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Introducing 3ds Max® 9

Book Description

Video game and feature-film artists have used 3ds Max to create Halo 2, King Kong, Myst V, and more. Now you can harness this popular animation software with the clear, step-by-step instructions in this easy-to-follow guide. This book breaks down the complexities of 3D modeling, texturing, animating, and visual effects. Clear-cut explanations, tutorials, and hands-on projects help build your skills and a special color insert includes real-world examples from talented 3ds Max beginners.

Note: CD-ROM/DVD and other supplementary materials are not included as part of eBook file.

Table of Contents

  1. Copyright
  2. Acknowledgments
  3. About the Authors
  4. Introduction
      1. What You Will Learn from This Book
      2. Who Should Read This Book
      3. How to Use This Book
      4. How This Book Is Organized
      5. Hardware and Software Considerations
      6. The Book's CD
      7. Contact the Authors
      8. The Next Step
  5. 1. Basic Concepts
    1. 1.1. How to Read This Book
    2. 1.2. What Is CGI?
      1. 1.2.1. 3d Space
    3. 1.3. Production Workflow
      1. 1.3.1. Preproduction
        1. 1.3.1.1. Writing a Script
        2. 1.3.1.2. Storyboards
        3. 1.3.1.3. Concept Art
      2. 1.3.2. Production
      3. 1.3.3. Postproduction
        1. 1.3.3.1. Rendering
        2. 1.3.3.2. Compositing
        3. 1.3.3.3. Editing
        4. 1.3.3.4. Sound
    4. 1.4. CG Workflow
      1. 1.4.1. Modeling
        1. 1.4.1.1. Character Modeling
        2. 1.4.1.2. Architectural and Environmental Modeling
        3. 1.4.1.3. Props Modeling
      2. 1.4.2. Texturing
      3. 1.4.3. Animation
      4. 1.4.4. Lighting
      5. 1.4.5. Rendering
    5. 1.5. CG Specialties
    6. 1.6. Core Concepts
      1. 1.6.1. Computer Graphics Basics
        1. 1.6.1.1. Raster Images
        2. 1.6.1.2. Vector Images
        3. 1.6.1.3. Image Output
          1. 1.6.1.3.1. Color Depth
          2. 1.6.1.3.2. Color Channels
          3. 1.6.1.3.3. File Formats
          4. 1.6.1.3.4. Movie Files
        4. 1.6.1.4. Color
          1. 1.6.1.4.1. Subtractive and Additive Color
          2. 1.6.1.4.2. How a Computer Defines Color
          3. 1.6.1.4.3. CMYK Color Space
          4. 1.6.1.4.4. Viewing Color
        5. 1.6.1.5. Resolution, Aspect Ratio, Frame Rate
    7. 1.7. Coordinate Systems
    8. 1.8. Basic Animation Concepts
      1. 1.8.1. Frames, Keyframes, In-Betweens
      2. 1.8.2. Weight
        1. 1.8.2.1. Squash and Stretch
        2. 1.8.2.2. Ease-In and Ease-Out
        3. 1.8.2.3. Follow-Through and Anticipation
    9. 1.9. Basic 3ds Max Terms and Concepts
    10. 1.10. Summary
  6. 2. Your First Max Animation
    1. 2.1. Getting Around in 3ds Max
    2. 2.2. Project and File Management Workflow
      1. 2.2.1. Naming Conventions
      2. 2.2.2. Version Up!
      3. 2.2.3. Basic Project Structure Used in This Book
      4. 2.2.4. Saving Your Scenes in Max
    3. 2.3. The 3ds Max Interface
      1. 2.3.1. The Command Panel
      2. 2.3.2. Viewports
        1. 2.3.2.1. Four Viewport Layout
        2. 2.3.2.2. Object and Axes Display in a Viewport
        3. 2.3.2.3. Selecting Objects in a Viewport
        4. 2.3.2.4. Changing/Maximizing the Viewports
      3. 2.3.3. Viewport Navigation
    4. 2.4. Jumping Headlong into Animation
      1. 2.4.1. Plan of Attack for Making Objects
        1. 2.4.1.1. Hierarchies
        2. 2.4.1.2. Making the Mobile's Bars
        3. 2.4.1.3. Positioning the Bar
        4. 2.4.1.4. Copying the Bar
        5. 2.4.1.5. Creating the Mobile's Objects
    5. 2.5. Setting Up the Hierarchy
      1. 2.5.1. Parent and Child Objects
      2. 2.5.2. Setting Keyframe
      3. 2.5.3. Hierarchies for the Mobile
      4. 2.5.4. Pivot Points
      5. 2.5.5. Ready, Set, Animate!
