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Introduction to Copper Cabling

Book Description

Because this is a book for engineers the practical coverage is reinforced by use of the latest interanational standards, in particular BICSI standards (USA and international) and EU requirements. This will make the book ideal for the large number of industry-based training courses. Coverage has also been matched to the requirements of the revised City & Guilds 3466-04 course.

*Covers the real-world issues of selection, design, installation, testing, safety, legislation... neglected by university texts
*An easy-to-read introduction that assumes no prior knowledge beyond basic concepts of voltage and current - ideal for non-specialists as well as practitioners
*Covers new BICSI (US / international) regulations and EU framework

Table of Contents

  1. Cover
  2. Title page
  3. Table of Contents
  4. Copyright
  5. Preface
  6. Chapter 1: Talking across the Atlantic
    1. Electricity is too slow – let’s try something mechanical
    2. It worked, but the neighbors were not happy
    3. That’s better
    4. Yes, very nice, but it could be faster
    5. Would instantaneous transmission be fast enough?
    6. Then came Morse and Cooke
    7. A good idea was one thing, but selling it was another
    8. Water and electricity don’t mix
    9. The problems and the costs
  7. Chapter 2: Technical bits that may be useful
    1. A small charge
    2. The current flows (direct current or DC)
    3. Conventional current and electron flow
    4. Alternating current (AC)
    5. RMS voltage
    6. Peak voltage
    7. Frequency (f)
    8. Phase
    9. Wavelength
    10. Multiples and sub-multiples
    11. Frequency spectrum
    12. Capacitance
    13. Capacitance and capacitors
    14. Magnetism is much the same
    15. Magnetic materials
    16. Important effects of magnetism
    17. Effects of temperature
    18. Chapter 2 quiz
  8. Chapter 3: How cables work
    1. Using cables to transfer power
    2. Matching
    3. A quick look at a cable under direct current (DC) conditions
    4. What about signals?
    5. What happens if the load is not matched to the cable?
    6. We don’t get perfect open circuits or short circuits
    7. Worked example
    8. Another example
    9. Return loss
    10. A popular misconception about current flow
    11. Some magnetic effects
    12. Electromagnetic interference (EMI)
    13. EMI? Relax – you probably won’t notice it
    14. Chapter 3 quiz
  9. Chapter 4: Decibels – they get everywhere but what are they?
    1. The two ways of doing decibels
    2. Getting by with decibels
    3. Bigger or smaller?
    4. What if we have a truck load of amplifiers and lengths of cable?
    5. What do the numbers mean?
    6. Some useful numbers
    7. The decibel is a logarithmic unit
    8. Having found a log, how do we work back to find the number?
    9. We can use logs to multiply and divide numbers
    10. Summary of logs
    11. Back to decibels
    12. Summary
    13. Decibels and attenuators
    14. Mind your language
    15. How we use decibels in a real circuit
    16. Some more maths – but it’s not too bad
    17. Summary
    18. What if we know the gain and the output power but don’t know the input power?
    19. Summary
    20. Using decibels as a power level
    21. Chapter 4 quiz
  10. Chapter 5: How is data transmitted?
    1. The simplest and most popular system
    2. Analog systems
    3. Digital transmission
    4. Bits and bauds
    5. Transmission rates
    6. Preparing for digital transmission
    7. Sampling
    8. Quantization
    9. Pulse code modulation (PCM)
    10. Time division multiplexing (TDM)
    11. Encoding
    12. NRZ (non return to zero)
    13. Manchester
    14. AMI (alternate mark inversion)
    15. Chapter 5 quiz
  11. Chapter 6: We don’t do it like that
    1. What are codes and standards?
    2. Are they a good thing?
    3. Where do they come from?
    4. National organizations and standards
    5. USA
    6. Europe
    7. Australia
    8. Canada
    9. Global
  12. Chapter 7: Not all cables are the same
    1. Power cables
    2. American Wire Gauge
    3. Telecommunication cables
    4. Electromagnetic interference (EMI) and the common cable cures
    5. Types of cable
    6. Twisted cable – over 100 years old and still doing fine
    7. A few general bits
    8. Balun
    9. Drain wire
    10. Recognition
    11. Color-coding
    12. Categories and classes
    13. Category 1 and Class A using UTP cables
    14. Category 2 and Class B using UTP cables
    15. Category 3 and Class C using UTP cables
    16. Category 4 using UTP cable
    17. Categories 5, 5e and Class D using UTP, FTP and S-FTP cables
    18. Category 6 and Class E using UTP or ScTP cables
    19. Category 7 and Class F using STP (SSTP) cables
    20. Who mentioned Cat 8?
    21. Chapter 7 quiz
