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Introduction to AutoCAD® 2015: A Modern Perspective

Book Description

This book addresses advances in technology and introduces students to 2-dimensional drawing skills and commands using the current release of AutoCAD. It continuously builds on concepts covered in previous chapters, contains exercises combined with in-text notes, and offers examples that provide the “how and why” of AutoCAD fundamentals. Projects are included at the end of each chapter and provide hands-on experience creating various types of mechanical, architectural, civil and electrical drawings. This text is appropriate for Introductory and Intermediate AutoCAD courses.

Features:

AutoCAD’s 2-D tools–are presented from the basic concepts to the most powerful tools used in design and engineering.

  • Presents material (in seven parts) that advances with complexity.

  • Introduces AutoCAD, drafting skills, editing techniques, working with complex objects, annotating drawings, outputting your work, and advanced drawing and construction methods.

  • Advanced drawing and construction methods–appear after teaching the tools used in design and engineering.

  • Explains blocks and block attributes, working with external references, and file management and object linking and embedding.

  • A “Quick Start” chapter–appears early in the text (see Chapter 2).

  • Allows students to get up to speed in no time to create and even plot AutoCAD drawings.

  • References corresponding chapters later in the book, allowing readers to delve into topics at their own pace and level.

  • Chapter Objectivesprovide a bulleted list of key concepts for each chapter.

  • Provides students with a roadmap of important concepts and practices that will be introduced in the chapter.

  • Key Termshighlight important vocabulary throughout.

  • Defines key terms in the margins and in more detail in the Glossary at the end of the book.

  • Command Grids–appear in the margin alongside the discussion of the command.

  • Presents a visual of the action options using either: Standard Toolbar, Pull-Down Menu, Command Line, or Command Alias, ensuring that students are in the right place at the right time, correctly following the authors’ direction.

  • Discipline Iconsidentify whether the project applies to a General, Mechanical, Architectural, Electrical, Plumbing/HVAC, or Civil field.

  • Enables instructors to quickly select homework assignments that will appeal to the varying interests of their students.

  • Allows students to work on projects that have the most interest and relevance to their own course of study.

  • Icon Flagshighlight features that are new to the latest version of the AutoCAD software.

  • Creates a quick “study guide” for instructors and students who need to familiarize themselves with the newest features of the software.

  • Tips, Notes, and For More Details Boxesappear throughout the text.

  • Highlights additional information for students.

  • In-text exercises–appear throughout the chapters.

  • Provides students with step-by-step walk-through activities.

  • Gives students immediate practice and reinforcement of newly learned skills.

  • Chapter projects organized by discipline–provide additional challenges that require students to use all the commands and skills they have learned. Offers projects from a variety of disciplines including mechanical, architectural, electrical, civil.

    Profesional Features:

    Chock full of hands-on exercises, this book addresses advances in technology and introduces students to 2-dimensional drawing skills and commands using the current release of AutoCAD 2015.

  • Introduces AutoCAD, drafting skills, editing techniques, working with complex objects, annotating drawings, outputting your work, and advanced drawing and construction methods.

  • Pedagogy reinforces learning objectives throughout–with chapter objectives; key term definitions; command grids concisely offer multiple ways of achieving task at hand; “New” in this version icons highlight new software features quickly; Discipline icons identify the field of study throughout.

  • Hands-on exercises appear throughout the text to reinforce learning and end-of-chapter projects require students to demonstrate a full understanding of the concepts presented in the chapter.

