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Introduction to Information Technology, 2nd Edition

Book Description

Introduction to Information Technology incorporates the major changes that have taken place in the field of information technology, including not only the latest trends but also future technologies. The coverage of practical and historic perspectives on information technology demonstrates how concepts are applied to real systems and shows their evolution since its beginnings. Written in a clear, concise and lucid manner, each chapter is designed to be covered in two or three lectures while keeping inter-chapter dependencies to a minimum.

Table of Contents

  1. Cover
  2. Title Page
  3. Brief Contents
  4. Contents
  5. Preface
  6. 1. Computer Basics
    1. 1.1 Introduction
      1. 1.1.1 Characteristics of Computers
    2. 1.2 Evolution of Computers
    3. 1.3 Generations of Computers
      1. 1.3.1 First Generation (1940 to 1956): Vacuum Tubes
      2. 1.3.2 Second Generation (1956 to 1963): Transistors
      3. 1.3.3 Third Generation (1964 to Early 1970s): Integrated Circuits
      4. 1.3.4 Fourth Generation (Early 1970s to Till Date): Microprocessors
      5. 1.3.5 Fifth Generation (Present and Beyond): Artificial Intelligence
    4. 1.4 Classification of Computers
      1. 1.4.1 Microcomputers
      2. 1.4.2 Minicomputers
      3. 1.4.3 Mainframes
      4. 1.4.4 Supercomputers
    5. 1.5 The Computer System
      1. 1.5.1 Components of a Computer System
      2. 1.5.2 How Does a Computer Work?
    6. 1.6 Applications of Computers
    7. Let Us Summarize
    8. Exercises
    9. Answers
  7. 2. Computer Organization and Architecture
    1. 2.1 Introduction
    2. 2.2 Central Processing Unit
      1. 2.2.1 Arithmetic/Logic Unit
      2. 2.2.2 Registers
      3. 2.2.3 Control Unit
      4. 2.2.4 System Bus
      5. 2.2.5 Main Memory Unit
      6. 2.2.6 Cache Memory
    3. 2.3 Communication among Various Units
      1. 2.3.1 Processor to Memory Communication
      2. 2.3.2 Processor—I/O Devices Communication
    4. 2.4 Instruction Format
    5. 2.5 Instruction Cycle
    6. 2.6 Instruction Set
      1. 2.6.1 CISC Architecture
      2. 2.6.2 RISC Architecture
      3. 2.6.3 Comparing the CISC with RISC
    7. 2.7 Inside a Computer
      1. 2.7.1 Power Supply (SMPS)
      2. 2.7.2 Motherboard
      3. 2.7.3 Ports and Interfaces
      4. 2.7.4 Expansion Cards
      5. 2.7.5 Ribbon Cables
      6. 2.7.6 Memory Chips
      7. 2.7.7 Storage Devices
      8. 2.7.8 Processors
    8. 2.8 Data Representation in Computers
      1. 2.8.1 Types of Number System
      2. 2.8.2 Conversion between Number Bases
    9. 2.9 Coding Schemes
    10. Let Us Summarize
    11. Exercises
    12. Answers
  8. 3. Computer Memory and Storage
    1. 3.1 Introduction
      1. 3.1.1 Memory Representation
    2. 3.2 Memory Hierarchy
    3. 3.3 Random Access Memory
      1. 3.3.1 Types of RAM
    4. 3.4 Read Only Memory
      1. 3.4.1 Types of ROM
    5. 3.5 RAM, ROM and CPU Interaction
    6. 3.6 Types of Secondary Storage Devices
    7. 3.7 Magnetic Tape
      1. 3.7.1 Magnetic Tape Organization
      2. 3.7.2 Advantages of Magnetic Tapes
      3. 3.7.3 Disadvantages of Magnetic Tapes
    8. 3.8 Magnetic Disk
      1. 3.8.1 Storage Organization of a Magnetic Disk
      2. 3.8.2 Accessing Data from Magnetic Disk
    9. 3.9 Types of Magnetic Disks
