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Introduction to Elementary Particle Physics, Second Edition

Book Description

The second edition of this successful textbook is fully updated to include the discovery of the Higgs boson and other recent developments, providing undergraduate students with complete coverage of the basic elements of the standard model of particle physics for the first time. Physics is emphasised over mathematical rigour, making the material accessible to students with no previous knowledge of elementary particles. Important experiments and the theory linked to them are highlighted, helping students appreciate how key ideas were developed. The chapter on neutrino physics has been completely revised, and the final chapter summarises the limits of the standard model and introduces students to what lies beyond. Over 250 problems, including 60 that are new to this edition, encourage students to apply the theory themselves. Partial solutions to selected problems appear in the book, with full solutions provided at www.cambridge.org/9781107050402.

Table of Contents

  1. Coverpage
  2. Half title page
  3. Title page
  4. Copyright page
  5. Contents
  6. Preface to the second edition
  7. Preface to the first edition
  8. Acknowledgements
  9. 1 Preliminary notions
    1. 1.1 Mass, energy, linear momentum
    2. 1.2 The law of motion of a particle
    3. 1.3 The mass of a system of particles, kinematic invariants
    4. 1.4 Systems of interacting particles
    5. 1.5 Natural units
    6. 1.6 Collisions and decays
    7. 1.7 Scattering experiments
    8. 1.8 Hadrons, leptons and quarks
    9. 1.9 The fundamental interactions
    10. 1.10 The passage of radiation through matter
    11. 1.11 The sources of high-energy particles
    12. 1.12 Particle detectors
    13. Problems
    14. Summary
    15. Further reading
  10. 2 Nucleons, leptons and mesons
    1. 2.1 The muon and the pion
    2. 2.2 Strange mesons and hyperons
    3. 2.3 The quantum numbers of the charged pion
    4. 2.4 Charged leptons and neutrinos
    5. 2.5 The Dirac equation
    6. 2.6 The positron
    7. 2.7 The antiproton
    8. Problems
    9. Summary
    10. Further reading
  11. 3 Symmetries
    1. 3.1 Symmetries
    2. 3.2 Parity
    3. 3.3 Particle–antiparticle conjugation
    4. 3.4 Time reversal and CPT
    5. 3.5 The parity of the pions
    6. 3.6 Charged pion decay
    7. 3.7 Quark flavours and baryonic number
    8. 3.8 Leptonic flavours and lepton number
    9. 3.9 Isospin
    10. 3.10 The sum of two isospins; the product of two representations
    11. 3.11 G-parity
    12. Problems
    13. Summary
    14. Further reading
  12. 4 Hadrons
    1. 4.1 Resonances
    2. 4.2 The 3/2+ baryons
    3. 4.3 The Dalitz plot
    4. 4.4 Spin, parity, isospin analysis of three-pion systems
    5. 4.5 Pseudoscalar and vector mesons
    6. 4.6 The quark model
    7. 4.7 Mesons
    8. 4.8 Baryons
    9. 4.9 Charm
    10. 4.10 The third family
    11. 4.11 The elements of the Standard Model
    12. Problems
    13. Summary
    14. Further reading
  13. 5 Quantum electrodynamics
    1. 5.1 Charge conservation and gauge symmetry
    2. 5.2 The Lamb and Retherford experiment
    3. 5.3 Quantum field theory
    4. 5.4 The interaction as an exchange of quanta
    5. 5.5 The Feynman diagrams. QED
    6. 5.6 Analyticity and the need for antiparticles
    7. 5.7 Electron–positron annihilation into a muon pair
    8. 5.8 The evolution of α
    9. Problems
    10. Summary
    11. Further reading
  14. 6 Chromodynamics
    1. 6.1 Hadron production at electron–positron colliders
    2. 6.2 Nucleon structure
    3. 6.3 The colour charges
    4. 6.4 Colour bound states
    5. 6.5 The evolution of αs
    6. 6.6 The quark masses
    7. 6.7 The origin of the hadron mass
    8. 6.8 The quantum vacuum
    9. Problems
    10. Summary
    11. Further reading
  15. 7 Weak interactions
    1. 7.1 Classification of weak interactions
    2. 7.2 Low-energy lepton processes and the Fermi constant
    3. 7.3 Parity violation
    4. 7.4 Helicity and chirality
    5. 7.5 Measurement of the helicity of leptons
    6. 7.6 Violation of the particle–antiparticle conjugation
    7. 7.7 Cabibbo mixing
    8. 7.8 The Glashow, Iliopoulos and Maiani mechanism
    9. 7.9 The quark mixing matrix
    10. 7.10 Weak neutral currents
    11. 7.11 The chiral symmetry of QCD and mass of the pion
    12. Problems
    13. Summary
    14. Further reading
  16. 8 The neutral mesons’ oscillations and CP violation
    1. 8.1 Flavour oscillations, mixing and CP violation
    2. 8.2 The states of the neutral K system
    3. 8.3 Strangeness oscillations
    4. 8.4 Regeneration
    5. 8.5 CP violation
    6. 8.6 Oscillation and CP violation in its interference with mixing in the neutral B system
    7. 8.7 CP violation in meson decays
    8. Problems
    9. Summary
    10. Further reading
  17. 9 The Standard Model
    1. 9.1 The electro-weak interaction
    2. 9.2 Structure of the weak neutral currents
    3. 9.3 Electro-weak unification
    4. 9.4 Determination of the electro-weak angle
    5. 9.5 The intermediate vector bosons
    6. 9.6 The UA1 experiment
    7. 9.7 The discovery of the W and Z
    8. 9.8 The evolution of sin2θW
    9. 9.9 Precision tests at LEP
    10. 9.10 The interaction between intermediate bosons
    11. 9.11 Precision measurements of the W and top masses at the Tevatron
    12. 9.12 The spontaneous breaking of the local gauge symmetry
    13. 9.13 The search for the Higgs at LEP and at the Tevatron
    14. 9.14 LHC, ATLAS and CMS
    15. 9.15 Discovery of the H boson
    16. Problems
    17. Summary
    18. Further reading
  18. 10 Neutrinos
    1. 10.1 Neutrino mixing
    2. 10.2 Neutrino oscillation
    3. 10.3 Flavour transition in matter
    4. 10.4 The experiments
    5. 10.5 Limits on neutrino mass
    6. 10.6 Majorana neutrinos
    7. Problems
    8. Summary
    9. Further reading
  19. 11 Epilogue
  20. Appendix 1 Greek alphabet
  21. Appendix 2 Fundamental constants
  22. Appendix 3 Properties of elementary particles
  23. Appendix 4 Clebsch–Gordan coefficients
  24. Appendix 5 Spherical harmonics and d-functions
  25. Appendix 6 Experimental and theoretical discoveries in particle physics
  26. Solutions
  27. References
  28. Index