    6. 2.6. Summary
  7. 3. The 3ds Max Interface
    1. 3.1. What Am I Looking At?
      1. 3.1.1. Screen Layout
      2. 3.1.2. The Menu Bar
      3. 3.1.3. Main Toolbar
        1. 3.1.3.1. Undo/Redo Icons
        2. 3.1.3.2. Linking and Hierarchy Icons
        3. 3.1.3.3. Selection Tools Icons
        4. 3.1.3.4. Transformation Tools Icons
        5. 3.1.3.5. Coordinate Systems, Center Pivots, and Manipulator Icons
        6. 3.1.3.6. Snapping Icons
        7. 3.1.3.7. Named Selection Sets Icons
        8. 3.1.3.8. Align and Mirror Icons
        9. 3.1.3.9. Editing Window Icons
        10. 3.1.3.10. Whoa! Did Ya Get All That?
      4. 3.1.4. The Command Panel
        1. 3.1.4.1. Create Panel
          1. 3.1.4.1.1. GEOMETRY
          2. 3.1.4.1.2. SHAPES
          3. 3.1.4.1.3. LIGHTS
          4. 3.1.4.1.4. CAMERA
          5. 3.1.4.1.5. HELPERS
          6. 3.1.4.1.6. SPACE WARP
          7. 3.1.4.1.7. SYSTEMS
        2. 3.1.4.2. Modify Panel
        3. 3.1.4.3. Hierarchy Panel
          1. 3.1.4.3.1. Pivot
          2. 3.1.4.3.2. IK
          3. 3.1.4.3.3. Link Info
        4. 3.1.4.4. Motion Panel
        5. 3.1.4.5. Display Panel
        6. 3.1.4.6. Utilities Panel
      5. 3.1.5. Controls at the Bottom of the UI
        1. 3.1.5.1. Time Slider and Track Bar
        2. 3.1.5.2. The Status Bar
        3. 3.1.5.3. Animation Controls
        4. 3.1.5.4. Animation Playback Controls
        5. 3.1.5.5. Viewport Navigation Controls
          1. 3.1.5.5.1. TOOLS AVAILABLE IN ALL VIEWPORTS
          2. 3.1.5.5.2. TOOLS AVAILABLE IN PERSPECTIVE AND ORTHOGRAPHIC VIEWPORTS
          3. 3.1.5.5.3. CAMERA VIEWPORT CONTROLS
          4. 3.1.5.5.4. LIGHT VIEWPORT CONTROLS
      6. 3.1.6. Navigating Viewports
      7. 3.1.7. The Viewports
        1. 3.1.7.1. Changing Viewport Views
        2. 3.1.7.2. Viewport Rendering Levels
        3. 3.1.7.3. Gizmos
    2. 3.2. Managing Scene Objects
      1. 3.2.1. Layer Editor
        1. 3.2.1.1. Using the Layer Editor
      2. 3.2.2. Schematic View
        1. 3.2.2.1. Using the Schematic View with the Mobile
    3. 3.3. Summary
  8. 4. Modeling in 3ds Max: Part I
    1. 4.1. Planning Your Model
    2. 4.2. Modeling Concepts
      1. 4.2.1. Polygons
      2. 4.2.2. Primitives
      3. 4.2.3. Meshes and Sub-Objects
      4. 4.2.4. Modifiers
        1. 4.2.4.1. Applying Modifiers
        2. 4.2.4.2. Modifier Stack with a Side of Maple Syrup
        3. 4.2.4.3. Order in the Stack
    3. 4.3. Look at the Mesh You Got Us Into!
