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Introduction to Elementary Particle Physics

Book Description

The Standard Model is the most comprehensive physical theory ever developed. This textbook conveys the basic elements of the Standard Model using elementary concepts, without the theoretical rigor found in most other texts on this subject. It contains examples of basic experiments, allowing readers to see how measurements and theory interplay in the development of physics. The author examines leptons, hadrons and quarks, before presenting the dynamics and the surprising properties of the charges of the different forces. The textbook concludes with a brief discussion on the recent discoveries of physics beyond the Standard Model, and its connections with cosmology. Quantitative examples are given, and the reader is guided through the necessary calculations. Each chapter ends in the exercises, and solutions to some problems are included in the book. Complete solutions are available to instructors at www.cambridge.org/9780521880213. This textbook is suitable for advanced undergraduate students and graduate students.

Table of Contents

  1. Coverpage
  2. Introduction to Elementary Particle Physics
  3. Title page
  4. Copyright page
  5. Contents
  6. Preface
  7. Acknowledgments
  8. 1 Preliminary notions
    1. 1.1 Mass, energy, linear momentum
    2. 1.2 The law of motion of a particle
    3. 1.3 The mass of a system of particles, kinematic invariants
    4. 1.4 Systems of interacting particles
    5. 1.5 Natural units
    6. 1.6 Collisions and decays
    7. 1.7 Hadrons, leptons and quarks
    8. 1.8 The fundamental interactions
    9. 1.9 The passage of radiation through matter
    10. 1.10 Sources of high-energy particles
    11. 1.11 Particle detectors
    12. Problems
    13. Further reading
  9. 2 Nucleons, leptons and bosons
    1. 2.1 The muon and the pion
    2. 2.2 Strange mesons and hyperons
    3. 2.3 The quantum numbers of the charged pion
    4. 2.4 Charged leptons and neutrinos
    5. 2.5 The Dirac equation
    6. 2.6 The positron
    7. 2.7 The antiproton
    8. Problems
    9. Further reading
  10. 3 Symmetries
    1. 3.1 Symmetries
    2. 3.2 Parity
    3. 3.3 Particle–antiparticle conjugation
    4. 3.4 Time reversal and CPT
    5. 3.5 The parity of the pion
    6. 3.6 Pion decay
    7. 3.7 Quark flavours and baryonic number
    8. 3.8 Leptonic flavours and lepton number
    9. 3.9 Isospin
    10. 3.10 The sum of two isospins: the product of two representations
    11. 3.11 G-parity
    12. Problems
    13. Further reading
  11. 4 Hadrons
    1. 4.1 Resonances
    2. 4.2 The 3/2+ baryons
    3. 4.3 The Dalitz plot
    4. 4.4 Spin, parity, isospin analysis of three-pion systems
    5. 4.5 Pseudoscalar and vector mesons
    6. 4.6 The quark model
    7. 4.7 Mesons
    8. 4.8 Baryons
    9. 4.9 Charm
    10. 4.10 The third family
    11. 4.11 The elements of the Standard Model
    12. Problems
    13. Further reading
  12. 5 Quantum electrodynamics
    1. 5.1 Charge conservation and gauge symmetry
    2. 5.2 The Lamb and Retherford experiment
    3. 5.3 Quantum field theory
    4. 5.4 The interaction as an exchange of quanta
    5. 5.5 The Feynman diagrams and QED
    6. 5.6 Analyticity and the need for antiparticles
    7. 5.7 Electron–positron annihilation into a muon pair
    8. 5.8 The evolution of α
    9. Problems
    10. Further reading
  13. 6 Chromodynamics
    1. 6.1 Hadron production at electron–positron colliders
    2. 6.2 Scattering experiments
    3. 6.3 Nucleon structure
    4. 6.4 The colour charges
    5. 6.5 Colour bound states
    6. 6.6 The evolution of αs
    7. 6.7 The origin of hadron mass
    8. 6.8 The quantum vacuum
    9. Problems
    10. Further reading
  14. 7 Weak interactions
    1. 7.1 Classification of weak interactions
    2. 7.2 Low-energy lepton processes and the Fermi constant
    3. 7.3 Parity violation
    4. 7.4 Helicity and chirality
    5. 7.5 Measurement of the helicity of leptons
    6. 7.6 Violation of the particle–antiparticle conjugation
    7. 7.7 Cabibbo mixing
    8. 7.8 The Glashow, Iliopoulos and Maiani mechanism
    9. 7.9 The quark mixing matrix
    10. 7.10 Weak neutral currents
    11. Problems
    12. Further reading
  15. 8 The neutral K and B mesons and CP violation
    1. 8.1 The states of the neutral K system
    2. 8.2 Strangeness oscillations
    3. 8.3 Regeneration
    4. 8.4 CP violation
    5. 8.5 Oscillation and CP violation in the neutral B system
    6. 8.6 CP violation in meson decays
    7. Problems
    8. Further reading
  16. 9 The Standard Model
    1. 9.1 The electroweak interaction
    2. 9.2 Structure of the weak neutral currents
    3. 9.3 Electroweak unification
    4. 9.4 Determination of the electroweak angle
    5. 9.5 The intermediate vector bosons
    6. 9.6 The UA1 experiment
    7. 9.7 The discovery of W and Z
    8. 9.8 The evolution of sin2θW
    9. 9.9 Precision tests at LEP
    10. 9.10 The interaction between intermediate bosons
    11. 9.11 The search for the Higgs boson
    12. Problems
    13. Further reading
  17. 10 Beyond the Standard Model
    1. 10.1 Neutrino mixing
    2. 10.2 Neutrino oscillation
    3. 10.3 Flavour transition in matter
    4. 10.4 The experiments
    5. 10.5 Limits on neutrino mass
    6. 10.6 Challenges
    7. Further reading
  18. Appendix 1 Greek alphabet
  19. Appendix 2 Fundamental constants
  20. Appendix 3 Properties of elementary particles
  21. Appendix 4 Clebsch–Gordan coefficients
  22. Appendix 5 Spherical harmonics and d-functions
  23. Appendix 6 Experimental and theoretical discoveries in particle physics
  24. Solutions
  25. References
  26. Index