      3. Narration and Interviews
      4. Short Nonfiction Forms and Formats
      5. Interactive Learning and Training
    8. Summary
    9. Exercises
    10. Additional Readings
  12. 5. Directing: Aesthetic Principles and Production Coordination
    1. Introduction
    2. Aesthetic Approaches
      1. Realism
      2. Modernism
      3. Postmodernism
    3. Visualization
      1. Types of Shots
      2. Camera Angle
      3. Stationary versus Mobile Camera Shots
    4. Composition
      1. Aspect Ratio
      2. Symmetry
      3. Closure
    5. Combining Shots
      1. Straight Cut or Take
      2. Fade
      3. Dissolve
      4. Wipe
      5. Defocus
      6. Swish Pan
      7. Special Effects
      8. Digital Transitions
      9. Scene Construction
      10. Continuity Editing
      11. Pace and Rhythm
      12. Compression and Expansion of Time
      13. Screen Directionality
      14. Directional Glances
      15. The 180-Degree Axis of Action Rule
    6. Sound and Image Interaction
      1. On-Screen versus Off-Screen Sound
      2. Commentative versus Actual Sound
      3. Synchronous versus Asynchronous Sound
      4. Parallel versus Contrapuntal Sound
      5. Composing Images for Prerecorded Music
      6. Composing Music for Prerecorded Images
    7. Preparing the Shooting Script
    8. Production Coordination
    9. Production Meetings
      1. Casting
      2. Rehearsals
      3. Performer and Camera Blocking
    10. Multiple-Camera Directing
      1. Timing
      2. Running Time
      3. Timing in Production
      4. On-the-Air Timing
      5. Production Switching
      6. Director’s Commands
      7. Live-on-Tape Recording
    11. Single-Camera Directing
      1. Cutaways
      2. Shooting Ratios
      3. Director’s Terminology
    12. Summary
    13. Exercises
    14. Additional Readings
  13. 6. Audio/Sound
    1. Introduction
    2. Aesthetics of Audio/Sound
    3. Types of Microphones
      1. Transducer Elements
    4. MIC Placement and Selection
      1. On-Camera Mics
      2. Off-Camera Mics
      3. Selecting the Best Mic
      4. Using Multiple Mics
      5. Stereo Mic Placement
      6. Digital Mic Placement
    5. Sound-Signal Control
      1. Audio Problems: Distortion and Noise
      2. Sound Intensity Measurement
      3. Cables and Connectors
      4. Console Operation
    6. Sound Perspectives
      1. Stereo Sound
      2. Multichannel Sound
      3. Dolby Digital 5.1, 6.1, and 7.1 Sound and Beyond
    7. Summary
    8. Exercises
    9. Additional Readings
  14. 7. Lighting and Design
    1. Introduction
    2. Realist Lighting and Design
    3. Modernist Lighting and Design
    4. Postmodernist Lighting and Design
    5. Light and Color
      1. Sunlight
      2. Tungsten Light
      3. Carbon Arc Light
      4. Metal Halide Light
      5. Fluorescent Light
      6. LED Lights
      7. White Balance
    6. Lighting Instruments
      1. Spotlights
      2. Floodlights
      3. Portable Lights
      4. New Lamp Designs
      5. Shaping Devices
    7. Light Control
      1. Lighting Control in the Studio
      2. Lighting Control on Location
    8. Light Measurement
      1. Types of Light Meter Readings
      2. Determining Contrast Ratios
    9. Setting Lighting Instruments
      1. Three- and Four-Point Lighting
      2. Controlling Shadows
      3. Cross Key Lighting
      4. Lighting Moving Subjects
      5. Low-Key versus High-Key Lighting
      6. Single-Camera versus Multiple-Camera Situations
      7. Lighting for Digital Cameras
      8. Lighting Plots
    10. Principles of Design
      1. Design Elements
        1. Color
      2. Composition
      3. On-Set Design Elements