      1. 4.3.1. Convert Versus Modifier
      2. 4.3.2. Mesh Versus Poly
        1. 4.3.2.1. Edit Poly Modifier/Editable Poly
      3. 4.3.3. Edit Poly/Editable Poly Tools
        1. 4.3.3.1. Selection Rollout
        2. 4.3.3.2. Soft Selection Rollout
        3. 4.3.3.3. Edit (Sub-Object) Rollout
        4. 4.3.3.4. Edit Geometry Rollout
        5. 4.3.3.5. Subdivision Surface Rollout
    4. 4.4. Editable Poly Tools
      1. 4.4.1. Extrude
      2. 4.4.2. Chamfer
      3. 4.4.3. Weld
      4. 4.4.4. Bevel
      5. 4.4.5. Outline
      6. 4.4.6. Inset
      7. 4.4.7. Hinge from Edge
      8. 4.4.8. Cap
      9. 4.4.9. Extrude Along a Spline
    5. 4.5. Modeling a Chest of Drawers
      1. 4.5.1. Ready, Set, Reference!
      2. 4.5.2. Ready, Set, Model!
        1. 4.5.2.1. Top of the Dresser
        2. 4.5.2.2. Bottom of the Dresser
        3. 4.5.2.3. Making the Drawers
        4. 4.5.2.4. Creating the Knobs
        5. 4.5.2.5. Copying the Knob
    6. 4.6. Modeling a Hand
      1. 4.6.1. Starting the Palm
      2. 4.6.2. Creating the Fingers
      3. 4.6.3. Creating the Thumb
      4. 4.6.4. Subdivision Surfaces
      5. 4.6.5. Adding Detail to the Hand
    7. 4.7. Summary
  9. 5. Modeling in 3ds Max: Part II
    1. 5.1. Setting Up the Scene
      1. 5.1.1. Creating Planes and Adding Materials
        1. 5.1.1.1. Adding Materials
    2. 5.2. The Editable Poly Tools
      1. 5.2.1. Building the Tank Body
        1. 5.2.1.1. Forming the Body
        2. 5.2.1.2. Creating the Skirts and Refining the Model
        3. 5.2.1.3. Creating the Track Well and Making the Model Symmetrical
        4. 5.2.1.4. Making the Exhaust Vents
        5. 5.2.1.5. Modeling the Turret
        6. 5.2.1.6. Creating the Access Hatch
    3. 5.3. Lofting the Barrel
      1. 5.3.1. Creating the Barrel Shapes and Path
      2. 5.3.2. Lofting the Barrel
      3. 5.3.3. Fixing the Rotation of the Shapes
    4. 5.4. Lathing the Wheels
    5. 5.5. Using Snapshot to Create the Tracks
      1. 5.5.1. Creating the Tread and Path
      2. 5.5.2. Animating the Tread
      3. 5.5.3. Creating Tread Clones with Snapshot
    6. 5.6. Summary
  10. 6. Organic Poly Modeling
    1. 6.1. Setting Up the Scene
      1. 6.1.1. Creating Planes and Adding Materials
        1. 6.1.1.1. Adding the Materials
    2. 6.2. Creating the Basic Form
      1. 6.2.1. Blocking the Torso
        1. 6.2.1.1. Forming the Torso
        2. 6.2.1.2. Cleaning Up the Geometry
      2. 6.2.2. Adding the Arms
      3. 6.2.3. Adding the Legs
        1. 6.2.3.1. Adding the Feet
      4. 6.2.4. Modeling the Head
        1. 6.2.4.1. Refining the Head
    3. 6.3. Adding Detail
      1. 6.3.1. The TurboSmooth Modifier
      2. 6.3.2. Adding Detail to the Legs