  13. Chapter 8: Selecting, protecting and connecting cables
    1. Selecting a cable
    2. Cable specifications
    3. Near-end crosstalk
    4. How fast does the signal move through a cable?
    5. Protecting cables by design
    6. Mechanical protection
    7. Electrical protection
    8. Connecting cables
    9. Soldering
    10. Chapter 8 quiz
  14. Chapter 9: Networks
    1. LANs are a good idea
    2. Network architecture
    3. Medium
    4. Copper cables for LANs
    5. Fiber optics
    6. Wireless systems
    7. Radio
    8. Topology
    9. Mesh topology – simple but seldom used
    10. Bus topology
    11. Star topology
    12. Hierarchical star topology
    13. Ring topology
    14. Tree topology
    15. Physical and logical networks
    16. Ethernet
    17. Controlling the flow of data
    18. Token ring
    19. Slotted ring
    20. Demand priority
    21. Carrier sense multiple access/collision detection (CSMA/CD) as used on the Ethernet system
    22. Network connecting devices
    23. Repeater
    24. Hub
    25. Bridges
    26. Switches
    27. Routers
    28. Chapter 9 quiz
  15. Chapter 10: Cables in buildings and between buildings
    1. Horizontal cabling
    2. Pathways
    3. Things to consider at the design stage
    4. Maintenance and modification of the system
    5. Electromagnetic interference (EMI)
    6. Where are the pathways likely to be found?
    7. In the ceiling
    8. Under the floor
    9. Or even in the floor
    10. It may be in conduit
    11. The work area (WA)
    12. Single offices
    13. Multi-user offices
    14. Transition point
    15. Undercarpet telecom cable (UTC) installation
    16. There are some disadvantages
    17. Consolidation points (CPs)
    18. To the telecommunication room
    19. Topology
    20. Cable used – types and lengths
    21. Bridged taps
    22. Give them some slack
    23. Backbone cabling
    24. Bending cables
    25. Telecommunication room
    26. Equipment room
    27. Cabling buildings
    28. Interconnected buildings
    29. Multistory buildings
    30. Cable for the backbone
    31. Backbone cabling in multistory buildings
    32. Slots, cores and sleeves
    33. Open shafts
    34. Installing heavy cables
    35. Connecting two buildings
    36. Aerial pathways
    37. Underground cabling
    38. Locating previously buried cables
    39. Accidental method
    40. Electronic methods
    41. Dig a hole method
    42. A final thought
    43. Chapter 10 quiz
  16. Chapter 11: Does it work?
    1. Test equipment
    2. Wire map testers
    3. Tone generator and detector
    4. Cable analyzers
    5. Time domain reflectometer (TDR)
    6. Acceptance tests
    7. The basic link
    8. The permanent link
    9. The channel
    10. Testing the cables
    11. Wire mapping
    12. Cable faults
    13. Wiring faults
    14. Direct current (DC) loop resistance
    15. Length of a cable
    16. Propagation delay and delay skew
    17. Cable attenuation
    18. Insertion loss
    19. Return loss
    20. Crosstalk (XT)
    21. Chapter 11 quiz
  17. Chapter 12: Staying alive until payday
    1. Think first
    2. Experience helps
    3. Our responsibility
    4. Unpleasant things that can happen to us
    5. Electrical injuries
    6. First aid for electrocution
    7. Installation issues that affect us
    8. Lightning
    9. The lightning strike
    10. Grounding of power systems
    11. Telecommunications grounding and bonding
    12. Grounding choices
    13. Batteries can be dangerous
    14. Lead–acid batteries
    15. Nickel–cadmium cell
    16. Alkaline cell
    17. Fire precautions
    18. Containment
    19. Fire stopping
    20. Materials that we may meet
    21. Heavy cable installation
    22. The rolling hitch
    23. Lowering cables
    24. Raising the cable
    25. Chapter 12 quiz
  18. Chapter 13: A brief introduction to fiber optics
    1. Why do we use optic fibers?
    2. What is it?
    3. How clear is clear?
    4. What is the difference between optic fibers and fiber optics?
    5. How thick are they?
    6. Are optic fibers dangerous?
    7. What are optic fibers used for?
    8. What makes the light stay in the fiber?
    9. What else do we need?
    10. Is the size of the core important?
    11. What light source and light detectors do we use?
    12. Are lasers dangerous?
    13. Are all lasers dangerous?
    14. How do we recognize a fiber optic cable?
    15. Will it break if I bend it?
    16. How can I find out more about fiber optics?
    17. Chapter 13 quiz
  19. Chapter 14: Moving on
    1. Exhibitions
    2. Catalogs
    3. Magazines
    4. Training courses
    5. BICSI – a fine organization
    6. So, what is BICSI?
    7. What doesn’t BICSI do?
    8. So, what does it do?
    9. Why is it good for its members?
    10. Why is it good for customers?
  20. Bibliography
  21. Glossary
  22. Quiz answers
  23. Index