  • Table of Contents

    1. About This eBook
    2. Title Page
    3. Copyright Page
    4. Features of Introduction to AutoCAD® 2015
    5. Supplements
      1. Instructor Resources
      2. Download Instructor Resources from the Instructor Resource Center
    6. Preface
      1. About This Book
      2. Chapter Organization
        1. PART ONE—An Introduction to AutoCAD
        2. PART TWO—Drafting Skills: Drawing with AutoCAD
        3. PART THREE—Understanding Editing Techniques: Basics Through Advanced
        4. PART FOUR—Working with Complex Objects
        5. PART FIVE—Annotating Drawings
        6. PART SIX—Outputting Your Work
        7. PART SEVEN—Advanced Drawing and Construction Methods
      3. Features New to This Edition
        1. Chapter 1
        2. Chapter 2
        3. Chapter 3
        4. Chapter 4
        5. Chapter 6
        6. Chapter 7
        7. Chapter 9
        8. Chapter 10
        9. Chapter 11
        10. Chapter 14
        11. Chapter 15
        12. Chapter 16
        13. Chapter 17
        14. Chapter 18
      4. Acknowledgments
        1. Content Contributors
      5. Style Conventions in Introduction to AutoCAD® 2015
    7. Brief Contents
    8. Contents
    9. New to AutoCAD 2015
    10. Part One: An Introduction to AutoCAD
      1. Chapter 1. Introduction to AutoCAD
        1. Introduction
        2. What Is CAD?
        3. Fundamental CAD Concepts
          1. Drawing Actual Size
          2. The Cartesian Coordinate System
          3. Right-Hand Rule
          4. Grid Units
          5. Angle Measurement
          6. Annotation Scale
          7. Object Properties
          8. Colors
          9. Linetypes
          10. Lineweights
          11. Transparency
          12. Controlling Object Properties
          13. Model Space and Paper Space
        4. A First Look at AutoCAD
          1. The New Tab
          2. The AutoCAD User Interface
          3. Workspaces
          4. Quick Access Toolbar
          5. Application Menu
          6. Ribbon
          7. Tooltips
          8. The Command Line Window
          9. Dynamic Input
          10. Right-Click Shortcut Menus
          11. Status Bar
          12. In-Canvas Viewport Control
          13. ViewCube
          14. Navigation Bar
          15. Dialog Boxes
          16. Palettes
          17. Keyboard Commands
          18. InfoCenter
          19. The Help System
        5. Chapter Summary
        6. Chapter Test Questions
          1. Multiple Choice
          2. Matching
          3. True or False
      2. Chapter 2. Quick Start Tutorial
        1. Introduction
        2. Creating a New Drawing
          1. Using a Template
          2. Saving Your Work
          3. File Safety Precautions
        3. Model Space and Layout Space
          1. Viewports
        4. Communicating with AutoCAD
          1. The Command Line
          2. Dynamic Input
        5. Object Snaps, Ortho Mode, and Polar Tracking
        6. Undo/Redo
        7. Grid and Snap
        8. Draw a Circle
        9. Navigating Around the Drawing
          1. Zooming with a Wheel Mouse
        10. Object Properties
        11. Layers
          1. Freeze and Thaw a Layer
          2. Lock and Unlock a Layer
        12. Dimension Styles
        13. Dimensioning
        14. Modifying Drawing Objects
          1. Selection Sets
        15. Grip Editing
        16. Introduction to Advanced Editing Techniques
          1. Making Parallel Copies
          2. Fixing Overlapping Lines and Closing Gaps
        17. Cleaning Up Layout Space
          1. Setting the Viewport Scale
          2. Text
        18. Plotting and Page Setups
          1. Plotting
        19. Chapter Summary
        20. Chapter Test Questions
          1. Multiple Choice
          2. Matching
          3. True or False
    11. Part Two: Drafting Skills: Drawing with AutoCAD
      1. Chapter 3. Controlling the Drawing Display
        1. Introduction
        2. Zooming In and Out of a Drawing
          1. Zoom Tools
          2. Using the Mouse Wheel
        3. Panning Around a Drawing
          1. The Pan Tool
          2. Using the Middle Mouse Button
        4. Panning and Zooming Transparently
        5. Cleaning Up the Drawing Display
          1. The REGEN Command
          2. The Clean Screen Toggle
        6. Drawing Display Resolution and Performance
          1. Controlling Arc and Circle Smoothness
          2. Turning Text Display On and Off
          3. Turning Fills On and Off
          4. Controlling Line Smoothness
        7. Chapter Summary
        8. Chapter Test Questions
          1. Multiple Choice
          2. Matching
          3. True or False
