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Introduction to Aerospace Materials

Book Description

The structural materials used in airframe and propulsion systems influence the cost, performance and safety of aircraft, and an understanding of the wide range of materials used and the issues surrounding them is essential for the student of aerospace engineering.Introduction to aerospace materials reviews the main structural and engine materials used in aircraft, helicopters and spacecraft in terms of their production, properties, performance and applications.

The first three chapters of the book introduce the reader to the range of aerospace materials, focusing on recent developments and requirements. Following these introductory chapters, the book moves on to discuss the properties and production of metals for aerospace structures, including chapters covering strengthening of metal alloys, mechanical testing, and casting, processing and machining of aerospace metals. The next ten chapters look in depth at individual metals including aluminium, titanium, magnesium, steel and superalloys, as well as the properties and processing of polymers, composites and wood. Chapters on performance issues such as fracture, fatigue and corrosion precede a chapter focusing on inspection and structural health monitoring of aerospace materials. Disposal/recycling and materials selection are covered in the final two chapters.

With its comprehensive coverage of the main issues surrounding structural aerospace materials,Introduction to aerospace materials is essential reading for undergraduate students studying aerospace and aeronautical engineering. It will also be a valuable resource for postgraduate students and practising aerospace engineers.

  • Reviews the main structural and engine materials used in aircraft, helicopters and space craft in terms of their properties, performance and applications
  • Introduces the reader to the range of aerospace materials, focusing on recent developments and requirements, and discusses the properties and production of metals for aerospace structures
  • Chapters look in depth at individual metals including aluminium, titanium, magnesium, steel and superalloys