      1. 3.9.1 Floppy Disk
      2. 3.9.2 Hard Disk
      3. 3.9.3 Zip Disk
      4. 3.9.4 Advantages of Magnetic Disks
      5. 3.9.5 Disadvantages of Magnetic Disks
    10. 3.10 Optical Disk
      1. 3.10.1 Storage Organization of Optical Disk
      2. 3.10.2 Access Mechanism of Optical Disk
    11. 3.11 Types of Optical Disks
      1. 3.11.1 Compact Disk
      2. 3.11.2 Digital Versatile Disk
      3. 3.11.3 Blu-ray Disk
      4. 3.11.4 Advantages of Optical Disks
      5. 3.11.5 Disadvantages of Optical Disks
    12. 3.12 Magneto-optical Storage Devices
      1. 3.12.1 Basics of MO Reading
      2. 3.12.2 Basics of MO Recording
    13. 3.13 Universal Serial Bus
      1. 3.13.1 Pen Drive
      2. 3.13.2 External Hard Disk Drive
    14. 3.14 Memory Stick
    15. 3.15 Mass Storage Devices
    16. Let Us Summarize
    17. Exercises
    18. Answers
  9. 4. Input Output Media
    1. 4.1 Introduction
      1. 4.1.1 Importance of Input/Output Devices
    2. 4.2 Types of Input Devices
      1. 4.2.1 Keyboard
      2. 4.2.2 Pointing Devices
      3. 4.2.3 Speech Recognition
      4. 4.2.4 Digital Camera
      5. 4.2.5 Webcam
      6. 4.2.6 Scanners
      7. 4.2.7 Optical Character Recognition
      8. 4.2.8 Optical Mark Recognition
      9. 4.2.9 Magnetic-ink Character Recognition
      10. 4.2.10 Bar Code Reader
    3. 4.3 Types of Output Devices
      1. 4.3.1 Printers
      2. 4.3.2 Plotters
      3. 4.3.3 Computer Output Microfilm
      4. 4.3.4 Monitor
      5. 4.3.5 Voice Response System
      6. 4.3.6 Projector
      7. 4.3.7 Electronic Whiteboard
      8. 4.3.8 Headphone and Headset
    4. 4.4 Computer Terminals
    5. Let Us Summarize
    6. Exercises
    7. Answers
  10. 5. Operating System
    1. 5.1 Introduction
    2. 5.2 Operating System: Definition
    3. 5.3 Evolution of Operating System
    4. 5.4 Types of Operating Systems
    5. 5.5 Functions of an Operating System
      1. 5.5.1 Process Management
      2. 5.5.2 Memory Management
      3. 5.5.3 File Management
      4. 5.5.4 Device Management
      5. 5.5.5 Security Management
      6. 5.5.6 User Interface
    6. Let Us Summarize
    7. Exercises
    8. Answers
  11. 6. Microsoft Windows XP
    1. 6.1 Introduction
    2. 6.2 Features of Windows XP
    3. 6.3 Starting Windows XP Professional
    4. 6.4 The Desktop
      1. 6.4.1 Taskbar
      2. 6.4.2 Customizing Taskbar
      3. 6.4.3 Desktop Icons
      4. 6.4.4 Customizing the Desktop
    5. 6.5 My Computer
    6. 6.6 Working with Files and Folders
      1. 6.6.1 Recycle Bin
    7. 6.7 Windows Explorer
    8. 6.8 Windows Help and Support Centre
    9. 6.9 Searching in Windows XP
    10. 6.10 System Utilities in Windows XP
    11. 6.11 Control Panel
    12. 6.12 Windows Accessories
      1. 6.12.1 Calculator
      2. 6.12.2 Notepad
      3. 6.12.3 Paint
    13. Let Us Summarize
    14. Exercises
    15. Answers
  12. 7. Overview of Microsoft Windows 7
    1. 7.1 Introduction
    2. 7.2 Different Editions of Windows 7
    3. 7.3 New Style of Windows 7
      1. 7.3.1 Aero Themes
      2. 7.3.2 Gadgets
      3. 7.3.3 Taskbar
      4. 7.3.4 Start Menu
      5. 7.3.5 Aero Effects
      6. 7.3.6 Jump Lists
    4. 7.4 Windows 7 Accessories
    5. Let Us Summarize
    6. Exercises
    7. Answers
  13. 8. Information Technology Basics
    1. 8.1 Introduction
    2. 8.2 Information
      1. 8.2.1 Prerequisites of Information
      2. 8.2.2 Need for Information
