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Introduction to Cyber-Warfare

Book Description

Introduction to Cyber-Warfare: A Multidisciplinary Approach, written by experts on the front lines, gives you an insider's look into the world of cyber-warfare through the use of recent case studies. The book examines the issues related to cyber warfare not only from a computer science perspective but from military, sociological, and scientific perspectives as well. You'll learn how cyber-warfare has been performed in the past as well as why various actors rely on this new means of warfare and what steps can be taken to prevent it.

  • Provides a multi-disciplinary approach to cyber-warfare, analyzing the information technology, military, policy, social, and scientific issues that are in play
  • Presents detailed case studies of cyber-attack including inter-state cyber-conflict (Russia-Estonia), cyber-attack as an element of an information operations strategy (Israel-Hezbollah,) and cyber-attack as a tool against dissidents within a state (Russia, Iran)
  • Explores cyber-attack conducted by large, powerful, non-state hacking organizations such as Anonymous and LulzSec
  • Covers cyber-attacks directed against infrastructure, such as water treatment plants and power-grids, with a detailed account of Stuxent

Table of Contents

  1. Cover image
  2. Title page
  3. Table of Contents
  4. Copyright
  5. Preface
  6. Foreword
  7. Introduction
    1. References
  8. Biography
  9. Chapter 1. Cyber Warfare: Here and Now
    1. Information in this Chapter
    2. What Is Cyber War?
    3. Is Cyber War a Credible Threat?
    4. Attribution, Deception, and Intelligence
    5. Information Assurance
    6. References
  10. I: Cyber Attack
    1. Part I Cyber Attack
    2. Chapter 2. Political Cyber Attack Comes of Age in 2007
      1. Information in this Chapter
      2. Reliance on Information as a Vulnerability
      3. Rudimentary but Effective: Denial of Service
      4. Leaving Unwanted Messages: Web Site Defacement
      5. Tools for Denial of Service
      6. The Difficulty of Assigning Blame: Why Attribution Is Tough in a DDoS Attack
      7. Estonia Is Hit by Cyber Attacks
      8. General Response to DDoS
      9. Summary
      10. Suggested Further Reading
      11. References
    3. Chapter 3. How Cyber Attacks Augmented Russian Military Operations
      1. Information in This Chapter
      2. The 2008 Russian Cyber Campaign Against Georgia
      3. What Is Interesting About the Russian Cyber Campaign
      4. Preparing for a Cyber-Capable Adversary
      5. Summary
      6. Suggested Further Reading
      7. References
    4. Chapter 4. When Who Tells the Best Story Wins: Cyber and Information Operations in the Middle East
      1. Information in this Chapter
      2. Hijacking Noncombatant Civilian IP Addresses to Help the War Effort: The Israel-Hezbollah “July War” of 2006
      3. Civilians in the Cyber Melee: Operation Cast Lead
      4. Summary
      5. Suggested Further Reading
      6. References
    5. Chapter 5. Limiting Free Speech on the Internet: Cyber Attack Against Internal Dissidents in Iran and Russia
      1. Information in This Chapter
      2. DDoS as a Censorship Tool: Why Dissident Groups Are Inherently Vulnerable to Cyber Attacks
      3. Silencing Novaya Gazeta and Other Russian Dissidents
      4. Iran—How the 2009 Elections Led to Aggressive Cyber Operations
      5. Summary
      6. References
    6. Chapter 6. Cyber Attacks by Nonstate Hacking Groups: The Case of Anonymous and Its Affiliates
      1. Information in This Chapter
      2. “Chaotic” Beginnings: The Chaos Computer Club, CCC
      3. The Roots of the Anon—4chan, 7chan, and Other Message Boards
      4. How We Are Influenced by 4chan: Memes
      5. Anonymous—On Image, Structure, and Motivation
      6. Anonymous—External Connections and Spin Offs
      7. Your Security Is a Joke: LulzSec
      8. Anonymous’ Modus Operandi
      9. Targeting Governments, Corporations, and Individuals: Notable Hacks on Anonymous
      10. Software for the Legion: Anonymous Products
      11. Summary