      4. Scenic Design
    11. Set Construction
      1. Virtual Sets
      2. Set Construction
      3. Properties
    12. Costume Design
    13. Makeup
    14. Summary
    15. Exercises
    16. Additional Readings
  15. 8. The Camera
    1. Introduction
    2. Camera Placement
      1. Framing
      2. Positioning
      3. Movement
      4. Mounting Devices
    3. Lens Control
      1. Basic Optics
      2. Aberrations
      3. Lens Perspective
    4. Video Cameras
      1. Basic Video Camera
      2. The Camera Chain
      3. Video Camera Filters
      4. Types of Video Cameras
    5. Digital Cameras
      1. Viewfinder
      2. Body
      3. Optics
      4. Recording
      5. Types of Digital Cameras
    6. Film Cameras
      1. Types of Film Cameras
      2. 35 mm Cameras
      3. Camera Accessories
    7. Camera Care
    8. Summary
    9. Exercises
    10. Additional Readings
  16. 9. Recording
    1. Introduction
    2. Analog Audio
      1. Audiotape Formats
      2. Analog Audio Recorders
      3. Audiotape Speeds
    3. Digital Audio
      1. Digital Recorders
    4. Analog Video
      1. Composite Video Signal
      2. Videotape Formats
      3. Videotape Sound Synchronization
    5. Digital Video
      1. Signal Compression
      2. Digital Videotape Formats
      3. Tapeless Video Recording
    6. Film Recording
      1. Basic Photochemistry
      2. Color Film
      3. Film Exposure
      4. Motion Picture Formats
      5. Film Sound Synchronization
    7. Summary
    8. Exercises
    9. Additional Readings
  17. 10. Editing
    1. Introduction
    2. Aesthetic Approaches
      1. Realism
      2. Modernism
      3. Postmodernism
    3. Editing Modes
      1. Fiction
      2. Nonfiction
    4. Editing Workflow
      1. Planning
      2. Acquisition
      3. Ingest
      4. Editing Log
      5. Editing
        1. Finishing
      6. Output
    5. Editing Digital Audio
      1. Synchronizing Sound Sources
      2. Sound Mixing Techniques
      3. Sound Effects
      4. Editing Music
    6. Editing Film
      1. Synchronizing the Dailies
      2. Digital Film Editing
      3. Conforming
      4. Combining the A and B Rolls
    7. Summary
    8. Exercises
    9. Additional Readings
  18. 11. Graphics, Animation, and Special Effects
    1. Introduction
    2. Aesthetics of Graphics and Animation
      1. Realist Graphics
      2. Modernist Graphics
      3. Postmodernist Graphics
    3. Principles of Graphics
      1. Design Elements
      2. Color
      3. Composition
    4. Graphic Design
      1. Principles of Graphic Design
      2. Types of Graphics
      3. Computer Graphics
      4. Graphic Applications
      5. Typography
    5. Searching the Internet
      1. Hypertext Markup Language (HTML)
      2. Interactivity
      3. Multimedia
      4. On-Set Graphics
      5. Lettering and Titles
    6. Animation
      1. Storyboards and Animation Preproduction
      2. Types of Animation
    7. Special Effects
      1. Digital Effects
      2. Camera Effects
      3. Optical Effects
      4. Models and Miniatures
      5. Physical Effects
    8. Summary
    9. Exercises
    10. Additional Readings
  19. 12. The Future and Your Career
    1. Introduction
    2. Economic Convergence
    3. Technological Convergence
    4. Impact of Convergence on Employment
    5. Preparation for A Media Production Career
      1. Internship
      2. Job Search
      3. Networking
    6. Application Process
      1. Résumé
      2. Cover Letter
      3. Portfolio
      4. Interviewing
      5. Freelancing
      6. Representation
    7. Summary
    8. Be Sure To
    9. Exercises
    10. Additional Readings
  20. Glossary
  21. Plates
  22. Index