    3. 8.3 Technology
    4. 8.4 Information Technology
      1. 8.4.1 Components of Information Technology
    5. 8.5 Present Scenario
    6. 8.6 Role of Information Technology
      1. 8.6.1 Information Technology in Business
      2. 8.6.2 Information Technology in Manufacturing
      3. 8.6.3 Information Technology in Mobile Computing
      4. 8.6.4 Information Technology in Public Sector
      5. 8.6.5 Information Technology in Defence Services
      6. 8.6.6 Information Technology in Media
      7. 8.6.7 Information Technology in Education
      8. 8.6.8 Information Technology in Publication
    7. 8.7 Information Technology and the Internet
    8. 8.8 Careers in the IT Industry
    9. Let Us Summarize
    10. Exercises
    11. Answers
  14. 9. Multimedia Essentials
    1. 9.1 Introduction
    2. 9.2 Multimedia: Definition
    3. 9.3 Building Blocks of Multimedia
      1. 9.3.1 Text
      2. 9.3.2 Graphics
      3. 9.3.3 Audio
      4. 9.3.4 Video
      5. 9.3.5 Animation
    4. 9.4 Multimedia System
      1. 9.4.1 Desirable Features of Multimedia System
      2. 9.4.2 Data Compression
    5. 9.5 Multimedia Applications
      1. 9.5.1 Multimedia and Education
      2. 9.5.2 Multimedia and Entertainment
      3. 9.5.3 Multimedia and Training
      4. 9.5.4 Multimedia and Business
      5. 9.5.5 Multimedia Interactive Kiosks
    6. 9.6 Virtual Reality
      1. 9.6.1 Characteristics of Virtual Reality
    7. Let Us Summarize
    8. Exercises
    9. Answers
  15. 10. Computer Programming and Languages
    1. 10.1 Introduction
      1. 10.1.1 Developing a Program
      2. 10.1.2 Program Development Cycle
    2. 10.2 Algorithm
    3. 10.3 Flowchart
      1. 10.3.1 Flowchart Symbols
      2. 10.3.2 Guidelines for Preparing Flowcharts
      3. 10.3.3 Benefits of Flowcharts
      4. 10.3.4 Limitations of Flowcharts
    4. 10.4 Decision Tables
      1. 10.4.1 Steps to Develop a Decision Table
      2. 10.4.2 Benefits of Decision Tables
      3. 10.4.3 Limitations of Decision Tables
    5. 10.5 Pseudocode
      1. 10.5.1 Pseudocode Guidelines
      2. 10.5.2 Benefits of Pseudocode
      3. 10.5.3 Limitations of Pseudocode
    6. 10.6 Program Control Structures
      1. 10.6.1 Sequence Control Structure
      2. 10.6.2 Selection Control Structure
      3. 10.6.3 Repetition Control Structure
    7. 10.7 Programming Paradigms
      1. 10.7.1 Unstructured Programming
      2. 10.7.2 Structured Programming
      3. 10.7.3 Object-oriented Programming
    8. 10.8 Characteristics of a Good Program
    9. 10.9 Programming Languages
      1. 10.9.1 Types of Programming Languages
    10. 10.10 Generations of Programming Languages
      1. 10.10.1 First Generation: Machine Language
      2. 10.10.2 Second Generation: Assembly Language
      3. 10.10.3 Third Generation: High-level Language
      4. 10.10.4 Fourth Generation
      5. 10.10.5 Fifth Generation: Very High-level Languages
    11. 10.11 Features of a Good Programming Language
    12. Let Us Summarize
    13. Exercises
    14. Answers
  16. 11. Computer Software
    1. 11.1 Introduction
    2. 11.2 Software: Definition
      1. 11.2.1 Relationship between Software and Hardware
    3. 11.3 Categories of Software
      1. 11.3.1 System Software
      2. 11.3.2 Application Software
    4. 11.4 Installing and Uninstalling Software
    5. 11.5 Software Piracy
      1. 11.5.1 Types of Software Piracy
