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Introduction to Audiovisual Archives

Book Description

Today, audiovisual archives and libraries have become very popular especially in the field of collecting, preserving and transmitting cultural heritage. However, the data from these archives or libraries - videos, images, sound tracks, etc. - constitute as such only potential cognitive resources for a given public (or "target community"). They have to undergo more or less significant qualitative transformations in order to become user- or community-relevant intellectual goods.

These qualitative transformations are performed through a series of concrete operations such as: audiovisual text segmentation, content description and indexing, pragmatic profiling, translation, etc. These and other operations constitute what we call the semiotic turn in dealing with digital (audiovisual) texts, corpora of texts or even entire (audiovisual) archives and libraries. They demonstrate practically and theoretically the well-known "from data to meta-data" or "from (simple) information to (relevant) knowledge" problem - a problem that obviously directly influences the effective use, the social impact and relevancy and therefore also the future of digital knowledge archives.

It constitutes, indeed, the heart of a diversity of important R&D programs and projects all over the world.

Table of Contents

  1. Cover
  2. Title Page
  3. Copyright
  4. Introduction
  5. Chapter 1: Context and Issues
    1. 1.1. The ARA program – a brief historical overview
    2. 1.2. The scientific and cultural heritage of the ARA program
    3. 1.3. The working process
    4. 1.4. Knowledge engineering in the service of the ARA program
      1. 1.4.1. Some questions
      2. 1.4.2. Recourse to the semiotics of the audiovisual text
      3. 1.4.3. Metalanguage of description, models and scenarios
      4. 1.4.4. Models and scenarios of collection/production of audiovisual corpora
      5. 1.4.5. Models and scenarios for publishing/republishing
    5. 1.5. The digital environment and the working process
    6. 1.6. Analyzing an audiovisual corpus using ASW Studio
  6. PART 1: The Segmentation and Description Workshops for Audiovisual Corpora
    1. Chapter 2: The Segmentation Workshop for Audiovisual Resources
      1. 2.1. Introduction
      2. 2.2. Segmentation of audiovisual corpora – a general presentation
        1. 2.2.1. Example of segmentation of a scientific interview
        2. 2.2.2. Example of the segmentation of a conference
        3. 2.2.3. Exemplification of the segmentation of an amateur video
        4. 2.2.4. Example of the segmentation of an audiovisual report
        5. 2.2.5. Other possible segmentations
      3. 2.3. Appropriation of the segmentation workshop
      4. 2.4. Some additional thoughts about segmentation
      5. 2.5. Perspectives relating to the segmentation workshop
    2. Chapter 3: Description Workshop for Audiovisual Corpora
      1. 3.1. A general overview
      2. 3.2. The “metadescription” part of an audiovisual analysis in ASW Studio: the mark of the editor’s choice
        1. 3.2.1. General overview
          1. 3.2.1.1. General
          2. 3.2.1.2. Citations
          3. 3.2.1.3. References
          4. 3.2.1.4. Properties and history
        2. 3.2.2. Focus on the “general” sub-section of metadescription
          1. 3.2.2.1. The types of analysis
          2. 3.2.2.2. The editorial choice: target audience and uses
      3. 3.3. The “identifying information of an audiovisual resource” part in the ASW description workshop
    3. Chapter 4: Analysis of Audiovisual Expression
      1. 4.1. Introduction
      2. 4.2. Analysis of the visual shot
        1. 4.2.1. General overview
        2. 4.2.2. General description of the visual shot and analysis procedures
        3. 4.2.3. Examples of describing the visual shot of an audiovisual text