        9. Chapter Project
      2. Chapter 4. Basic Drawing Commands
        1. Introduction
        2. Drawing Setup
          1. Templates
          2. Units
          3. Setting the Drawing Area
        3. Drawing Lines
        4. Coordinate Entry Methods
          1. Cartesian Coordinates
          2. Absolute Versus Relative Coordinate Entry
          3. Polar Coordinates
          4. Dynamic Input
        5. Drawing Circles
          1. Center Radius
          2. Center Diameter
          3. 2 Point Circle
          4. 3 Point Circle
          5. Tangent Tangent Radius
        6. Drawing Arcs
          1. The ARC Command
          2. 3 Point Arc
          3. Arc Options
          4. Using the ARC Command
        7. Drawing Ellipses
          1. Elliptical Arcs
        8. Points
          1. Point Styles
          2. Measure and Divide
        9. Chapter Summary
        10. Chapter Test Questions
          1. Multiple Choice
          2. Matching
          3. True or False
        11. Chapter Projects
      3. Chapter 5. Drawing Tools and Drafting Settings
        1. Introduction
        2. Grid Mode
          1. Setting the Grid Style
          2. Setting the Grid Spacing
          3. Controlling Grid Mode Behavior
        3. Snap Mode
          1. Setting the Snap Spacing
          2. Setting the Snap Type and Style
        4. Ortho Mode
        5. Polar Tracking
          1. Setting the Polar Tracking Angle and Measurement Method
        6. Object Snaps
          1. Object Snap Modes
          2. Basic Object Snaps
          3. Advanced Object Snap Modes
        7. Object Snap Tracking
          1. Temporary Tracking
          2. Object Snap Tracking
          3. Intersecting Alignment Paths
        8. Dynamic Input
          1. Pointer Input
          2. Dimension Input
          3. Dynamic Prompts
          4. Dynamic Input Settings
        9. Using Construction Lines
          1. The XLINE Command
          2. The RAY Command
        10. Chapter Summary
        11. Chapter Test Questions
          1. Multiple Choice
          2. Matching
          3. True or False
        12. Chapter Projects
      4. Chapter 6. Managing Object Properties
        1. Introduction
        2. Common Object Properties
        3. Layers
          1. The LAYER Command
          2. Layer Name List
          3. Deleting a Layer
          4. Layer Settings
        4. Using Layers
        5. Linetype Scale
        6. Hard-Coded Versus Soft-Coded Properties
          1. Setting the Default Object Properties
          2. Color Control and Management
          3. Linetype Control and Management
          4. Lineweight Control and Management
          5. Transparency Control and Management
        7. Changing the Properties of Objects
          1. The Properties Palette
          2. The Properties Panel
          3. Quick Properties
          4. Copying Properties Between Objects
          5. Creating Objects with Properties Based on Existing Objects
        8. Using DesignCenter to Import Layers
        9. Using Content Explorer to Import Layers
        10. Layer Filters
          1. The Filter Tree
          2. Property Filters
          3. Group Filters
          4. Search Filter
        11. Layer States Manager
        12. Object Visibility
        13. Chapter Summary
        14. Chapter Test Questions
          1. Multiple Choice
          2. Matching
          3. True or False
        15. Chapter Projects
    12. Part Three: Understanding Editing Techniques: Basics Through Advanced
      1. Chapter 7. Basic Editing Techniques
        1. Introduction
        2. The ERASE Command
        3. Selecting Objects for Editing
          1. Selecting Objects Individually
          2. Selecting Multiple Objects
          3. Advanced Selection Techniques
          4. Selecting Similar Objects
        4. Grouping Objects
        5. Moving Objects
        6. Copying Objects
        7. Mirroring Objects
          1. Mirroring Text
        8. Rotating Objects
          1. Rotating and Copying Objects
        9. Scaling Objects
          1. Scaling and Copying Objects
        10. Stretching Objects
        11. Selecting Objects First
        12. Using Grips to Edit
          1. Multifunctional Grips
          2. Controlling Grips
          3. Selecting Grips
          4. Grip Modes
        13. Chapter Summary
        14. Chapter Test Questions
          1. Multiple Choice
          2. Matching
          3. True or False
        15. Chapter Projects
      2. Chapter 8. Advanced Editing Techniques
        1. Introduction
        2. Offsetting Objects
          1. Offsetting an Object a Specified Distance
          2. Offsetting Through a Point