      2. 11.5.2 Preventing Software Piracy
    6. 11.6 Software Terminologies
    7. Let Us Summarize
    8. Exercises
    9. Answers
  17. 12. Introduction to Microsoft Office 2007
    1. 12.1 Introduction
    2. 12.2 Introduction to Office 2007 User Interface
    3. 12.3 Microsoft Office Applications
      1. 12.3.1 Microsoft Office Word 2007
      2. 12.3.2 Microsoft Office Excel 2007
      3. 12.3.3 Microsoft Office Access 2007
      4. 12.3.4 Microsoft Office PowerPoint 2007
    4. Let Us Summarize
    5. Exercises
    6. Answers
  18. 13. Microsoft Office Word 2003
    1. 13.1 Introduction
    2. 13.2 Starting Microsoft Office Word 2003
      1. 13.2.1 Microsoft Word Environment
      2. 13.2.2 Getting Help
    3. 13.3 Working with Word 2003 Documents
      1. 13.3.1 Creating a New Document
      2. 13.3.2 Opening an Existing Document
      3. 13.3.3 Saving a Document
      4. 13.3.4 Closing a Document and Exiting Microsoft Word
    4. 13.4 Working with Text
      1. 13.4.1 Inserting Text
      2. 13.4.2 Selecting Text
      3. 13.4.3 Formatting the Text
      4. 13.4.4 Aligning and Indenting Text
      5. 13.4.5 Formatting Style
      6. 13.4.6 Format Painter
      7. 13.4.7 Using Cut, Copy, and Paste in Word
      8. 13.4.8 Finding and Replacing Text
      9. 13.4.9 Undo and Redo
      10. 13.4.10 Bullets and Numbering
      11. 13.4.11 Header and Footer
    5. 13.5 Working with Tables
      1. 13.5.1 Table Properties
      2. 13.5.2 Moving and Resizing Table
      3. 13.5.3 Formatting Text in Table
      4. 13.5.4 Adding and Deleting Rows and Columns
      5. 13.5.5 Converting Text to Table
      6. 13.5.6 Converting Table to Text
    6. 13.6 Checking Spelling and Grammar
      1. 13.6.1 Using the Auto Spell and Auto Grammar Features
      2. 13.6.2 Using Spelling and Grammar Dialog Box
      3. 13.6.3 Using AutoCorrect Options
      4. 13.6.4 Using Synonyms and Thesaurus
    7. 13.7 Adding Graphics to Document
      1. 13.7.1 Pictures
      2. 13.7.2 Editing a Picture
      3. 13.7.3 Drawing Objects
    8. 13.8 Mail Merge
      1. 13.8.1 Components of a Mail Merge
      2. 13.8.2 Mail Merge Steps
    9. 13.9 Printing a Document
      1. 13.9.1 Setting Page Margins
      2. 13.9.2 Print Preview
      3. 13.9.3 Printing the Document
    10. Let Us Summarize
    11. Exercises
    12. Answers
  19. 14. Microsoft Office Excel 2003
    1. 14.1 Introduction
    2. 14.2 Starting Microsoft Office Excel 2003
      1. 14.2.1 Microsoft Excel Environment
    3. 14.3 Working with Excel Workbook
      1. 14.3.1 Creating an Excel Workbook
      2. 14.3.2 Opening an Existing Workbook
      3. 14.3.3 Saving Workbook
      4. 14.3.4 Closing a Workbook
    4. 14.4 Working with Worksheet
      1. 14.4.1 Entering Data in Cells
      2. 14.4.2 Navigating through Cells
      3. 14.4.3 Naming of a Range of Cells
      4. 14.4.4 Editing a Worksheet
      5. 14.4.5 Using Cut, Copy, and Paste in Excel
      6. 14.4.6 Finding and Replacing Cells
      7. 14.4.7 Undo and Redo
    5. 14.5 Formulas and Functions
      1. 14.5.1 Functions
      2. 14.5.2 Using AutoSum
      3. 14.5.3 Formulas
    6. 14.6 Inserting Charts
      1. 14.6.1 Creating Charts
      2. 14.6.2 Using Chart Toolbar
      3. 14.6.3 Saving a Chart
    7. 14.7 Sorting
    8. 14.8 Printing in Excel
      1. 14.8.1 Setting Page Layout
      2. 14.8.2 Print Preview
      3. 14.8.3 Printing Worksheets