          1. 4.2.3.1. The visual shot of an interview
          2. 4.2.3.2. The visual shot of a road-movie
        4. 4.2.4. Some specific uses of the analyzed visual shots
      3. 4.3. Analysis of the sound shot
        1. 4.3.1. General description of the sound shot and analysis procedures
        2. 4.3.2. Example of analysis of a video described using the sound shot
        3. 4.3.3. Some uses for sound clips
          1. 4.3.3.1. In an educational or research framework
          2. 4.3.3.2. In the context of artistic creation
    4. Chapter 5: Analysis of the Audiovisual Content
      1. 5.1. Thematic analysis
      2. 5.2. A concrete example of the description of a topic
      3. 5.3. The model of thematic description
      4. 5.4. The objects of thematic analysis
      5. 5.5. Procedures of analysis
      6. 5.6. The different components of a model of thematic description
      7. 5.7. Libraries of models for the description of subjects
    5. Chapter 6: Uses of an Audiovisual Resource
      1. 6.1. The “Uses” part of the ASW description workshop
        1. 6.1.1. The “genres” of uses of an audiovisual text
          1. 6.1.1.1. The educational context: main objective of the ASW-HSS project
          2. 6.1.1.2. The usage scenario: a concrete example of educational scenario for the LHE workshop
          3. 6.1.1.3. The context of communication/valorization: an example of heritage valorization
        2. 6.1.2. The target audience of an audiovisual text
      2. 6.2. Producing a linguistic adaptation of an audiovisual resource
    6. Chapter 7: Model of an Audiovisual Publication in the form of a Web Portal
      1. 7.1. Introduction
      2. 7.2. The ArkWork homepage
      3. 7.3. Thematic access to audiovisual resources
      4. 7.4. Direct accesses to the audiovisual resources
      5. 7.5. Access to the audiovisual resources by thesaurus
      6. 7.6. Contextualization of the video
  7. PART 2: Technological Environment, Development and New Perspectives
    1. Chapter 8: The ASW Digital Environment
      1. 8.1. Introduction
      2. 8.2. General presentation
        1. 8.2.1. Management of roles and rights
          1. 8.2.1.1. The roles
          2. 8.2.1.2. The activities
          3. 8.2.1.3. The rights
        2. 8.2.2. The technologies
        3. 8.2.3. The working process in the ASW environment
      3. 8.3. SemioscapeLibrary
        1. 8.3.1. The abstraction layers
        2. 8.3.2. The objects layer
          1. 8.3.2.1. The common classes
          2. 8.3.2.2. The user classes
          3. 8.3.2.3. The media classes
          4. 8.3.2.4. The ontology classes
          5. 8.3.2.5. The object of analysis classes
          6. 8.3.2.6. The metadescription classes
          7. 8.3.2.7. The publication classes
        3. 8.3.3. The data access layer
        4. 8.3.4. The data processing layer
      4. 8.4. Semioscape
        1. 8.4.1. The database
          1. 8.4.1.1. The aspnet_Users table
          2. 8.4.1.2. The Media table
          3. 8.4.1.3. The Field table
          4. 8.4.1.4. The SlotObject table
          5. 8.4.1.5. MetaDescription table
          6. 8.4.1.6. The Event table
        2. 8.4.2. The Web services
          1. 8.4.2.1. Semioscape
          2. 8.4.2.2. Read in database requests
          3. 8.4.2.3. Write in the database requests
      5. 8.5. Conclusion
    2. Chapter 9: The ASW Studio
      1. 9.1. Introduction
      2. 9.2. The common libraries
        1. 9.2.1. SemioscapeResources
        2. 9.2.2. SemioscapeUserControls
      3. 9.3. SemioscapeData
        1. 9.3.1. Ontology of work configuration
        2. 9.3.2. Static ontology
        3. 9.3.3. Metalexicon of conceptual terms
        4. 9.3.4. Domain ontologies
        5. 9.3.5. Listings of the ontologies
      4. 9.4. ESCoM Update
      5. 9.5. ESCoM ffCoder
      6. 9.6. ESCoM OntoEditor