      3. 6.3.3. Adding Detail to the Arms
        1. 6.3.3.1. Refining the Shoulder
      4. 6.3.4. Adding Detail to the Torso
      5. 6.3.5. Adding Detail to the Head
        1. 6.3.5.1. Creating the Mouth
        2. 6.3.5.2. Creating the Eyes
    4. 6.4. Final Touches
    5. 6.5. Summary
  11. 7. Materials and Mapping
    1. 7.1. Materials
      1. 7.1.1. Material Basics
    2. 7.2. The Material Editor
      1. 7.2.1. Material Types
        1. 7.2.1.1. Standard
        2. 7.2.1.2. Blend
        3. 7.2.1.3. Composite
        4. 7.2.1.4. Double Sided
        5. 7.2.1.5. Ink 'n Paint
        6. 7.2.1.6. Matte/Shadow
        7. 7.2.1.7. Multi/Sub-Object
        8. 7.2.1.8. Raytrace
        9. 7.2.1.9. Shellac
        10. 7.2.1.10. Top/Bottom
      2. 7.2.2. Shader Types
        1. 7.2.2.1. Anisotropic
        2. 7.2.2.2. Blinn
          1. 7.2.2.2.1. SPECULAR HIGHLIGHT CONTROLS
          2. 7.2.2.2.2. SELF-ILLUMINATION AND OPACITY
        3. 7.2.2.3. Metal
        4. 7.2.2.4. Multi-Layer
        5. 7.2.2.5. Oren-Nayar-Blinn
        6. 7.2.2.6. Phong
        7. 7.2.2.7. Strauss
        8. 7.2.2.8. Translucent
    3. 7.3. Mapping a Pool Ball
      1. 7.3.1. Starting the Pool Ball
      2. 7.3.2. Choosing a Surface Type
      3. 7.3.3. Mapping the Pool Ball
      4. 7.3.4. Adding a Finishing Touch—Reflection Mapping
      5. 7.3.5. Background Color
    4. 7.4. Mapping, Just a Little Bit More
      1. 7.4.1. Seeing More Sample Slots
      2. 7.4.2. Assigning Materials to Sub-Objects
    5. 7.5. Maps
      1. 7.5.1. 2D Maps
        1. 7.5.1.1. Bitmap
        2. 7.5.1.2. Checker
        3. 7.5.1.3. Gradient
        4. 7.5.1.4. Gradient Ramp
      2. 7.5.2. 3D Maps
        1. 7.5.2.1. Marble
        2. 7.5.2.2. Noise
        3. 7.5.2.3. Wood
      3. 7.5.3. Compositor and Color Modifier Maps
    6. 7.6. More Mapping Exercises
      1. 7.6.1. Making a Chess Piece
        1. 7.6.1.1. Adding Shine
        2. 7.6.1.2. Applying a Bump
      2. 7.6.2. Opacity Maps
    7. 7.7. Mapping Coordinates
      1. 7.7.1. Assign the UVW Map Modifier
      2. 7.7.2. Acquire Mapping Coordinates
      3. 7.7.3. Locating the Modifier in the Stack
    8. 7.8. Summary
  12. 8. Introduction to Animation
    1. 8.1. Hierarchy in Animation: The Mobile Redux
      1. 8.1.1. Animating the Shapes
      2. 8.1.2. Making a Mistake
        1. 8.1.2.1. Animation Controllers
        2. 8.1.2.2. Editing the TCB Rotation Keyframes
    2. 8.2. Using Dummy Objects
      1. 8.2.1.
        1. 8.2.1.1. Placing Dummies in the Mobile
        2. 8.2.1.2. Linking the Dummies
        3. 8.2.1.3. Editing Dummies
    3. 8.3. Bouncing Ball
      1. 8.3.1. Animating the Ball
        1. 8.3.1.1. Copying Keyframes
    4. 8.4. Using the Track Editor–Curve Editor
      1. 8.4.1.
