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Introduction to Elementary Particle Physics, Second Edition by Alessandro Bettini

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5 Quantum electrodynamics

In the previous chapters we have learnt the properties of the elementary particles, a term that includes also the hadrons, which, as we have seen, are composed of smaller structures, the quarks and the gluons.

Now, starting with this chapter, we shall discuss the electromagnetic, strong and weak interactions of the leptons and the quarks, and finally their unification in the Standard Model. All of them are quantum field theories, for all of them the interaction Lagrangian is invariant under a local gauge symmetry, corresponding to different symmetry groups.

First, consider quantum electrodynamics, which corresponds to classic electrodynamics, namely the Maxwell equations. It was the first to be historically developed and ...

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