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Introduction to Media Production, 3rd Edition

Book Description

Introduction to Media Production, Third Edition, provides students with a practical framework for all aspects of media production by addressing the technological and aesthetic changes that have shaped the industry. Offering both hands-on instruction and theoretical information, it provides a sound basis for the techniques, operations, and philosophies of media production in the new digital environment.

The new edition has been updated throughout with detailed information on how digital processes have changed everything from shooting to editing to finishing. It includes content on the Internet, writing for the Internet, Graphics and Animation.

Table of Contents

  1. Front cover
  2. Half Title
  3. Title Page
  4. Copyright
  5. Dedication
  6. Contents
  7. Preface
  8. 1 The Production Process: Analog and Digital Technologies
    1. Topics for Discussion
    2. Introduction
    3. Stages of Production
      1. Preproduction
      2. Production
      3. Postproduction
    4. Digital Versus Analog Technology
      1. Digital Technologies Used in Preproduction
      2. Digital Technologies Used in Production
      3. Digital Technologies Used in Postproduction
    5. A Short History of Audio, Film, and Video Production Technology
    6. Production Terminology
    7. Single-Camera Versus Multiple-Camera and Studio Versus Location Production
      1. Planning for Positive Production Experiences
      2. Avoiding Negative Production Experiences
    8. The Production Team in Audio, Video, Film, and Multimedia Production
      1. Creative Staff in Media Production
        1. The Producer
        2. The Director
        3. The Assistant/Associate Director
        4. The Scriptwriter
      2. The Production Crew in Media Production
        1. The Director of Photography
        2. The Lighting Director
        3. The Camera Operator
        4. The Art Director of Scenic Designer
        5. The Technical Director
        6. The Editor
        7. The Audio Engineer or Mixer
        8. The Video Engineer or Laboratory Color Timer
      3. The Production Team in the Recording Industry
        1. The Producer and Operator
        2. The Arranger
      4. The Production Team in Interactive Multimedia Production
        1. The Developer
        2. The Publisher
        3. The Producer
        4. The Designer
        5. The Writer
        6. The Video Director
        7. The Art Director
        8. The Art Graphic Artist/Animator
        9. The Programmer
    9. Visualization: Images, Sounds, and the Creative Process
      1. Conveying Information
      2. Rhetorical Persuasion
      3. Artistic Expression
    10. Production Aesthetics
      1. Realism
      2. Modernism
      3. Postmodernism
      4. Combining Aesthetic Approaches
    11. Summary
    12. Exercises
    13. Additional Readings
  9. 2 Producing and Production Management
    1. Topics for Discussion
    2. Introduction
    3. Producing
      1. The Role of the Producer
      2. Production Strategies
      3. Market Research
      4. Production Goals and Objectives
      5. Audience Analysis
      6. Proposal Writing
      7. Project Presentations
      8. Legal Rights and Concerns
      9. Unions, Guilds, and Nonunion Working Conditions
    4. Production Management
      1. Script Breakdown
      2. Shooting Schedule
      3. Production Budget
    5. Summary
    6. Exercises
    7. Additional Readings
  10. 3 Scriptwriting
    1. Topics for Discussion
    2. Introduction
    3. Visual Thinking
    4. Preparation for Scriptwriting
      1. Research
      2. Premise, Synopsis, and Outline
      3. Treatments
    5. Scriptwriting Formats
      1. Full-Page Master Scene Script format
      2. Split-Page Script Format
      3. Semi-Scripted Formats
    6. Fiction Scriptwriting
      1. Dramatic Structure
        1. Act One
        2. Act Two