      12. Suggested Further Reading
      13. References
  11. II: Cyber Espionage and Exploitation
    1. Part II Cyber Espionage and Exploitation
    2. Chapter 7. Enter the Dragon: Why Cyber Espionage Against Militaries, Dissidents, and Nondefense Corporations Is a Key Component of Chinese Cyber Strategy
      1. Information in This Chapter
      2. Introduction
      3. Why Cyber Espionage Is Important to China: A Look at Chinese Cyber Doctrine
      4. Leveraging Resources Beyond the Military: The Cyber Warriors of China
      5. Stealing Information from the U.S. Industrial-Military Complex: Titan Rain
      6. Cyber War Against the Corporate World: A Case Study of Cyber Intrusion Attributed to China
      7. Monitoring Dissidents: Gh0stNet
      8. Using Legitimate Web Sites for Data Exfiltration: The Shadow Network
      9. Cyber War Through Intellectual Property Theft: Operation Aurora
      10. An Example of the Current State of the Art: Sykipot
      11. Summary
      12. Suggested Further Reading
      13. References
    3. Chapter 8. Duqu, Flame, Gauss, the Next Generation of Cyber Exploitation
      1. Information in This Chapter
      2. Introduction
      3. Kernel Mode Rootkits
      4. Vulnerabilities in the Operating System
      5. Stolen Keying Material
      6. Commonalities Between Stuxnet and Duqu
      7. Information-Stealing Trojans
      8. The Geography of Duqu
      9. TDL3 and Other Malware
      10. Object-Oriented Malware: Stuxnet, Duqu, Flame, and Gauss
      11. Summary
      12. Suggested Further Reading
      13. References
    4. Chapter 9. Losing Trust in Your Friends: Social Network Exploitation
      1. Information in This Chapter
      2. Introduction
      3. Do You Really Know All Your LinkedIn Connections? Imposters in Social Networks
      4. Designing Common Knowledge: Influencing a Social Network
      5. Summary
      6. Suggested Further Reading
      7. References
    5. Chapter 10. How Iraqi Insurgents Watched U.S. Predator Video—Information Theft on the Tactical Battlefield
      1. Information in This Chapter
      2. Introduction
      3. The Predator UAV
      4. Hacking the Predator Feed
      5. Summary
      6. Suggested Further Reading
      7. References
  12. III: Cyber Operations for Infrastructure Attack
    1. Part III Cyber Operations for Infrastructure Attack
    2. Chapter 11. Cyber Warfare Against Industry
      1. Information in This Chapter
      2. Introduction
      3. Industrial Control Systems: Critical Infrastructure for Modern Nations
      4. Information Technology vs. Industrial Control Systems: Why Traditional Infosec Practices May Not Apply
      5. How Real-World Dependencies Can Magnify an Attack: Infrastructure Attacks and Network Topology
      6. How a Cyber Attack Led to Water Contamination: The Maroochy Water Breach
      7. Summary
      8. Suggested Further Reading
      9. References
    3. Chapter 12. Can Cyber Warfare Leave a Nation in the Dark? Cyber Attacks Against Electrical Infrastructure
      1. Information in This Chapter
      2. Introduction
      3. Cyber Attacks Directed Against Power Grids
      4. Destroying a Generator with a Cyber Attack: The Aurora Test
      5. Taking the Power Grid Offline with Minimal Effort: Attacks Leveraging Network Topology
      6. Summary
      7. Suggested Further Reading
      8. References
    4. Chapter 13. Attacking Iranian Nuclear Facilities: Stuxnet
      1. Information in This Chapter
      2. Introduction
      3. The Alleged Target: The Natanz Fuel Enrichment Facility
      4. How Stuxnet Targets Industrial Control Systems
      5. Stuxnet Successfully Targets the Natanz Fuel Enrichment Plant
      6. Stuxnet Is a Significant Advancement in Malware
      7. Stuxnet Invalidates Several Security Assumptions
      8. Implications for the Future
      9. Summary
      10. Suggested Further Reading
      11. References
  13. Conclusion and the Future of Cyber Warfare
    1. References
  14. Appendix I. Chapter 6: LulzSec Hacktivities
    1. References
  15. Appendix II. Chapter 6: Anonymous Timeline
    1. References
  16. Glossary
  17. Index