Table of Contents

  1. Cover image
  2. Title page
  3. Table of Contents
  4. Copyright
  5. Preface
  6. Chapter 1: Introduction to aerospace materials
    1. 1.1 The importance of aerospace materials
    2. 1.2 Understanding aerospace materials
    3. 1.3 Introducing the main types of aerospace materials
    4. 1.4 What makes for a good aerospace material?
    5. 1.5 Summary
  7. Chapter 2: Aerospace materials: past, present and future
    1. 2.1 Introduction
    2. 2.2 Brief history of aerospace materials
    3. 2.3 Materials for the global aerospace industry
    4. 2.4 Future advances in aerospace materials
    5. 2.5 Summary
  8. Chapter 3: Materials and material requirements for aerospace structures and engines
    1. 3.1 Introduction
    2. 3.2 Fixed-wing aircraft structures
    3. 3.3 Helicopter structures
    4. 3.4 Space shuttle structures
    5. 3.5 Summary
  9. Chapter 4: Strengthening of metal alloys
    1. 4.1 Introduction
    2. 4.2 Crystal structure of metals
    3. 4.3 Defects in crystal structures
    4. 4.4 Strengthening of metals
    5. 4.5 Summary
    6. 4.6 Terminology
  10. Chapter 5: Mechanical and durability testing of aerospace materials
    1. 5.1 Introduction
    2. 5.2 Tension test
    3. 5.3 Compression test
    4. 5.4 Flexure test
    5. 5.5 Hardness test
    6. 5.6 Fracture test
    7. 5.7 Drop-weight impact test
    8. 5.8 Fatigue test
    9. 5.9 Creep test
    10. 5.10 Environmental durability testing
    11. 5.11 Certification of aerospace materials
    12. 5.12 Summary
    13. 5.13 Terminology
  11. Chapter 6: Production and casting of aerospace metals
    1. 6.1 Introduction
    2. 6.2 Production of metal alloys
    3. 6.3 Casting of metal alloys
    4. 6.4 Casting processes
    5. 6.5 Summary
    6. 6.6 Terminology
    7. 6.8 Case study: casting defects causing engine disc failure in United Airlines flight 232
  12. Chapter 7: Processing and machining of aerospace metals
    1. 7.1 Introduction
    2. 7.2 Metal-forming processes
    3. 7.3 Hot and cold working of metal products
    4. 7.4 Powder metallurgy for production of aerospace superalloys
    5. 7.5 Machining of metals
    6. 7.6 Summary
    7. 7.7 Terminology
  13. Chapter 8: Aluminium alloys for aircraft structures
    1. 8.1 Introduction
    2. 8.2 Aluminium alloy types
    3. 8.3 Non-age-hardenable aluminium alloys
    4. 8.4 Age-hardenable aluminium alloys
    5. 8.5 Speciality aluminium alloys
    6. 8.6 Heat treatment of age-hardenable aluminium alloys
    7. 8.7 High-temperature strength of aluminium
    8. 8.8 Summary
  14. Chapter 9: Titanium alloys for aerospace structures and engines
    1. 9.1 Introduction
    2. 9.2 Titanium alloys: advantages and disadvantages for aerospace applications
    3. 9.3 Types of titanium alloy
    4. 9.4 Titanium aluminides
    5. 9.5 Shape-memory titanium alloys
    6. 9.6 Summary
    7. 9.7 Terminology
  15. Chapter 10: Magnesium alloys for aerospace structures
    1. 10.1 Introduction
    2. 10.2 Metallurgy of magnesium alloys
    3. 10.3 Summary
  16. Chapter 11: Steels for aircraft structures
    1. 11.1 Introduction
    2. 11.2 Basic principles of steel metallurgy
    3. 11.3 Maraging steel
    4. 11.4 Medium-carbon low-alloy steel
    5. 11.5 Stainless steel
    6. 11.6 Summary
    7. 11.7 Terminology
  17. Chapter 12: Superalloys for gas turbine engines
    1. 12.1 Introduction
    2. 12.2 A simple guide to jet engine technology
    3. 12.3 Nickel-based superalloys
    4. 12.4 Iron–nickel superalloys
    5. 12.5 Cobalt superalloys
    6. 12.6 Thermal barrier coatings for jet engine alloys
    7. 12.7 Advanced materials for jet engines
    8. 12.8 Summary
  18. Chapter 13: Polymers for aerospace structures
    1. 13.1 Introduction
    2. 13.2 Aerospace applications of polymers
    3. 13.3 Advantages and disadvantages of polymers for aerospace applications
    4. 13.4 Polymerisation
    5. 13.5 Thermosetting polymers
    6. 13.6 Thermoplastics
    7. 13.7 Elastomers
    8. 13.8 Structural adhesives
    9. 13.9 Mechanical properties of polymers
    10. 13.10 Polymer additives
    11. 13.11 Polymers for radar-absorbing materials (RAMs)
    12. 13.12 Summary
    13. 13.13 Terminology
    14. 13.15 Case study: space shuttle Challenger accident
  19. Chapter 14: Manufacturing of fibre–polymer composite materials
    1. 14.1 Introduction
    2. 14.2 Fibre reinforcements for composites
    3. 14.3 Production of prepregs and fabrics
    4. 14.4 Core materials for sandwich composites
    5. 14.5 Composites manufacturing using prepreg
    6. 14.6 Composites manufacturing by resin infusion
    7. 14.7 Machining of composites
    8. 14.8 Summary
    9. 14.9 Terminology
    10. 14.11 Case study: carbon nanotubes in composites
  20. Chapter 15: Fibre–polymer composites for aerospace structures and engines
    1. 15.1 Introduction
    2. 15.2 Types of composite materials
    3. 15.3 Aerospace applications of fibre–polymer composites
    4. 15.4 Advantages and disadvantages of using fibre-polymer composites
    5. 15.5 Mechanics of continuous-fibre composites
    6. 15.6 Sandwich composites
    7. 15.7 Environmental durability of composites
    8. 15.8 Summary
    9. 15.9 Terminology
  21. Chapter 16: Metal matrix, fibre–metal and ceramic matrix composites for aerospace applications
    1. 16.1 Metal matrix composites
    2. 16.2 Fibre–metal laminates
    3. 16.3 Ceramic matrix composites
    4. 16.4 Summary
    5. 16.5 Terminology
    6. 16.7 Case study: ceramic matrix composites in the space shuttle orbiter
  22. Chapter 17: Wood in small aircraft construction
    1. 17.1 Introduction
    2. 17.2 Advantages and disadvantages of wood
    3. 17.3 Hardwoods and softwoods
    4. 17.4 Structure and composition of wood
    5. 17.5 Engineering properties of wood
    6. 17.6 Summary
    7. 17.7 Terminology
    8. 17.9 Case study: Spruce Goose (Hughes H-4 Hercules)
  23. Chapter 18: Fracture processes of aerospace materials
    1. 18.1 Introduction
    2. 18.2 Fracture processes of aerospace materials
    3. 18.3 Stress concentration effects in materials
    4. 18.4 Fracture mechanics
    5. 18.5 Application of fracture mechanics to aerospace materials
    6. 18.6 Summary
    7. 18.7 Terminology
    8. 18.9 Case study fracture in the space shuttle Columbia disaster
    9. 18.10 Case study: fracture of aircraft composite radome
  24. Chapter 19: Fracture toughness properties of aerospace materials
    1. 19.1 Introduction
    2. 19.2 Fracture toughness properties
    3. 19.3 Ductile/brittle fracture transition for metals
    4. 19.4 Improving the fracture toughness of aerospace materials
    5. 19.5 Summary
    6. 19.6 Terminology
  25. Chapter 20: Fatigue of aerospace materials
    1. 20.1 Introduction
    2. 20.2 Fatigue stress
    3. 20.3 Fatigue life (S–N) curves
    4. 20.4 Fatigue-crack growth curves
    5. 20.5 Fatigue of metals
    6. 20.6 Fatigue of fibre–polymer composites
    7. 20.7 Fretting, acoustic and thermal fatigue
    8. 20.8 Summary
    9. 20.9 Terminology
  26. Chapter 21: Corrosion of aerospace metals
    1. 21.1 Introduction
    2. 21.2 Corrosion process
    3. 21.3 Types of corrosion
    4. 21.4 Corrosion protection of metals
    5. 21.5 Summary
    6. 21.6 Terminology
    7. 21.8 Case study: corrosion in the Aloha Airlines flight 243
  27. Chapter 22: Creep of aerospace materials
    1. 22.1 Introduction
    2. 22.2 Creep behaviour of materials
    3. 22.3 Creep of metals
    4. 22.4 Creep of polymers and polymer composites
    5. 22.5 Creep-resistant materials
    6. 22.6 Summary
    7. 22.7 Terminology
  28. Chapter 23: Nondestructive inspection and structural health monitoring of aerospace materials
    1. 23.1 Introduction
    2. 23.2 Nondestructive inspection methods
    3. 23.3 Structural health monitoring (SHM)
    4. 23.4 Summary
    5. 23.5 Terminology
  29. Chapter 24: Disposal and recycling of aerospace materials
    1. 24.1 Introduction
    2. 24.2 Metal recycling
    3. 24.3 Composite recycling
    4. 24.4 Summary
  30. Chapter 25: Materials selection for aerospace
    1. 25.1 Introduction
    2. 25.2 Materials selection in design
    3. 25.3 Stages of materials selection
    4. 25.4 Materials property charts
    5. 25.5 Structural properties in materials selection
    6. 25.6 Economic and business considerations in materials selection
    7. 25.7 Manufacturing considerations in materials selection
    8. 25.8 Durability considerations in materials selection
    9. 25.9 Environmental considerations in materials selection
    10. 25.10 Specialist properties in materials selection
    11. 25.11 Summary
    12. 25.12 Terminology
  31. Index