        3. Act Three
        4. Rising Action: Crises and Climax
        5. Falling Action: Resolution
        6. Text and Subtext
      2. Narrative Structure
      3. Characterization and Theme
      4. Adaptation
      5. Short Fiction Forms and Formats
      6. Interactive Stories and Games
    7. Nonfiction Scriptwriting
      1. Rhetorical and Expository structure
      2. Voice and Point of View
      3. Narration and Interviews
      4. Short Nonfiction Forms and Formats
        1. News Stories
        2. Talk Show
        3. Commercials and Public Service Announcements
        4. Instructional Films and Videos
      5. Interactive Learning and Training
    8. Summary
    9. Exercises
    10. Additional Readings
  11. 4 Directing: Aesthetic Principles and Production Coordination
    1. Topics for Discussion
    2. Introduction
    3. Aesthetic Approaches
      1. Realism
      2. Modernism
      3. Postmodernism
    4. Visualization
      1. Types of Shots
        1. Long Shot (LS)
        2. Medium Shot (MS)
        3. Close Shot (CS) or Close-Up (CU)
      2. Camera Angle
        1. Point-of-View Shot (POV Shot)
        2. Reverse-Angle Shot
        3. Low-Angle Shot
        4. High-Angle Shot
        5. Overhead Shot
      3. Stationary Versus Mobile Camera Shots
        1. Pan Shot
        2. Tilt Shot
        3. Pedestal Shot
        4. Zoom Shot
        5. Dolly Shot
        6. Trucking Shot
        7. Tracking Shot
        8. Crane or Boom Shot
    5. Composition
      1. Aspect Ratio
        1. Essential Area
        2. Rule of Thirds
      2. Symmetry
      3. Closure
        1. Depth and Perspective
        2. Frame Movement
        3. Image Qualities
        4. Scale and Shape
        5. Speed of Motion
    6. Combining Shots
      1. Straight Cut or Take
      2. Fade
      3. Dissolve
      4. Wipe
      5. Defocus
      6. Swish Pan
      7. Special Effects
        1. Split Screen of Shared Screen
        2. Superimposition
        3. Keying and Chroma Key
        4. Matte and Blue Screen
        5. Negative Image
        6. Freeze Frame
      8. Digital Transitions
      9. Scene Construction
      10. Continuity Editing
      11. Pace and Rhythm
      12. Compression and Expansion of Time
      13. Screen Directionality
      14. Directional Glances
      15. The 180-Degree Axis of Action Rule
    7. Sound and Image Interaction
      1. On-Screen Versus Off-Screen Sound
      2. Commentative Versus Actual Sound
      3. Synchronous Versus Asynchronous Sound
      4. Parallel Versus Contrapuntal Sound
      5. Composing Images for Prerecorded Music
      6. Composing Music for Prerecorded Images
    8. Preparing the Shooting Script
    9. Production Coordination
      1. Production Meetings
      2. Casting
      3. Rehearsals
      4. Performer and Camera Blocking
    10. Multiple-Camera Directing
      1. Timing
      2. Running Time
      3. Timing in Production
      4. On-the Air Timing
      5. Production Switching
      6. Director’s Commands
      7. Live-on-Tape Recording
    11. Single-Camera Directing
      1. Cutaways
      2. Shooting Ratios
      3. Director’s Terminology
    12. Summary
    13. Exercises
    14. Additional Readings
  12. 5 Audio/Sound
    1. Topics for Discussion
    2. Introduction
    3. Aesthetics of Audio/Sound
    4. Types of Microphones
      1. Transducer Elements
      2. Pickup Patterns
      3. Impedance
    5. Mic Placement and Selection
      1. On-Camera Mics
      2. Off-Camera Mics
        1. Boom Operation
        2. Boom Placement
        3. Hidden Mics
        4. Wireless (RF) Mics
      3. Selecting the Best Mic
      4. Using Multiple Mics
      5. Stereo Mic Placement
      6. Digital Mic Placement
    6. Sound-Signal Control
      1. Audio Problems: Distortion and Noise
      2. Sound Intensity Measurement
      3. Cables and Connectors
      4. Mixing
      5. Console Operation
      6. Recording and Mixing Commands