    9. Let Us Summarize
    10. Exercises
    11. Answers
  20. 15. Microsoft Office PowerPoint 2003
    1. 15.1 Introduction
    2. 15.2 Starting Microsoft Office PowerPoint 2003
      1. 15.2.1 Microsoft PowerPoint Environment
    3. 15.3 Working with PowerPoint 2003
      1. 15.3.1 Creating a New Presentation
      2. 15.3.2 Opening a Presentation
      3. 15.3.3 Saving a Presentation
      4. 15.3.4 Closing a Presentation
    4. 15.4 Working with Different Views
    5. 15.5 Designing Presentation
      1. 15.5.1 Choosing Design Template
      2. 15.5.2 Using Masters
      3. 15.5.3 Working with Slides
      4. 15.5.4 Working with Text
      5. 15.5.5 Formatting the Text
      6. 15.5.6 Working with Graphics
      7. 15.5.7 Adding Multimedia
      8. 15.5.8 Running Slides
      9. 15.5.9 Package for CD
    6. 15.6 Printing in PowerPoint
      1. 15.6.1 Setting Page Layout
      2. 15.6.2 Printing Presentation
    7. Let Us Summarize
    8. Exercises
    9. Answers
  21. 16. Data Communication and Computer Networks
    1. 16.1 Introduction
    2. 16.2 Data Communication
      1. 16.2.1 Components of Data Communication
      2. 16.2.2 Data Transmission Mode
      3. 16.2.3 Analog and Digital Data Transmission
      4. 16.2.4 Data Communication Measurement
    3. 16.3 Transmission Media
      1. 16.3.1 Guided/Wired Media
      2. 16.3.2 Unguided/Wireless Media
    4. 16.4 Modulation
      1. 16.4.1 Amplitude Modulation (AM)
      2. 16.4.2 Frequency Modulation (FM)
      3. 16.4.3 Phase Modulation (PM)
    5. 16.5 Multiplexing
      1. 16.5.1 Multiplexers
      2. 16.5.2 Asynchronous and Synchronous Transmission
    6. 16.6 Switching
      1. 16.6.1 Circuit Switching
      2. 16.6.2 Packet Switching
      3. 16.6.3 Message Switching
    7. 16.7 Computer Network
      1. 16.7.1 Types of Computer Networks
    8. 16.8 Network Topologies
      1. 16.8.1 Bus Topology
      2. 16.8.2 Ring Topology
      3. 16.8.3 Star Topology
      4. 16.8.4 Tree Topology
      5. 16.8.5 Mesh Topology
    9. 16.9 Communication Protocol
      1. 16.9.1 The OSI Model
    10. 16.10 Network Devices
    11. Let Us Summarize
    12. Exercises
    13. Answers
  22. 17. The Internet
    1. 17.1 Introduction
    2. 17.2 Evolution of Internet
    3. 17.3 Basic Internet Terms
    4. 17.4 Getting Connected to the Internet
    5. 17.5 Internet Applications
      1. 17.5.1 Electronic Mail (E-mail)
      2. 17.5.2 File Transfer Protocol (FTP)
      3. 17.5.3 Telnet
      4. 17.5.4 Internet Relay Chat (IRC)
      5. 17.5.5 Chatting and Instant Messaging
      6. 17.5.6 Internet Telephony
      7. 17.5.7 Video Conferencing
      8. 17.5.8 Commerce through the Internet
      9. 17.5.9 Newsgroups (Usenet)
      10. 17.5.10 Mailing Lists (Listserver)
    6. 17.6 Data Over the Internet
      1. 17.6.1 Static Component
      2. 17.6.2 Dynamic Component
    7. Let Us Summarize
    8. Exercises
    9. Answers
  23. 18. Internet Tools
    1. 18.1 Introduction
    2. 18.2 Web Browser
      1. 18.2.1 Web Browser Features
      2. 18.2.2 Opening Internet Explorer
      3. 18.2.3 Internet Explorer Environment
    3. 18.3 Browsing Internet Using Internet Explorer
    4. 18.4 Electronic Mail (E-mail)
      1. 18.4.1 E-mail Address Structure
      2. 18.4.2 Checking E-mails
      3. 18.4.3 Sending E-mails
      4. 18.4.4 E-mail Attachments
      5. 18.4.5 How E-mail Works
      6. 18.4.6 Netiquette