          3. Offset Options
        3. Arraying Objects
          1. Creating a Rectangular Array
          2. Creating a Path Array
          3. Creating a Polar Array
        4. Trimming and Extending Objects
          1. Trimming Objects
          2. Extending Objects
        5. Creating Fillets and Chamfers
          1. Creating Fillets
          2. Capping Two Parallel Lines Using the Fillet Tool
          3. Creating Chamfers
        6. Breaking an Object
          1. Creating a Gap in an Object
          2. Breaking an Object Exactly at a Point
          3. Breaking Circles, Xlines, and Rays
          4. Selecting the Second Points
        7. Joining Multiple Objects
        8. Lengthening an Object
          1. The LENGTHEN Command Options
          2. Invalid Objects
        9. Chapter Summary
        10. Chapter Test Questions
          1. Multiple Choice
          2. Matching
          3. True or False
        11. Chapter Projects
    13. Part Four: Working with Complex Objects
      1. Chapter 9. Drawing and Editing Complex Objects
        1. Introduction
        2. Drawing Polylines
          1. Drawing Polyline Arcs
          2. Drawing Polylines with a Width
        3. Drawing Rectangles
        4. Drawing Polygons
        5. Drawing Donuts
        6. Drawing Revision Clouds
          1. Changing the Arc Length
          2. Switching Styles
          3. Creating Revision Clouds from Existing Objects
        7. Editing Polylines
          1. Closing and Opening Polylines
          2. Joining Polylines
          3. Changing the Polyline Width
          4. Editing Polyline Vertices
          5. Converting Polylines into Smooth Curves
          6. Controlling Polyline Linetype Generation
          7. Reversing a Polyline
          8. Editing Polylines Using Grips
        8. Exploding Complex Objects
        9. Chapter Summary
        10. Chapter Test Questions
          1. Multiple Choice
          2. Matching
          3. True or False
        11. Chapter Projects
      2. Chapter 10. Pattern Fills and Hatching
        1. Introduction
        2. Hatching
          1. Selecting a Hatch Area
          2. Controlling Hatch Settings and Options
        3. Gradient Fills
          1. Two-Color Gradient
          2. One-Color Gradient
          3. Gradient Pattern
        4. Editing Hatch Patterns
          1. Using the Hatch Editor Context Tab of the Ribbon
          2. Using the Hatch Edit Dialog Box
          3. Using the Properties Palette
          4. Trimming Hatches
          5. Exploding Hatches
        5. Using DesignCenter with Hatch Patterns
        6. Chapter Summary
        7. Chapter Test Questions
          1. Multiple Choice
          2. Matching
          3. True or False
        8. Chapter Projects
    14. Part Five: Annotating Drawings
      1. Chapter 11. Adding Text
        1. Introduction
        2. Controlling the Appearance of Text
          1. Fonts
          2. Text Height
          3. Annotation Scale
          4. Text Styles
          5. The Text Style Dialog Box
        3. Creating Multiline Text
          1. The In-Place Multiline Text Editor
          2. The Text Editor Context Tab of the Ribbon
          3. The Right-Click Menu
          4. Stacked Text
        4. Creating Single-Line Text
          1. The Right-Click Menu
          2. Single-Line Text Justification
          3. Inserting Special Symbols in Single-Line Text
        5. Text Fields
          1. Inserting Text Fields
          2. Editing Text Fields
        6. Editing Text
          1. Editing Text Content
          2. Editing Text Using the Properties Palette
          3. Text Alignment
          4. Scaling Text
          5. Changing Text Justification
          6. Finding and Replacing Text
          7. The Spell Checker
        7. Chapter Summary
        8. Chapter Test Questions
          1. Multiple Choice
          2. Matching
          3. True or False
        9. Chapter Projects
      2. Chapter 12. Working with Tables
        1. Introduction
        2. Creating Tables from Scratch
        3. Entering Table Data
        4. Creating Tables by Inserting a Data Link
          1. The Data Link Manager
        5. Managing Table Styles
        6. Modifying Tables
          1. The Right-Click Menu
        7. Modifying Table Cells
          1. The Table Cell Context Tab of the Ribbon
          2. The Right-Click Menu
        8. Inserting Formulas
        9. Chapter Summary
        10. Chapter Test Questions
          1. Multiple Choice
          2. Matching
          3. True or False
        11. Chapter Projects
      3. Chapter 13. Dimensioning Drawings
        1. Introduction
        2. Dimension Tools