    7. Sound Perspectives
      1. Stereo Sound
      2. Surround Sound
      3. Dolby Digitial 5.1 Sound
    8. Summary
    9. Exercises
    10. Additional Readings
  13. 6 Lighting
    1. Topics for Discussion
    2. Introduction
    3. Lighting Aesthetics
      1. Realist Lighting
      2. Modernist Lighting
      3. Postmodernist Lighting
    4. Light and Color
      1. Sunlight
      2. Tungsten Light
      3. Carbon Arc Light
      4. Metal Halide Light
      5. Fluorescent Light
      6. White Balance
    5. Lighting Instruments
      1. Spotlights
      2. Floodlights
      3. Portable Lights
      4. Mounting Devices
      5. Shaping Devices
    6. Light Control
      1. Lighting Control in the Studio
      2. Lighting Control on Location
    7. Light Measurement
      1. Types of Light Meter Readings
      2. Determining Contrast Ratios
        1. Lighting Ratios
          1. Key-to-Fill Ratio
          2. Key-to-Back Ratio
        2. Contrast Ratios
        3. Adjusting Contrast
    8. Setting Lighting Instruments
      1. Three- and Four-Point Lighting
        1. Key Light
        2. Fill Light
        3. Separation Light
      2. Background Light
      3. Controlling Shadows
      4. Cross Key Lighting
      5. Lighting Moving Subjects
      6. Low-Key Versus High-Key Lighting
      7. Lighting Plots
      8. Single-Camera Versus Multiple-Camera Situations
      9. Lighting for Digital Cameras
    9. Summary
    10. Exercises
    11. Additional Readings
  14. 7 Camera
    1. Topics for Discussion
    2. Introduction
    3. Camera Placement
      1. Framing
      2. Positioning
      3. Movement
      4. Mounting Devices
        1. Body Mount
        2. Tripods
        3. Dollies
    4. Lens Control
      1. Basic Optics
      2. Aberrations
      3. Lens Perspective
        1. Focal Length and Angle of Acceptance
        2. Variable Focal-Length Lens
        3. Field of View
        4. Image Depth
        5. Focus Distance
        6. Lens Aperture
        7. Depth of Field
    5. Video Cameras
      1. Basic Video Camera
      2. The Camera Chain
      3. Video Camera Filters
      4. Types of Video Cameras
    6. Digital Cameras
      1. Viewfinder
    7. Body
    8. Optics
    9. Recording
    10. Types of Digital Cameras
      1. Studio Digital Cameras
      2. Electronic Cinema Cameras
      3. Field Digital Cameras
      4. Handheld Digital Cameras
      5. Box/Pencil Digital Cameras
    11. Film Cameras
      1. Types of Film Cameras
        1. 8mm Cameras
        2. 16mm Cameras
        3. 35mm Cameras
        4. Camera Accessories
    12. Camera Care
    13. Summary
    14. Exercises
    15. Additional Readings
  15. 8 Recording
    1. Topics for Discussion
    2. Introduction
    3. Analog Audio
      1. Audiotape Formats
      2. Analog Audio Recorders
      3. Audiotape Speeds
    4. Digital Audio
      1. Digital Recorders
    5. Analog Video
      1. Composite Video Signal
        1. Video Signal
        2. Synchronization Signal
        3. Control Track Pulse
        4. Monochrome and Color Video
      2. Analog Video Recorders
        1. Scanning Systems
        2. Helical Scan Recording
      3. Analog Videotape Formats
      4. Videotape Sound Synchronization
    6. Digital Video
      1. Signal Compression
      2. Component Versus Composite Recording Systems
      3. Digital Videotape Formats
      4. Tapeless Video Recording
    7. Film Recording
      1. Basic Photochemistry
      2. Color Film
      3. Film Exposure
      4. Motion Picture Formats
      5. Film Sound Synchronization
        1. Single-System Film Recording
        2. Double-System Film Recording
        3. Slating
    8. Summary
    9. Exercises
    10. Additional Readings
  16. 9 Design and Graphics
    1. Topics for Discussion
    2. Introduction
    3. Aesthetic Approaches
      1. Realist Design
      2. Modernist Design
      3. Postmodernist design
    4. Principles of Design
      1. Design Elements