      7. 18.4.7 Advantages and Disadvantages of E-mail
    5. 18.5 E-mail Client
      1. 18.5.1 Features of E-mail Client
      2. 18.5.2 Opening Outlook Express
      3. 18.5.3 Creating an Account
      4. 18.5.4 Sending E-mails Using Outlook Express
      5. 18.5.5 Checking E-mails Using Outlook Express
      6. 18.5.6 Creating Newsgroup Account
    6. 18.6 Search Engines
      1. 18.6.1 Searching the Internet
      2. 18.6.2 Refining the Search
    7. 18.7 Instant Messaging
      1. 18.7.1 Features of Messenger
      2. 18.7.2 Getting Started with Yahoo Messenger
      3. 18.7.3 Sending Instant Messages
      4. 18.7.4 Sending Files
    8. Let Us Summarize
    9. Exercises
    10. Answers
  24. 19. Computer Security
    1. 19.1 Introduction
    2. 19.2 Computer Security: Definition
      1. 19.2.1 Security Threats
    3. 19.3 Malicious Programs
      1. 19.3.1 Virus
      2. 19.3.2 Other Destructive Programs
      3. 19.3.3 Affecting Computer System
      4. 19.3.4 Protecting Computer System
    4. 19.4 Cryptography
      1. 19.4.1 Secret Key Cryptography
      2. 19.4.2 Public Key Cryptography
      3. 19.4.3 Hash Function
    5. 19.5 Digital Signature
      1. 19.5.1 How Is Digital Signature Used?
    6. 19.6 Firewall
      1. 19.6.1 How Firewall Works?
      2. 19.6.2 Types of Firewall
    7. 19.7 User Identification and Authentication
      1. 19.7.1 User Requirements
      2. 19.7.2 User Possessions
      3. 19.7.3 Biometric Technique
    8. 19.8 Data Backup and Recovery
      1. 19.8.1 Backup Methods
      2. 19.8.2 Online Backups
      3. 19.8.3 Recovery Tools
    9. 19.9 Security Awareness and Policies
      1. 19.9.1 Awareness
      2. 19.9.2 Security Policy
    10. Let Us Summarize
    11. Exercises
    12. Answers
  25. 20. Database Fundamentals
    1. 20.1 Introduction
      1. 20.1.1 Data versus Information
    2. 20.2 Database: Definition
      1. 20.2.1 Basic Database Terms
    3. 20.3 Logical Data Concepts
      1. 20.3.1 Entity
      2. 20.3.2 Attribute
      3. 20.3.3 Relationship
    4. 20.4 Physical Data Concepts
      1. 20.4.1 Sequential Files
      2. 20.4.2 Direct Files
      3. 20.4.3 Indexed Sequential Files
    5. 20.5 Database Management System
      1. 20.5.1 Need for DBMS
      2. 20.5.2 Benefits of DBMS
      3. 20.5.3 Components of a DBMS
      4. 20.5.4 Database Administrator
      5. 20.5.5 Database Languages
      6. 20.5.6 Data Dictionary
    6. 20.6 DBMS Architecture
      1. 20.6.1 Data Independence
    7. 20.7 Database Models
      1. 20.7.1 Hierarchical Database Model
      2. 20.7.2 Network Database Model
      3. 20.7.3 Relational Database Model
      4. 20.7.4 Object-oriented Database Model
    8. 20.8 Normalization
      1. 20.8.1 First Normal Form (1NF)
      2. 20.8.2 Second Normal Form (2NF)
      3. 20.8.3 Third Normal Form (3NF)
    9. 20.9 Types of Databases
      1. 20.9.1 Centralized Database
      2. 20.9.2 Distributed Database
    10. 20.10 Data Warehousing and Data Mining
    11. Let Us Summarize
    12. Exercises
    13. Answers
  26. 21. Structured Query Language (SQL)
    1. 21.1 Introduction
      1. 21.1.1 Communicating with Database Using SQL
      2. 21.1.2 Characteristics of SQL
      3. 21.1.3 Brief History of SQL
    2. 21.2 Getting Started with SQL
      1. 21.2.1 Data Types
      2. 21.2.2 SQL Syntax
    3. 21.3 DDL Commands
      1. 21.3.1 CREATE TABLE Command
