Higher levels of interoperability can lead to systemic efficiencies. Although we often think in terms of the benefits to consumers—for example, from cell phone chargers working with more than one model or an app for Twitter working nicely with an app for Facebook—the greatest beneficiaries of interoperability are often business operations that use it to streamline their processes and manage costs. These businesses range from the smallest mom-and-pop stores to the world’s largest banks and manufacturers. The flip side of systemic efficiencies is systemic complexity, which can lead to disastrous results if not managed well, as we have seen most vividly in the financial sector.
The role of interoperability in ...