        1. 8.4.1.1. Reading Animation Curves
      2. 8.4.2. Refining the Animation
        1. 8.4.2.1. Editing Animation Curves
      3. 8.4.3. Finessing the Animation
        1. 8.4.3.1. Squash and Stretch
        2. 8.4.3.2. Setting the Timing
      4. 8.4.4. Moving the Ball Forward
      5. 8.4.5. Adding a Roll
        1. 8.4.5.1. Using the XForm Modifier
        2. 8.4.5.2. Animating the XForm Modifier
      6. 8.4.6. Bouncing Ball Summary
    5. 8.5. Track View
      1. 8.5.1. Key Tools Toolbar
      2. 8.5.2. Key Tangency Toolbar
      3. 8.5.3. Curves Toolbar
      4. 8.5.4. Biped Toolbar
      5. 8.5.5. Navigation Toolbar
    6. 8.6. Anticipation and Momentum in Knife Throwing
      1. 8.6.1. Blocking Out the Animation
      2. 8.6.2. Trajectories
      3. 8.6.3. Adding Rotation
      4. 8.6.4. Adding Anticipation
      5. 8.6.5. Follow-Through
        1. 8.6.5.1. Knife's Follow-Through
        2. 8.6.5.2. Transferring Momentum to the Target
    7. 8.7. Summary
  13. 9. Character Studio and IK Animation
    1. 9.1. Character Animation
    2. 9.2. Character Studio Workflow
      1. 9.2.1. Physique versus Skin
    3. 9.3. Creating a Biped
      1. 9.3.1. Placing a Biped in a Scene
      2. 9.3.2. Modifying a Biped
        1. 9.3.2.1. Copying and Pasting Postures
    4. 9.4. Animating a Biped
      1. 9.4.1. Moving the Biped into Place
      2. 9.4.2. Adding Footsteps
        1. 9.4.2.1. Controlling the View
        2. 9.4.2.2. Adding a Run and Jump Sequence
      3. 9.4.3. Adding Freeform Animation
        1. 9.4.3.1. Moving the Head
        2. 9.4.3.2. Moving the Arms
        3. 9.4.3.3. Completing the Motion Sequence
      4. 9.4.4. Modifying Animation in the Dope Sheet
        1. 9.4.4.1. Adding Footsteps Manually
        2. 9.4.4.2. Using the Dope Sheet
    5. 9.5. Associating a Biped to a Character
      1. 9.5.1. Creating and Modifying the Biped
        1. 9.5.1.1. Adjusting the Torso and Arms
        2. 9.5.1.2. Adjusting the Neck and Head
      2. 9.5.2. Applying the Physique Modifier
        1. 9.5.2.1. Testing the Model
    6. 9.6. Using Inverse Kinematics
      1. 9.6.1. Linking the Objects
      2. 9.6.2. Creating Joint Constraints
      3. 9.6.3. Applying the IK Solver
    7. 9.7. Summary
  14. 10. 3ds Max Lighting
    1. 10.1. Basic Lighting Concepts
      1. 10.1.1. Develop Your Eye
      2. 10.1.2. Your Scene and Its Needs
    2. 10.2. Three-Point Lighting
      1. 10.2.1. Key Light
      2. 10.2.2. Fill Light
      3. 10.2.3. Back Light
      4. 10.2.4. Three-Point Lighting in Action
      5. 10.2.5. Practical Lighting
    3. 10.3. 3ds Max Lights
      1. 10.3.1. Default Light
        1. 10.3.1.1. One or Two Default Lights
        2. 10.3.1.2. Converting Default Lights
        3. 10.3.1.3. Using Default Lights
      2. 10.3.2. Standard Lights
        1. 10.3.2.1. Target Spotlight
          1. 10.3.2.1.1. CREATING A TARGET SPOT
          2. 10.3.2.1.2. FALLOFF/FIELD
          3. 10.3.2.1.3. SPOTLIGHT SHAPE
          4. 10.3.2.1.4. SELECTING THE LIGHT
          5. 10.3.2.1.5. INTERACTIVE CONE SETTINGS
        2. 10.3.2.2. TARGET DIRECT LIGHT
        3. 10.3.2.3. Free Spotlight
        4. 10.3.2.4. FREE DIRECT LIGHT
        5. 10.3.2.5. Omni Light
        6. 10.3.2.6. Skylight
    4. 10.4. Common Light Parameters
      1. 10.4.1. General Parameters Rollout
      2. 10.4.2. Intensity/Color/Attenuation Rollout
        1. 10.4.2.1. Light Intensity
        2. 10.4.2.2. Light Color
        3. 10.4.2.3. Light Decay
