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Introduction to Adaptive Lenses

Book Description

Presents readers with the basic science, technology, and applications for every type of adaptive lens

An adaptive lens is a lens whose shape has been changed to a different focal length by an external stimulus such as pressure, electric field, magnetic field, or temperature. Introduction to Adaptive Lenses is the first book ever to address all of the fundamental operation principles, device characteristics, and potential applications of various types of adaptive lenses.

This comprehensive book covers basic material properties, device structures and performance, image processing and zooming, optical communications, and biomedical imaging. Readers will find homework problems and solutions included at the end of each chapter—and based on the described device structures, they will have the knowledge to fabricate adaptive lenses for practical applications or develop new adaptive devices or concepts for advanced investigation.

Introduction to Adaptive Lenses includes chapters on:

  • Optical lenses

  • Elastomeric membrane lenses

  • Electro-wetting lenses

  • Dielectrophoretic lenses

  • Mechanical-wetting lenses

  • Liquid crystal lenses

This is an important reference for optical engineers, research scientists, graduate students, and undergraduate seniors.

Table of Contents

  1. Cover
  2. Series Page
  3. Title Page
  4. Copyright
  5. Preface
  6. Chapter 1: Optical Lens
    1. 1.1 Introduction
    2. 1.2 Conventional Lens
    3. 1.3 Aberration and Resolution
    4. 1.4 Merits and Demerits of Solid Lens
    5. 1.5 Adaptive Optical Lenses
    6. 1.6 Homework Problems
    7. References
  7. Chapter 2: Elastomeric Membrane Lens
    1. 2.1 Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) Membrane
    2. 2.2 Device Structure
    3. 2.3 Actuators
    4. 2.4 PDMS Microlens Array
    5. 2.5 Solid PDMS Lenses
    6. 2.6 Hybrid Lens System
    7. 2.7 Summary and Technical Challenges
    8. 2.8 Homework Problems
    9. References
  8. Chapter 3: Electrowetting Lens
    1. 3.1 Introduction
    2. 3.2 Surface Tension
    3. 3.3 Contact Angle and Wetting
    4. 3.4 Basic Theory of Electrowetting
    5. 3.5 Droplet Deformation
    6. 3.6 Electrowetting Lens
    7. 3.7 Tunable electrowetting lens
    8. 3.8 Desired Properties of the Liquids
    9. 3.9 Singlet Lens with Two Liquids
    10. 3.10 Microlens Array
    11. 3.11 Remaining Challenges
    12. 3.12 Summary
    13. 3.13 Homework Problems
    14. References
  9. Chapter 4: Dielectrophoretic Lens
    1. 4.1 Introduction
    2. 4.2 Dielectrophoretic Force
    3. 4.3 Dielectric Liquid Materials
    4. 4.4 Singlet Lens
    5. 4.5 Microlens Array
    6. 4.6 Switchable Lens
    7. 4.7 Gravity Effect
    8. 4.8 Applications
    9. 4.9 Summary
    10. 4.10 Homework Problems
    11. References
  10. Chapter 5: Other Adaptive Liquid Lenses
    1. 5.1 Introduction
    2. 5.2 Mechanical-Wetting Lens
    3. 5.3 Ferrofluidic Transducer Lens
    4. 5.4 Electromagnetic Actuator Lens
    5. 5.5 Stimuli Response Hydrogel Lens
    6. 5.6 Acoustic Liquid Lens
    7. 5.7 Electrochemical Actuation Lens
    8. 5.8 Electrostatic Force Actuation
    9. 5.9 Summary
    10. 5.10 Homework Problems
    11. References
  11. Chapter 6: Liquid Crystal Lens
    1. 6.1 Introduction
    2. 6.2 Physical Properties
    3. 6.3 LC Device
    4. 6.4 Focal Length Equation
    5. 6.5 Curved Electrode
    6. 6.6 Strip-Patterned Electrode
    7. 6.7 Hole-Patterned Electrode
    8. 6.8 Modal Addressing
    9. 6.9 Cylindrical LC Lens
    10. 6.10 Polymer–LC composite lens
    11. 6.11 Diffractive LC Lens
    12. 6.12 LC Microlens Array
    13. 6.13 Summary
    14. 6.14 Homework Problems
    15. References
  12. Index
  13. Wiley Series