        3. Types of Dimensions
        4. Dimension Associativity
          1. Definition Points
        5. Creating Horizontal and Vertical Dimensions
          1. Selecting Definition Points
          2. Selecting an Object
          3. The DIMLINEAR Options
        6. Creating Aligned Dimensions
        7. Dimensioning Circles and Arcs
          1. Radius Dimension
          2. Creating a Jogged Radius Dimension
          3. Diameter Dimension
          4. Dimensioning the Length of an Arc
          5. Creating Center Marks
        8. Angular Dimensions
          1. Selecting Objects
          2. Selecting Vertex and Angle Endpoints
          3. The Quadrant Option
        9. Creating Datum and Chain Dimensions
          1. Continued Dimension
          2. Baseline Dimension
          3. DIMASSOC System Variable
        10. Dimension Tools
          1. The Adjust Space Tool
          2. The Break Tool
          3. The Jog Line Tool
        11. Quick Dimensioning
          1. Quick Dimension
        12. Managing Dimension Styles
          1. Creating a Dimension Style
          2. Modifying an Existing Dimension Style
          3. Modifying Dimension Styles Versus Overriding Dimension Styles
          4. Comparing Dimension Styles
        13. Creating Leaders
          1. The Multileader Tool
        14. Creating Geometric Dimension and Tolerance Symbols (GD&T)
          1. GDT Font
        15. Inspection Dimensions
        16. Modifying Dimensions
          1. Grip Editing Dimensions
          2. Right-Click Shortcut Menu
          3. Modifying Dimension Text and Extension Lines
          4. Reassociating Dimensions
          5. Applying Dimension Styles
        17. Chapter Summary
        18. Chapter Test Questions
          1. Multiple Choice
          2. Matching
          3. True or False
        19. Chapter Projects
    15. Part Six: Outputting Your Work
      1. Chapter 14. Managing Paper Space Layouts
        1. Introduction
        2. Layout Paper Size
        3. Layout Viewport Scale
        4. Controlling Layers per Layout Viewport
        5. Setting Up a Layout
          1. The Page Setup Manager
          2. Creating Layout Viewports
          3. Making a Viewport Current
          4. Setting the Viewport Scale
          5. Locking the Viewport Display
          6. Controlling Layers per Layout Viewport
          7. Modifying Layout Viewports
          8. Turning Viewport Display Off and On
          9. Maximizing a Viewport
        6. Managing Layouts
          1. Creating a New Layout
          2. Renaming a Layout
          3. Moving or Copying a Layout
          4. Deleting a Layout
        7. Paper Space Linetype Scale
        8. Chapter Summary
        9. Chapter Test Questions
          1. Multiple Choice
          2. Matching
          3. True or False
        10. Chapter Projects
      2. Chapter 15. Plotting and Publishing
        1. Introduction
        2. Page Setups and Plotting
          1. Previewing Your Plot
          2. Plotting from Model Space
          3. Plotting a Page Layout
          4. Default Plot Settings and Page Setups
        3. Plot Styles and Lineweights
          1. Plot Style Manager
          2. Color-Dependent Plot Styles
          3. Named Plot Styles
          4. Using Plot Styles
          5. Plot Options
        4. Plotter Setup
          1. Windows System Printers
          2. AutoCAD Printers
          3. Plotter Manager
          4. Plotting to a File
        5. Plotting a Set of Drawings
          1. Batch Plotting
        6. Working with DWF Files
          1. Autodesk Design Review
          2. Autodesk DWF Writer
        7. Chapter Summary
        8. Chapter Test Questions
          1. Multiple Choice
          2. Matching
          3. True or False
        9. Chapter Projects
    16. Part Seven: Advanced Drawing and Construction Methods
      1. Chapter 16. Blocks and Block Attributes
        1. Introduction
        2. Creating Blocks
          1. The BLOCK Command
          2. Block Object Properties
        3. Inserting Blocks
          1. The INSERT Command
          2. Nonuniformly Scaled Unit Blocks
          3. Exploding Blocks
          4. Inserting a Drawing File as a Block
          5. Using Windows Explorer to Insert a Drawing File
        4. Exporting Blocks
          1. The WBLOCK Command
        5. Block Attributes
        6. Creating Attributes
          1. Attribute Definition
        7. Updating and Editing Attributes
          1. Editing Attributes Individually
          2. Editing Attributes Globally
          3. Managing Attributes
        8. Extracting Attributes
          1. Extracting Attribute Data