        1. Line
        2. Shape
        3. Texture
        4. Movement
      2. Color
        1. Color Harmony
        2. Color Contrast
        3. Emotional Response to Color
        4. Cultural Response to Color
      3. Composition
        1. Balance
        2. Perspective
        3. Proximity
        4. Similarity
        5. Figure/Ground
        6. Equilibrium
        7. Closure
        8. Emphasis
        9. X-Y-Z Axis
        10. Readability
        11. Image Area
        12. Scanning or Full-Aperture Area
        13. Essential Area
    5. Graphic Functions
    6. Graphic Design
      1. Principles of Graphic Design
      2. Types of Graphics
        1. Off-Set Graphics
        2. Computer Graphics
      3. Graphic Applications
      4. Type/Font Measurement
        1. Typography
      5. Searching the Internet
        1. Hypertext Markup Language (HTML)
        2. Interactivity
        3. Multimedia
        4. On-Set Graphics
      6. Lettering and Titles
      7. Illustrations
        1. Photographic Illustrations
      8. Scenic Design
      9. Set Design
      10. Set Construction
      11. Properties
      12. Costume Design
      13. Makeup
      14. Summary
      15. Exercises
      16. Additional Readings
  17. 10 Visual Editing
    1. Topics for Discussion
    2. Introduction
    3. Aesthetic Approaches
      1. Realism
      2. Modernism
      3. Postmodernism
    4. Editing Modes
      1. Fiction
      2. Nonfiction
    5. Editing Technology and Techniques
      1. Digital Nonlinear Editing
        1. Digitizing or Capturing Video and Film
        2. Digital Nonlinear Editing Hardware
        3. Remote Nonlinear Video Editing
        4. Digital Nonlinear Editing Software
      2. Videotape Linear Editing
        1. Linear Assemble Editing
        2. Insert Editing
        3. Linear Editing Process
        4. Time Code
        5. Post Production Techniques
      3. Film Editing
      4. Screening the Workprint
      5. Assemble Editing
      6. Synchronizing the Dailies
      7. Rough-Cutting
      8. Tape Splicing
      9. Head Leaders
    6. Basic Film-Editing Bench
      1. Editing Machines
      2. Digital Film Editing
      3. Conforming
      4. Making the Workprint
      5. Edge Numbers
      6. Splicing the A and B Rolls
      7. Cement Splicing
      8. Combining the A and B Rolls
    7. Summary
    8. Exercises
    9. Additional Readings
  18. 11 Sound Editing
    1. Topics for Discussion
    2. Introduction
      1. Realist
      2. Modernist
      3. Post Modernist
    3. Digital Nonlinear Editing
      1. Digital Nonlinear Editing Hardware
      2. Digital Nonlinear Editing Software
    4. Linear Videotape Editing
    5. Magnetic Film Editing
    6. Audiotape Editing
      1. Splicing Audiotape
      2. Sound Mixing Techniques
    7. Summary
    8. Exercises
    9. Additional Readings
  19. 12 Animation and Special Effects
    1. Topics for Discussion
    2. Introduction
    3. Animation
      1. Storyboards and Animation Preproduction
      2. Types of Animation
      3. Computer Animation
      4. 3-D Computer Animation
      5. Motion Capture
      6. Animation on the Web
      7. Film Animation
    4. Special Effects
      1. Digital Effects
      2. Camera Effects
      3. Optical Effects
      4. Models and Miniatures
      5. Physical Effects
    5. Summary
    6. Exercises
    7. Additional Readings
  20. 13 Distribution and Exhibition
    1. Topics for Discussion
    2. Introduction
    3. Technology of Distribution and Exhibition
      1. Broadcasting, Cable, and Satellite
      2. Theatrical and Nontheatrical
      3. Home Video, Audio, and Multimedia
      4. Corporate and In-House
    4. Economics of Distribution and Exhibition
      1. Broadcasting, Cable, and Satellite
      2. Theatrical and Nontheatrical
      3. Home Video, Audio, and Multimedia
      4. Corporate and In-House
    5. Summary
    6. Exercises
    7. Additional Readings
  21. Glossary
  22. Index