      2. 21.3.2 ALTER TABLE Command
      3. 21.3.3 DROP TABLE Command
    4. 21.4 DML Commands
      1. 21.4.1 INSERT Command
      2. 21.4.2 UPDATE Command
      3. 21.4.3 DELETE Command
      4. 21.4.4 SELECT Command
    5. 21.5 Querying Multiple Tables (SQL Joins)
      1. 21.5.1 Combining Queries Using UNION
    6. 21.6 Nesting Select Statements (Subquery)
    7. Let Us Summarize
    8. Exercises
    9. Answers
  27. 22. Microsoft Office Access 2003
    1. 22.1 Introduction
    2. 22.2 Starting Microsoft Office Access 2003
    3. 22.3 Working with Access Database
      1. 22.3.1 Creating and Saving a Database
      2. 22.3.2 Opening a Database
      3. 22.3.3 Closing a Database and Exiting Microsoft Access
    4. 22.4 Microsoft Access Environment
    5. 22.5 Working with Tables
      1. 22.5.1 Creating a Table in Design View
      2. 22.5.2 Creating a Table Using Wizard
      3. 22.5.3 Adding, Modifying, and Deleting Records
      4. 22.5.4 Navigating a Table
    6. 22.6 Queries
      1. 22.6.1 Creating a Simple Query Using Wizard
      2. 22.6.2 Running a Query
      3. 22.6.3 Sorting Query Results
      4. 22.6.4 Using SQL in Microsoft Access
    7. 22.7 Forms
      1. 22.7.1 Creating a Form Using Wizard
    8. 22.8 Reports
      1. 22.8.1 Creating a Report Using Wizard
    9. Let Us Summarize
    10. Exercises
    11. Answers
  28. 23. Current and Future Trends in IT
    1. 23.1 Introduction
    2. 23.2 Electronic Commerce (E-Commerce)
      1. 23.2.1 Types of E-Commerce
      2. 23.2.2 Processes in E-Commerce
      3. 23.2.3 Types of Electronic Payment
      4. 23.2.4 Advantages of E-Commerce
      5. 23.2.5 Disadvantages of E-Commerce
    3. 23.3 Electronic Data Interchange (EDI)
      1. 23.3.1 How EDI Works?
      2. 23.3.2 EDI Benefits
      3. 23.3.3 EDI Limitations
    4. 23.4 Wireless Application Protocol (WAP)
    5. 23.5 Smart Card
    6. 23.6 Internet Prootcol Television (IPTV)
    7. 23.7 Blogging
    8. 23.8 Radio Frequency Identification (RFID)
    9. 23.9 Brain Computer Interface (BCI)
    10. 23.10 Imminent Technologies
      1. 23.10.1 Pen Size Computer
      2. 23.10.2 Napkin PC
      3. 23.10.3 Roll Top Computer
      4. 23.10.4 B-membrane PC
      5. 23.10.5 USB Memory Stick
    11. Let Us Summarize
    12. Exercises
    13. Answers
  29. 24. Artificial Intelligence (AI)
    1. 24.1 Introduction
      1. 24.1.1 What Is Intelligence?
      2. 24.1.2 Turing Test
    2. 24.2 Artificial Intelligence: Definition
      1. 24.2.1 Domain Areas of AI
      2. 24.2.2 Brief History of AI
    3. 24.3 Knowledge-based Systems
      1. 24.3.1 Knowledge Acquisition
      2. 24.3.2 Knowledge Organization
      3. 24.3.3 Knowledge Manipulation
      4. 24.3.4 Knowledge Representation
    4. 24.4 Searching Techniques
      1. 24.4.1 Uninformed Search
      2. 24.4.2 Informed Search
    5. 24.5 Natural Language Processing (NLP)
      1. 24.5.1 Uses of NLP
    6. 24.6 Expert Systems
      1. 24.6.1 Characteristics of Expert System
      2. 24.6.2 Applications Areas of Expert System
      3. 24.6.3 Users in Expert Systems
      4. 24.6.4 Benefits of Expert Systems
      5. 24.6.5 Limitations of Expert Systems
    7. 24.7 Neural Networks
      1. 24.7.1 Benefits of Neural Networks
      2. 24.7.2 Applications of Neural Networks
    8. 24.8 AI Languages
    9. Let Us Summarize
    10. Exercises
    11. Answers
  30. Acknowledgements
  31. Copyright