          2. Updating Data Extraction Table Data Manually
          3. Updating Data Extraction Table Data Automatically
        9. Redefining Blocks
          1. Updating Blocks Created in the Current Drawing
          2. Updating Blocks Inserted from an External Drawing File
          3. Editing Blocks In-Place
          4. Redefining Blocks with Attributes
        10. Using DesignCenter to Manage Blocks
          1. The DesignCenter Window
        11. Tool Palettes and Dynamic Blocks
          1. Controlling Tool Palettes
          2. Tool Properties
          3. Adding Tools to Tool Palettes
          4. Introduction to Dynamic Blocks
        12. Autodesk Content Explorer
          1. Search Locations
        13. Chapter Summary
        14. Chapter Test Questions
          1. Multiple Choice
          2. Matching
          3. True or False
        15. Chapter Projects
      2. Chapter 17. Working with External References
        1. Introduction
        2. The Reference Panel
        3. External References Palette
        4. Blocks Versus Xrefs
          1. Blocks
          2. Xrefs
          3. Nested Xrefs
        5. Attaching an Xref
          1. Attachment Versus Overlay
          2. Setting the Path Type
          3. Insertion Point, Scale, and Rotation
        6. Manage Xrefs Icon
        7. Layers and Xrefs
          1. Changing Xref Layers
        8. Managing Xrefs
          1. The Right-Click Menu
        9. Editing Xrefs
          1. Edit Reference In-Place
          2. Opening Xrefs
          3. Clipping an Xref
        10. Binding Parts of an Xref
        11. Demand Loading Xrefs
        12. Working with Raster Images
          1. Attaching Raster Images
          2. Managing Images
          3. Controlling Image Settings
        13. Working with DWF Underlays
          1. Attaching DWF Underlays
          2. Managing DWF Underlays
          3. Controlling DWF Underlay Settings
          4. DWF Layer Control
        14. Working with DGN Underlays
          1. Attaching DGN Underlays
          2. Managing DGN Underlays
          3. Controlling DGN Underlay Settings
        15. Working with PDF Underlays
          1. Attaching PDF Underlays
          2. Managing PDF Underlays
          3. Controlling PDF Underlay Settings
        16. Transmitting Drawings with References
          1. Using eTransmit
          2. Configuring the Transmittal
        17. Chapter Summary
        18. Chapter Test Questions
          1. Multiple Choice
          2. Matching
          3. True or False
        19. Chapter Projects
      3. Chapter 18. Drawing Management Tools and Utilities
        1. Introduction
        2. Drawing File Backup and Recovery
          1. File Safety Precautions
          2. Recovering Lost or Corrupt Drawings
          3. Cleaning Up Drawing Files
        3. Working with Different CAD File Formats
          1. Exporting to DWF/PDF Files
          2. Importing and Exporting Other File Types
          3. Working with DXF Files
          4. DWG Convert Tool
        4. Object Linking and Embedding
          1. Object Linking Versus Object Embedding
          2. Inserting OLE Objects
          3. Editing OLE Objects
        5. Action Recorder
        6. Measure Tools
        7. QuickCalc Calculator
          1. Using QuickCalc
          2. Converting Units
          3. Calculator Variables
        8. Deleting Duplicate Objects
        9. Web-Based Collaboration Tools
          1. Autodesk 360
          2. The Autodesk 360 Tab
        10. Chapter Summary
        11. Chapter Test Questions
          1. Multiple Choice
          2. Matching
          3. True or False
    17. Appendix A. Drafting Standards Overview
      1. Standards Organizations
        1. American National Standards Institute (ANSI)
        2. American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME)
        3. International Organization for Standardization (ISO)
      2. Text
        1. Standard Text Heights
        2. Calculating the Scale Factor
        3. Notes and Locating Text on a Drawing
        4. Leaders
      3. Sheet Layouts
      4. Dimensions
        1. Standard Feature Sizes
      5. Mechanical Style versus Architectural Style
        1. Mechanical Style
        2. Architectural Style
        3. Linetypes and Thicknesses
      6. Standard Sheet Sizes and Scales
      7. Standard Plot Scales
        1. Specifying the Scale on a Drawing
      8. Standard ANSI Hatch Patterns
        1. Section Lining
      9. U.S. to Metric Units Conversions
    18. Appendix B. Command Reference
    19. Appendix C. Command Aliases
    20. Appendix D. System Variables
    21. Appendix E. Express Tools
    22. Glossary
    23. Index