      7. 9.7. ESCoM-INA Interview
      8. 9.8. ESCoM SemioscapeAdmin
      9. 9.9. The ESCoM suite 2011 installer
      10. 9.10. Semiosphere
        1. 9.10.1. SemiosphereLibrary
        2. 9.10.2. Customization
        3. 9.10.3. Multilingualism
        4. 9.10.4. Site maps
      11. 9.11. Conclusion
    3. Chapter 10: The Technical Development of the “Web Portal” Publishing Model
      1. 10.1. The notion of “publishing module”
      2. 10.2. RIAs
      3. 10.3. The “Menu” publishing module
      4. 10.4. The “Video player” publishing module
      5. 10.5. The “contextualization of a video” publishing module
      6. 10.6. The “temporal location” publishing module
      7. 10.7. The “geographical location” publishing module
        1. 10.7.1. The geographical location
      8. 10.8. Conclusion
  8. Glossary of Specialized Terms
    1. A
      1. Analysis (of an audiovisual corpus)
      2. Analyst (Role of)
    2. C
      1. Concept (see: Conceptual term)
      2. Collection (audiovisual-)
      3. Corpus (audiovisual)
      4. Analysis corpus
      5. Analyzed corpus
      6. Field corpus
      7. Processing corpus
      8. Processed corpus
      9. Publication corpus
      10. Published corpus
    3. D
      1. Document (audiovisual) – (audiovisual text)
      2. Domain of knowledge/expertise
      3. Description
      4. Audiovisual description (type of –)
      5. Controlled description (procedure of –)
      6. Free description (procedure of –)
      7. Paratextual description (type of –)
      8. Pragmatic description (type of –)
      9. Thematic description (type of –)
    4. F
      1. Field
      2. Folder
      3. Bi/multilingualfolder
      4. Educational folder
      5. Thematic folder
      6. Form (interactive working)
    5. G
      1. Genre of publication
    6. M
      1. Metalanguage of description
      2. Metadescription (ASW –)
      3. Model of description
      4. Model (publishing-)
      5. Knowledge engineer (role of–; also: “Concept designer”)
    7. O
      1. Object (of analysis)
      2. Object (audiovisual-) (see: Audiovisual Text)
      3. Ontologies (ASW domain–)
      4. Ontology (ASW generic–) (see: ASW metalanguage)
    8. P
      1. Procedure of analysis
      2. Process (working – of audiovisual production-publication)
      3. Processing (of an audiovisual corpus)
    9. R
      1. Relation (conceptual–)
      2. Resource (audiovisual-)
      3. Resources (metalinguistic)
      4. Schema (conceptual–)
      5. Schema of indexing
      6. Schema (referential–)
      7. Sequence
    10. T
      1. Term (conceptual)
      2. Thesaurus
    11. V
      1. Value (of an audiovisual text)
      2. Video-book (interactive)
      3. Video-lexicon
    12. W
      1. Writer/author (role of–)
  9. Glossary of Acronyms and Names
    1. A
      1. ACH portal
      2. AICH portal
      3. AmSud (portal)
      4. ARA© Program
      5. ARA© video-library
      6. ArkWork portal
      7. ArkWork Program
      8. ASW Description Workshop©
      9. ASW Experimental Workshop
      10. ASW-HSS project
      11. ASW Modeling Workshop©
      12. ASW Publishing Workshop©
      13. ASW Segmentation Workshop©
      14. ASW© Studio
      15. Averroès video-library
      16. Azeri Buta video-library
    2. C
      1. CCA-Intercultural Program
      2. CCA portal
      3. CCA Program
      4. CONVERGENCE project
    3. D
      1. DIVAS project
      2. DLC portal
    4. E
      1. ESCoM©
      2. ESCoM Suite 2011©
    5. F
      1. FMSH-AAR (FMSH-ARA) video-library
    6. I
      1. Interview
    7. K
      1. KNOSOS project
    8. L
      1. LHE portal
      2. LHE Program
      3. LOGOS project
    9. M
      1. MDD portal
    10. O
      1. OntoEditor
    11. P
      1. PCWportal
    12. S
      1. SAPHIR project
      2. SCC project
  10. Bibliography
  11. List of Authors
  12. Index