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Introduction to CMOS OP-AMPs and Comparators

Book Description

A step-by-step guide to the design and analysis of CMOS operational amplifiers and comparators

This volume is a comprehensive text that offers a detailed treatment of the analysis and design principles of two of the most important components of analog metal oxide semiconductor (MOS) circuits, namely operational amplifiers (op-amps) and comparators. The book covers the physical operation of these components, their design procedures, and applications to analog MOS circuits-particularly those involving switched-capacitor circuits, and analog-to-digital (A/D) and digital-to-analog (D/A) converters. Roubik Gregorian, a leading authority in the field, gives circuit designers the technical knowledge they need to design high-performance op-amps and comparators suitable for most analog circuit applications. In this self-contained treatment, which is loosely based on his well-received 1986 book, Analog MOS Integrated Circuits for Signal Processing (coauthored with Gabor C. Temes), Gregorian reviews the required basics before advancing to state-of-the-art topics and problem-solving techniques. This valuable guide:

  • Clearly explains configuration and performance limitation issues affecting the operation of CMOS op-amps and comparators

  • Details advanced design procedures to improve performance

  • Provides practical design examples suitable for a broad range of analog circuit applications

  • Incorporates hundreds of illustrations into the text

  • Concludes each chapter with problems and references to advanced topics, useful in textbook adoptions

Introduction to CMOS Op-Amps and Comparators is invaluable for analog and mixed-signal designers, for senior and graduate students in electrical engineering, and for anyone who would like to keep up with this essential technology.

Table of Contents

  1. Cover Page
  2. Title Page
  3. Copyright
  4. Dedication
  5. Contents
  6. PREFACE
  7. CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION
    1. 1.1 CLASSIFICATION OF SIGNAL PROCESSING TECHNIQUES [1–4]
    2. 1.2. EXAMPLES OF APPLICATIONS OF OP-AMPS AND COMPARATORS IN ANALOG MOS CIRCUITS
    3. PROBLEMS
    4. REFERENCES
  8. CHAPTER 2: MOS DEVICES AS CIRCUIT ELEMENTS
    1. 2.1. SEMICONDUCTORS
    2. 2.2. MOS TRANSISTORS [1, 2, Sec. 9.2]
    3. 2.3. MOS TRANSISTOR TYPES: BODY EFFECT
    4. 2.4. SMALL-SIGNAL OPERATION AND EQUIVALENT CIRCUIT OF MOSFET TRANSISTORS
    5. 2.5. WEAK INVERSION
    6. 2.6. IMPACT IONIZATION [4]
    7. 2.7. NOISE IN MOSFETS
    8. 2.8. CMOS PROCESS
    9. PROBLEMS
    10. REFERENCES
  9. CHAPTER 3: BASIC ANALOG CMOS SUBCIRCUITS
    1. 3.1. BIAS CIRCUITS IN MOS TECHNOLOGY
    2. 3.2. MOS CURRENT MIRRORS AND CURRENT SOURCES
    3. 3.3. MOS GAIN STAGES [6–8]
    4. 3.4. MOS SOURCE FOLLOWERS [5–8]
    5. 3.5. MOS DIFFERENTIAL AMPLIFIERS
    6. 3.6 FREQUENCY RESPONSE OF MOS AMPLIFIER STAGES
    7. PROBLEMS
    8. REFERENCES
  10. CHAPTER 4: CMOS OPERATIONAL AMPLIFIERS
    1. 4.1. OPERATIONAL AMPLIFIERS [1, Chap. 10; 2, Chap. 6 ]
    2. 4.2. SINGLE-STAGE OPERATIONAL AMPLIFIERS
    3. 4.3. TWO-STAGE OPERATIONAL AMPLIFIERS
    4. 4.4. STABILITY AND COMPENSATION OF CMOS AMPLIFIERS
    5. 4.5. DYNAMIC RANGE OF CMOS OP-AMPS
    6. 4.6. FREQUENCY RESPONSE, TRANSIENT RESPONSE, AND SLEW RATE OF COMPENSATED CMOS OP-AMPS [9,10]
    7. 4.7. NOISE PERFORMANCE OF CMOS OP-AMPS
    8. 4.8. FULLY DIFFERENTIAL OP-AMPS
    9. 4.9. CMOS OUTPUT STAGES
    10. 4.10. OP-AMPS WITH RAIL-TO-RAIL INPUT COMMON-MODE RANGE
    11. PROBLEMS
    12. REFERENCES
  11. CHAPTER 5: COMPARATORS
    1. 5.1. CIRCUIT MODELING OF A COMPARATOR
    2. 5.2. SINGLE-ENDED AUTO-ZEROING COMPARATORS [3]
    3. 5.3. DIFFERENTIAL COMPARATORS
    4. 5.4. REGENERATIVE COMPARATORS (SCHMITT TRIGGERS)
    5. 5.5. FULLY DIFFERENTIAL COMPARATORS
    6. 5.6. LATCHES
    7. PROBLEMS
    8. REFERENCES
  12. CHAPTER 6: DIGITAL-TO-ANALOG CONVERTERS
    1. 6.1. DIGITAL-TO-ANALOG CONVERSION: BASIC PRINCIPLES
    2. 6.2. VOLTAGE-MODE D/A CONVERTER STAGES
    3. 6.3. CHARGE-MODE D/A CONVERTER STAGES
    4. 6.4. HYBRID D/A CONVERTER STAGES
    5. 6.5. CURRENT-MODE D/A CONVERTER STAGES
    6. 6.6. SEGMENTED CURRENT-MODE D/A CONVERTER STAGES
    7. PROBLEMS
    8. REFERENCES
  13. CHAPTER 7: ANALOG-TO-DIGITAL CONVERTERS
    1. 7.1. ANALOG-TO-DIGITAL CONVERSION: BASIC PRINCIPLES
    2. 7.2. FLASH A/D CONVERTERS
    3. 7.3 INTERPOLATING FLASH A/D CONVERTERS
    4. 7.4. TWO-STEP A/D CONVERTERS [6–9]
    5. 7.5. SUCCESSIVE-APPROXIMATION A/D CONVERTERS
    6. 7.6. COUNTING AND TRACKING A/D CONVERTERS
    7. 7.7. INTEGRATING A/D CONVERTERS [18,20]
    8. PROBLEMS
    9. REFERENCES
  14. CHAPTER 8: PRACTICAL CONSIDERATIONS AND DESIGN EXAMPLES
    1. 8.1. PRACTICAL CONSIDERATIONS IN CMOS OP-AMP DESIGN
    2. 8.2. OP-AMP DESIGN TECHNIQUES AND EXAMPLES
    3. 8.3. COMPARATOR DESIGN TECHNIQUES AND EXAMPLES
    4. PROBLEMS
    5. REFERENCES
  15. INDEX