        4. 10.4.2.4. Light Attenuation
          1. 10.4.2.4.1. NEAR ATTENUATION GROUP
          2. 10.4.2.4.2. FAR ATTENUATION GROUP
      3. 10.4.3. Advanced Effects Rollout
        1. 10.4.3.1. Contrast and Soften
        2. 10.4.3.2. Light Components
    5. 10.5. Ambient Light
    6. 10.6. Creating Shadows
      1. 10.6.1. Shadow Parameters Rollout
      2. 10.6.2. Selecting a Shadow Type
        1. 10.6.2.1. Shadow Maps
        2. 10.6.2.2. Ray Traced Shadows
      3. 10.6.3. Creating Soft Shadows Due to Distance
    7. 10.7. Atmospheres and Effects
      1. 10.7.1. Creating a Volumetric Light
        1. 10.7.1.1. Adding Shadows
        2. 10.7.1.2. Excluding Object from a Light
        3. 10.7.1.3. Adding a Volumetric Effect
      2. 10.7.2. Volume Light Parameters
    8. 10.8. Light Lister
    9. 10.9. Summary
  15. 11. 3ds Max Rendering
    1. 11.1. Rendering Setup
      1. 11.1.1. Render Scene Dialog Box
        1. 11.1.1.1. Common Tab
          1. 11.1.1.1.1. TIME OUTPUT
          2. 11.1.1.1.2. OUTPUT SIZE
          3. 11.1.1.1.3. OPTIONS
          4. 11.1.1.1.4. RENDER OUTPUT
        2. 11.1.1.2. Choosing a Filename
        3. 11.1.1.3. Image File Type
        4. 11.1.1.4. Render Processing
        5. 11.1.1.5. Assign Renderer
      2. 11.1.2. Rendering the Bouncing Ball
      3. 11.1.3. Renderer Tab Basics
        1. 11.1.3.1. Antialiasing
        2. 11.1.3.2. Filters
    2. 11.2. Motion Blur
      1. 11.2.1. Object Motion Blur
      2. 11.2.2. Image Motion Blur
    3. 11.3. Previewing with ActiveShade
    4. 11.4. Cameras
      1. 11.4.1. Creating a Camera
      2. 11.4.2. Using Cameras
        1. 11.4.2.1. Talk Is Cheap!
      3. 11.4.3. Animating a Camera
      4. 11.4.4. Clipping Planes
    5. 11.5. Safe Frame
    6. 11.6. Render Elements
    7. 11.7. Rendering Effects
      1. 11.7.1. Lens Effects: Glow
    8. 11.8. Raytraced Reflections and Refractions
      1. 11.8.1. Raytrace Material
        1. 11.8.1.1. Creating the Raytrace Material
        2. 11.8.1.2. Tweaking the Render
      2. 11.8.2. Raytrace Mapping
      3. 11.8.3. Refractions Using the Raytrace Material
      4. 11.8.4. Refractions Using Raytrace Mapping
    9. 11.9. Summary
  16. 12. Particles and Dynamics
    1. 12.1. Understanding Particle Systems
      1. 12.1.1. Particle System Types
        1. 12.1.1.1. Event-Driven Particle Systems
        2. 12.1.1.2. Non-Event-Driven Particle Systems
    2. 12.2. Setting Up a Particle System
      1. 12.2.1. The Particle Generation Parameters
      2. 12.2.2. Putting It Together
        1. 12.2.2.1. Creating the Particle Systems
        2. 12.2.2.2. Configuring the Particle System Timing
        3. 12.2.2.3. Selecting the Particle Type
        4. 12.2.2.4. Setting Up the Other Particle System
        5. 12.2.2.5. Wiring the Parameters Together
    3. 12.3. Particle Systems and Space Warps
      1. 12.3.1. Adding Gravity to a Scene
      2. 12.3.2. Controlling the Particles with Deflectors
        1. 12.3.2.1. Deflecting the Brass at the Floor
        2. 12.3.2.2. Deflecting the Bullets at the Target
    4. 12.4. Using Rigid Body Dynamics
      1. 12.4.1. Creating the Simulation Objects
      2. 12.4.2. Assigning the Physical Properties
      3. 12.4.3. Creating the Collection
      4. 12.4.4. Testing the Simulation
      5. 12.4.5. Creating the Animation
    5. 12.5. Using Soft Body Dynamics
      1. 12.5.1. Creating the Collections
      2. 12.5.2. Creating the Animation
    6. 12.6. Summary